SOCIOLOGY 1301 FINAL REVIEW

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Sexual orientation was grounds for excluding immigrants from the united states until:
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1990
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Crime and deviance:
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tend to be one and the same; if something is a crime, it is always deviant.
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As discussed in Chapter 6, the 2003 U.S Supreme Court case of Lawrence v. Texas:
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affirmed Texas’s criminality of homosexual sex.
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Although deviant behavior can be bad for social cohesion, it is paradoxical because:
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it is the deviants among us who hold society together
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A crime such as burglary is also known as which type of deviance?
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formal
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Violation of laws enacted by society is also known as:
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crimes
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Using your cell phone while the professor lectures is which type of deviance?
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informal
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Durkheim’s theory and research on deviance fall within which of the main sociological theories?
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functionalist
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The functionalist perspectives on deviance argues that deviance:
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is necessary for a society’s survival
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The common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide is defines by Durkheim as:
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collective conscience
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When people in a society form social bonds and relate meaningfully to others on a daily basis, the society is said to exhibit:
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social cohesion
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Which of Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterizes premodern life?
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mechanical
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Which of Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterizes modern life?
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organic
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When a prison offers educational opportunities, mental health treatment, a job training programs to inmates which response to deviance is it engaging it?
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rehabilitative
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Punishments that attempt to restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense are known as:
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restitutive
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Sociologist refer to the set of mechanisms that creates compliance to norms as which of the following?
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social control
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In industrialized societies, social sanctions are most likely:
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focused on the criminal’s individual circumstances
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Punishments that are overt expressions of official group sentiments toward deviants are also known as:
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formal social sanctions
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Punishments that are based on the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership are known as unspoken rules and as:
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informal social sanctions
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Neighborhood watch groups are examples of what urban theorist Jane Jacobs called:
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the eyes and ears of the streets
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The act of abiding by society’s norms is known as which of the following?
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anomie
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Which of the following is Durkheim’s primary explanation for why people commit suicide?
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They lack social integration
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According to Durkheim’s research, what is the primary reason that Protestants are more likely to kill themselves than Catholics and Jews?
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Protestantism is premised on the individual, which creates less social integration
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According to Merton, which of the following describes a person who accepts both the goals defined by society and the means to achieve them?
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conformist
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Viola is a woman who rejects the goals defined by society to achieve a big house and lots of money, but she still follows the means and abides by the rules. Merton would classify Viola as a(n):
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ritualist
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A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect \”American Dream\” lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this, is known by Merton as a(n):
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innovator
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According to Merton, a person who completely stops participating in society’s drive to achieve its defines goals is a(n):
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rebel
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Victor Rios wrote Punished: The Criminalization of Inner City Boys (2010) , in which the questions whether:
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increasing police in inner-city neighborhoods actually increases criminal records of the youth there.
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According to Becker, why do marijuana smokers enjoy using the drug?
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They engage in social process of learning to define the experiences as fun and pleasurable.
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The student guards in Zimbardo’s Standford Prison Experiment behaved the way they did because:
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they experienced the Lucifer effect, in which they are affected by social surroundings and cultural expectations.
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The first acts of deviance that people engage in before they ever get caught and labeled are known as:
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primary deviance
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Labeling theory focuses on:
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the ways in which society labels different kinds of activities as deviant
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After a student drops out of high school, she becomes labeled a \”drop-out\”, and her subsequent actions and choices are explained in terms of this label. Those subsequent actions are called:
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anomie
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Which of the following is a negative social label that alters a person’s self-concept and identity, as well as how others treat the person?
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stigma
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When an elementary school student is labeled as the \”class clown\” by his teacher, and then adopts the persona and lives up to others expectations by acting silly, the class clown label has become a:
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stigma
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Devah Pager (2001) found, in her study of job applications and criminal records, that a negative social label affects people’s chances in life. This label is called a _________ by sociologist.
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stigma
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Which theory explains how social context and social cues impact the way individuals act, specifically, whether or not local, informal norms allow acts such as vandalizing an abandoned car?
