Sociology 2

What is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society?
Culture
Our biological and genetic makeup
nature
Our social environment
nurture
An unlearned, biologically determined behavior pattern common to all members of a species that predictably occurs whenever certain environmental conditions exist:
instinct
True/False: humans have instincts
false
An unlearned, biologically determined involuntary response to some physical stimuli:
reflex
Unlearned, biologically determined impulses common to all members of a species that satisfy needs such as sleep, food, water, or sexual gratification:
drive
Consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share:
material culture
Consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behaviors:
nonmaterial culture
The mental acceptance or conviction that certain things are true or real:
beliefs
What is an example of nonmaterial culture?
beliefs
Customs and practices that occur across all societies:
cultural universals
What are the four common nonmaterial cultural components?
symbols, language, values, norms
Anything that meaningfully represents something else:
symbol
A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another:
language
Language shapes the view of reality of its speakers according to what hypothesis?
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Sociologists contend that language may __________ our behavior and interpretation of social reality but does not _____________ it.
influence, determine
Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture:
values
Values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive:
value contradictions
The values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold:
ideal culture
The values and standards of behavior that people actually follow:
real culture
Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct:
norms
States what behavior is appropriate and acceptable:
prescriptive norms
State what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable:
proscriptive norms
Written down and involve specific punishments for violators:
formal norms
Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior:
sanctions
Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture:
folkways
Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture:
mores
Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable
taboos
Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions:
laws
Deals with disputes among persons or groups:
civil law
Deals with public safety and well-being:
criminal law
Refers to the knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into unstable forms and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed:
technology
William Ogburn’s term for a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions:
cultural lag
Process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized:
discovery
Process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form:
invention
Transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another through such means as exploration, war, the media, tourism, and immigration:
Diffusion
Refers to the wide range of of cultural differences found between and within nations:
cultural diversity
Societies that include people who share a common culture and who are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds:
homogeneous societies
Societies that include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, race/ethnicity:
heterogeneous societies
A category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture:
subculture
A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles:
counterculture
The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different than their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life:
culture shock
The practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture:
ethnocentrism
The belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards:
cultural relativism
Consists of classical music, opera, ballet, live theatre, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences:
high culture
Consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes:
popular culture
Pierre Bourdieu’s theory that views high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes:
cultural capital theory
The extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations:
cultural imperialism
Who suggested that culture helps people meet their biological needs, instrumental needs, and integrative needs?
Bronislaw Malinowski
Who stressed ideas are cultural creations of a society’s most powerful members?
Karl Marx
An integrated system of ideas that is external to, and coercive of, people:
ideology
Who believes the world of culture today is based on simulation, not reality?
Jean Baudrillard
The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society:
socialization
What is the crucial during childhood because it is essential for the individual’s survival and for human development?
socialization
Systematic study of how biology affects social behavior:
sociobiology
Who is associated with the psychoanalytic approach?
Sigmund Freud
Approach that human behavior and personality originate from unconscious forces within individuals:
psychoanalytic theory
Freud based his ideas on the belief that people have two basic tendencies:
urge to survive and the urge to procreate
According to Freud, human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of the personality:
id, ego, and superego
The component of personality that includes all of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification:
id
The rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id:
ego
Consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality:
superego
Who is associated with cognitive development?
Jean Piaget
What are the four stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
During this period, children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate action:
sensorimotor
What is associated with sensorimotor?
object permanece
Objects continue to exist when the items are out of sight:
object permanece
In this stage, children begin to use words as mental symbols and to form mental images:
preoperational
In this stage, children tend to think in terms of tangible objects and actual events:
concrete operational
In this stage, adolescents are able to engage in highly abstract thought and understand places, things, and events they have never seen:
formal operational
Who is associated with moral development?
Kohlberg
What are the three levels of moral reasoning?
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
Children’s perceptions are based on punishment and obedience:
preconventional
People are most concerned with how they are perceived by their peers and with how one conforms to rules:
conventional
People view morality in terms of individual rights:
postconventional
The totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves:
self-concept
Our perception about what kind of person we are:
self identity
Who is associated with the looking-glass self?
