Sociology 20

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Collective behavior
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Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of ppl and typically violates dominant-group norms and values
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Social change
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The alternation, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time
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Collectivity
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A number of people who act together and may mutually transcend, bypass, or subvert est. institutional patterns and structures
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Major factors that contribute to the likelihood that collective behavior will occur?
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Structural factors that increase the chances of ppl responding in a certain way Timing A breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness
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Crowd
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A relatively large number of ppl who are in one another’s immediate vicinity
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Mass
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A number of ppl who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who aren’t in one another’s immediate vicinity
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Mob
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A highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target-a person, a category of people, or physical property
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Riot
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Violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deepseated emotions but is not directed at one specific target
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Panic
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A form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior
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Protest crowds
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Engage in activities intended to achieve specific political goals
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Civil disobedience
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Nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it
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Contagion theory
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Focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior Attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others
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Convergence Theory
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Focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many ppl may bring to crowd behavior
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Emergent norm theory
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Emphasizes the importance of soical norms in shaping crowd behavior
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Mass behavior
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collective behavior that takes place when ppl respond to the same event in much the same way
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Rumor
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Unsubstantiated report on an issue or subject
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Gossip
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Rumors about the personal lives of others
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Mass hysteria
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A form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of ppl react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat
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Fad
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Temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people
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Fashion
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Defined as a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance
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Public opinion
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The attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
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Propaganda
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Info provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one
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Social movement
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An organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action
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What are the different types of social movements?
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Reform Revolutionary Religious Alternative Resistance
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Reform movements
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Seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure usu. work within the existing system to attempt to change existing public policy
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Revolutionary movements
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Seeking to bring about a total change in society Aim to remake the system by replacing existing institutions with new ones
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Religious movements
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Concerned with renovating or renewing ppl through ‘inner change’
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Millenarian
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Forecast that ‘the end is near’ and assert that an immediate change in behavior is imperative
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Alternative movements
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Movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people’s behavior
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Resistance movements
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Seek to prevent change or to undo change that has alread yoccured
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Stages of social movements
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Preliminary stage Coalescence stage Institutionalization
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Preliminary stage
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Widespread unrest is present as ppl become aware of the problem
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Coalescence stage
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People begin to organize and to publicize the problem
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Institutionalization stage
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Organizational structure develops and a paid staff begins to lead the group
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Relative deprivation theory
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Ppl who are discontent when they compare their achievements with those of others consider themselves relatively deprived and join social movements in order to get what they view as their ‘fair share’, esp. when there is an upswing in the economy followed by a decline
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According to the value-added theory, what 6 conditions are necessary to produce social movements?
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Structural conduciveness (ppl must become aware of a certain problem and have the opportunity to engage in collective action) Structural strain (when a society is unable to meet expectations that something should be done about a problem, strain occurs) Spread of a generalized belief Precipitating factors (inciting incident or dramatic event must occur) Mobilization for action Social control factors
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Resource mobilization theory
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A variety of resources are necessary for a social movement Ppl participate only when they feel the movement has access to these resources
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Social constructionist theory
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Based on the assumption that social movements are an interactive, symbolically defined, and negotiated process involving participants, opponents, and bystanders, frame analysis is used to determine how ppl assign meaning to activities and processes in social movements
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Political opportunity theory
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Ppl will choose the options for collective action that are most readily available to them and those options that will produce the most favorable outcome for their cause
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New social movement theory
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The focus is on sources of social movements, including politics, ideology, and culture Race, class, gender, sexuality, and other sources of identity are also factors in movements such as ecofeminism and environmental justice
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Environmental racism
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The belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by ppl of color
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What are the social movement theories?
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Relative deprivation theory Value-added theory Resource mobilization theory Social constructionist theory Political opportunity theory New Social movement theory
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Collective behavior
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Extraordinary activities carried out by groups of ppl Lynchings, rumors, panics, urban legends, fads and fashions
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Collective mind
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The tendency of ppl in a crowd to feel, think, and act in extraordinary ways
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The acting crowd
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An excited group that moves toward a goal ranging from lynching to food fights (Blumer)
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What are the characteristics of the acting crowd?
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Tension or unrest Exciting event Milling Common object of attention Common impulses
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Expressive crowds
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Provide for expression of strong emotion
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Acting crowds
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Intensely focused on a specific purpose or object and may erupt into violent or destructive behavior such as mobs, riots, or panics
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Casual crowds
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Large groups of ppl that happen to be in the same place at the same time and interact only briefly if at all
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Conventional crowd
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A group of ppl who come together for a scheduled event with a common focus
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What are the theories of crowd behavior?
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Contagion theory Social unrest/circular reaction Convergence theory Emergent norm theory
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Public opinions
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Attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
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urban legends
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Rumors that recount ironic and/or grisly events that happened to some anonymous person or group
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What are the types of fads?
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Object fads (hula hoops, Rubiks cubes, Pokemon cards) Idea fads (astrology, feng shui, UFO) Activity fads (body piercing, bungee jumping, tattoo, disco) Personality fads (Elvis, Princess Di, Michael Jordan, Britney Spears)
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Social movements and examples
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Reform–MADD, Green Revolutionary–Terrorists, separatists Religious-Great Awakening Alternative-Vegetarianism Resistance-pro-life, anti-tax
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What are the stages and transformations of social movements?
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Agitation-overcome obstacles Legitimization (revolution vs. reform)–ideological interpretations of history & respectability and cooperation Bureaucratization–routinization of charisma & goal displacement Reemergence of the movement
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Propaganda
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Partisan info in a campaign to persuade ppl to a point of view Used by commercial interests, politics, religious groups, etc usu. 1-sided, emo. & aimed at a certain goal Get ppl’s attention Clarity through repitition
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Cultural lag
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A gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions
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Discovery
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The process of learning about something previously unknown or undiscovered

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