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broken windows theory
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How does the social context affect crime, according to the broken window theory?
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Evidence of disorder, such as broken windows, sends a signal that it’s acceptable to engage in further deviant behaviors such as vandalism.
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When analyzing U.S crime rates, your textbook author explains that the best indicator we have of crime is the:
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murder rate
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Charles is a 41 -year-old man who recently got caught committing a crime after serving a long prison sentence. This an example of:
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recidivism
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Illegal drug dealing is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defines by sociologist?
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street crimes
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Tax evasion is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defined by sociologists?
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white-collar crimes
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Which of the following cries has the most financial impact in the United States today?
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white-collar crime
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Former Enron CEO Kenneth Lay committed crimes such as misappropriating funds, issuing false reports, and destroying evidence. These crimes are known as:
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corporate crimes
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A policy of imprisoning and monitoring criminal offenders for committing crimes in an effort to prevent them from committing more crimes is known as:
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specific deterrence
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Prisons and military boot camps are examples of what Goffman calls:
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total institutions
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An elementary school isn’t a total institution because:
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students leave every afternoon and adopt different roles at that time.
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In 1973, the governor of New York State enacted legislation mandating increased prison terms for
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the Rockefeller drug laws
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the current U.S incarceration rate?
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It is the highest in American history
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According to the textbook, which of the following is true regarding race and the death row population?
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Justice on death row is not color-blind
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According to data on mass incarceration in the United States, the national cost per prisoner is approximately how much per year?
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$20,000
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What percentage of the U.S voting age population is not allowed to vote because of prior crime convictions?
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0.5%
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Some sociologists argue that President Nixon’s declaration of a war on drugs in the United States has turned into:
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\”war on the black family\”
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According to social conflict approach, what is society labels as deviant is based primarily upon:
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Patterns of inequality and who has more power
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Social conflict theorists argue that:
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Powerless people are the highest risk of being defines as deviant
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___________ refers to the illegal actions if a corporate or people on its behalf.
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Corporate crime
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A hate crime is defined as:
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a criminal act motivated by racial or other bias
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Research suggests that, with regard to social class, arrest for serious crime:
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Is higher for people in lower class
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Most people arrested for violent crime are:
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White
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TRUE OR FALSE/ A conflict theorist would note that those is society who hold the power are also the ones who make the laws concerning crime. In doing so, they make laws that will benefit them, while the powerless classes who lack resources to make such decisions suffer the consequences.
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True
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TRUE OR FALSE/ In his book, the power elite (1965) sociologist C. Wright Mills describes the existence of what he dubbed the power elite, a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources. Wealthy…
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True
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TRUE OR FALSE/ Feminist theory and Deviance would argue that women who are regarded as criminally deviant are often seen as being doubly deviant. They have broken the laws but they have also broken gender norms about appropriate female behavior, whereas mens criminal behavior is seen as consistent with their aggressive, self-assertive character.
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True
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TRUE OR FALSE/ The sociologist term used to describe crime committed by persons of high social positions in the course of their occupations in white color crime.
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True
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TRUE OR FALSE/ In general, people of higher social class are likely to be arrested for street crimes than people of lower class positions.
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False
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Which nation has one of the highest poverty in the advanced world?
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United States
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One of the explanations of continued racism in America is that we have:
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Colonized others within the country itself, as with slavery
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What populations was Oscar Lewis studying when he coined the term \”culture of poverty\”?
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Mexicans
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A politician who argues that poverty causes people to reject the practices of \”mainstream\” society is making a(n) _____________ argument?
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Culture of poverty
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People who are born into poverty and ultimately raise their own children in poverty learn \”how\” to live in poverty. They learn the norms and values associated with that particular way of life. This is known as Oscar Lewis’s:
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Culture of poverty
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What is one shortcoming of the current calculation of the poverty rate?
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It only focuses on income and ignores wealth
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Which U.S president was responsible for the War of Poverty and programs like Head Start and Job Corps?