Cooley
Refers to the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perception of others:
looking-glass self
Who is associated with role-taking?
Mead
The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person’s or group’s point of view:
role-taking
What are Mead’s three stages of development?
preparatory stage, play stage, game stage
Interactions lack meaning and children are often intimidated by the people around them:
preparatory stage
Children learn to use language and other symbols:
play stage
Children understand not only their own social position but also the positions of others around them.
game stage
Refers to the child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s substructure:
generalized other
The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society:
agents of socialization
Group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and similar age:
peer group
Composed of large-scalr organizations that use print or electronic means to communicate with large numbers of people:
mass media
The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society:
gender socialization
Primary agent of gender socialization:
family
The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status:
racial socialization
The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future role:
anticipatory socialization
One of the most important types of early adult socialization:
occupational socialization
Wherein a person or group is considered to have less social value than other persons or groups:
social devaluation
Prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older people:
ageism
The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience:
resocialization
A place where people are isolated from the rest of society for the a set period of time and some under the control of the officials who run the institution:
total institution
________ is the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
Culture
A ____________ is an unlearned, biologically determined involuntary response to some physical stimuli.
reflex
___________ state what behavior is inappropiate or unacceptable. laws that prohibit us from driving over the speed limit and “good manners” that preclude you from reading a newspaper during class are examples.
proscriptive norms
Not all norms are of equal importance; ______________ are written down and involve specific punishments for violators. Laws are the most common type; they have been codified and may be enforced by sanctions.
formal norms
After having successfully negotiated an important business contract with a major client, Joyce’s boss congratulated her and promised her a significant raise. In this situation, Joyce has received what sociologists refer to as a ___________.
positive sanction
Luke has just received a stern from his mother about lack of motiviation. According to sociologist, Luke has a received a_____________.
negative sanction
Soccer is an example of a _________ in sports. Until recently, only schoolchildren played soccer in the United States. Now, it has become a popular sport, perhaps in part because of immigrant from Latin America and other areas of the world where soccer is widely played.
fashion
__________ focus on how humans design their culture and transmit it from generation to generation through socialization. By contrast, _____ assert that nature, in the form of our genetic makeup, is a major factor in shaping human behavior.
sociologists, sociobiologists
Children whose biological and emotional needs are met in settings characterized by affection, warmth, and closeness see the world _______________.
as a safe comfortable place
According the psychologist Sigmund Freud, the ___________ is the first expressed as the recognition of parental control and eventually mature as the child learns that parental control is a reflection of the values and moral demands of the larger society.
superego
Psychologist Jean Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development are organized around specific tasks that, when mastered, lead to the acquisition of new mental capacities, which then serve as the basis for the next level of development. Which of the following is correct sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
In the psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory, in the ___________ level, people view morality in terms of individual rights. “Moral conduct” is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws.
postconventional level
According to _______________, we do not know who we are until we see ourselves as we believe that others see us. This perceptive helps us understand how our self-identity is developed through our contact with others.
symbolic interactionists
Based on sociologist Charles Horton Cooley’s theory, how ______________ is not a step in the process of self-indenity.
we imagine how other people judge the appearance will look to other people
Based on sociologist George Herbert Mead’s theory, ______________ often occurs through play and games, as children try out different roles (such as being mommy, daddy, doctor, or teacher) and gain an appreciation of them.
role-taking
According to sociologists Samuel Bowels and Herbert Gintis, much of what happens in school amounts to teaching a(n) ___________ in which children learn to be neat, to be on time, to be quiet, to wait their turn, and to remain attentive to their work.
hidden curriculum
Middle adulthood consists of ages __________.
40-65
The mass media is an example of a(n) ______________ institution.
emergent
___________ gives us the ability to interpret the social situations we encounter. For example, we expect our families to case for us, our schools to educate us, and our police to protect us.
social structure
______________ are the fastest growing category of homeless persons in the United States.
families with children
___________ include stories about changes in the US poverty rate and articles about states and cities that have had the largest increases in poverty. Most articles of this type are abstract and impersonal, primarily presenting data and some expert’s interpretation of what those data mean.
thematic framing
Many of us build ___________ that involve our personal friends in primary groups and our acquaintances in secondary groups. This series of relationships links an individual to others.
social networks
The ____________ theorist do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone in society. For example, the homeless lack of the power and resources to promote their own interests when they are opposed by dominant social groups.
conflict
From sociologist Emile Durkheim’s perspective, _________ refers to social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
mechanical solidarity
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild suggests that we acquire a set of _____________ that shape the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation, including how, when, where, and with whom an emotion should be expressed.
feeling rules
Is any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
deviant behavior
The systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance
social control
Our collective efforts to ensure conformity to norms
social control
Two types of social control:
informal, formal
Maintained informally by group:
informal social control
When behavior gets out of control is destructive to society formal agencies of society take over:
formal social control
The proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals:
strain theory
Who is associated with the strain theory?
Robert Merton
Merton’s five ways in which people adapt to cultural goals:
conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion
Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels:
illegitimate opportunity structures
Views deviance and crime as a function of the capitalistic economic system
marxist/conflict theory
The proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with person who are more favorable toward deviance:
differential association theory
___________ contributes to our knowledge of how deviant behavior reflects the individual’s learned techniques, values, attitudes, motives, and rationalizations.
differential association
Suggests that conformity is often associated with a person’s bonds to other people:
control theory
The proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken
social bond theory
The proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by other:
labeling theory
Initial rule breaking
primary
new identity accepted, deviance continues
secondary deviance
Individual relabels behavior nondeviant
tertiary deviance
Who emphasizes that the study of deviance reveals how the powerful exert control over the powerless by taking away their free will to think and act as they might choose:
postmodern theorists
Three necessary ingredients to a crime:
suitable target, capable guardian, likely offender
The process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society:
social interaction
Complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people’s behavior
social structure
Socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties
status
Comprises all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time:
status set
A social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender:
ascribed status
Social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort:
achieved status
The most important status that a person occupies:
master status
A material sign that informs others of a person’s specific status:
status symbol
A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status:
role
A group’s or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played:
role expectation
How a person actually plays a role:
role performance
A situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time:
role conflict
A condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies:
role strain
A situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity
role exit
A group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence
social group
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face to face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time
primary group
a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal oriented relationships for a limited period of time
secondary group
A series of social relationships that links an individual to others
social network
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals
formal organizations
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs
social institution
Classification scheme containing two or more mutually exclusive categories that are used to compare different kinds of behavior or types of societies
typology
how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed
division labor
Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
mechanical solidarity
Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
organic solidarity
A traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
gemeinschaft
A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with the little long term commitment to the group or consensus on values
gesellschaft
a society based on a technology that mechanizes production
industrial society
a society in which technology supports a service and information based economy
postindustrial society
the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience
social construction of reality
the situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
self fulfilling prophecy
The study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves
ethnomethodology
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation
dramaturgical analysis
Erving Goffman’s term for peoples efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image
impression management
Erving Goffman’s term for the strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face
face saving behavior
the transfer of information between persons without the use of speech
nonverbal communication
the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims is private
personal space
a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common
aggregate
a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as educational level, age, race, or gender
category
a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feel a sense of identity
ingroup
a group to which a person does not belong which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
outgroup
a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member
reference group
collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously
small group
a group composed of two members
dyad
a group consisting of three members
triad
An alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal
coalition
goal- or tak-oriented leadership
instrumental leadership
an approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members
expressive leadership
people who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members
authoritarian leaders
leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building
democratic leaders
leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making and who encourage group members to make their own decisions
laissez faire leaders
the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other groups
conformity
the process by which member of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
groupthink
an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters
bureaucracy
the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures
rationality
an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon
ideal type
those aspects of participants’ day to day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy
informal side of a bureaucracy
a process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals
goal displacement
a psychological construct that describes those workers who are most concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly
bureaucratic personality
according to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people
iron law of oligarchy

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