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Lyndon B. Johnson
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Poverty has a strong effect on children’s life changes because:
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They experience material deprivation and it affects their parents parenting behaviors
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A power- elite approach to the U.S political system suggests that:
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power is concentrated in the lands of the few
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The military- industrial complex refers to:
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The close link between the gov, defense contractors and the…
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Your text defines poverty as a condition of deprivations due to-
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Economic circumstances
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TRUE OR FALSE/ In reference to the first article on The Myth of teh culture poverty we learned from our group presentations that for education like Janet, in their effort to become the best teachers they don’t necessarily have to challenge the Myth of the Culture of Poverty and reach a deeper understanding of class and poverty in order to become the best teachers they can be for all students because thats’ not the teachers job.
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False
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In general, a major goal of Clinton’s 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work opportunity Reconciliation Act was to:
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Get people back into labor market as soon as possible
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A family that cannot afford the basic necessities of life, or purchase enough to physically sustain its members, lives in:
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Absolute poverty
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Why is it difficult for almost half of Americans to save for retirement?
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They don’t have pension or retirement savings plan
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Sociologists have argues that there are several explanations for why the United States has the highest inequality of all English speaking nations. Which of the following are factors that contribute to social inequality in the U.S?
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All of the above
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Which of the following lists the individuals known as \”the founding fathers of the sociological discipline?\”
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Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
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Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class explanations for human behavior and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences?
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Max Weber
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Which discipline defines itself as \”the systematic study of human society\”?
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Sociology
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In the United States today, suicide rates are higher for which of the following categories of people?
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White males
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Suicide rates are generally higher among:
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Single people compared to married people
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Which of the following is an accurate criticism of the structural functional approach?
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It ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict
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The two broad approaches social scientists use to gather data about the social world are:
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Correlational and casual
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Mexicans are generally classified as a physical type that combines Native Americans and European
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Mestizos
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TRUE OR FALSE/ As citizens of the world, we should be passionate about changing the world because we live in an imperfect world that needs fundamental change.
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True
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Which of the following might be an advantage of participant observation research?
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It is useful method for studying large and diverse populations
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A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as:
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Protected populations
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The sociological concept of minority can be describes as a:
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Group that experiences limitations and barriers to life oppportunites
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Members of a minority of subordinate group:
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have less power over their lives than do members of a majority
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Which term do sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences use?
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Racial group
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Which of the following is considered a racial group?
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All of these
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Which term is used to describe a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns?
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Ethnic group
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The concept of race is:
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Socially constructed
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Races can be clearly distinguished on the basis of:
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None
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Exaggerated generalizations about the characteristics of members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group are known as:
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Stereotypes
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The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as:
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Colonialism
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The deliberate systematic killing of an entire people or nation is called:
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Genocide
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Legally sanctioned segregation exists for which group in the U.S today?
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Native Americans
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The merger of two diverse groups by a process of biological and cultural mixing is called:
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Amalgamation
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Which term is most appropriate for describing the U.S government’s policies toward the Native Americans in the nineteenth century?
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Genocide
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Which term refers to the physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, work place and social functions?
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Amalgamation
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Pluralism refers to the existence of:
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Diverse cultures co- existing in the same society
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Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still:
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Has important social influence
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In our view of the documentary video Keep your eyes on the prize, we learned that
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a,c, and d only
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The one drop rule asserts that just \”one drop\” of black blood makes:
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A person black
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Which term refers to the belied that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?
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Racism
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In the nineteenth century theories of race moved from religious based racism to:
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Scientific racism
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The concept of race:
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has changed over time
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The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks:
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Dont have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty
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Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of:
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Survival of the fittest
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Nativists believed that restricting the immigration of certain groups would:
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protect the nation
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Race is nto a fixed biological or natural reality: rather, it is:
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A social construction
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Compared with 11 percent of the U.S population as a whole, around 33 percent of Native Americans die before the age:
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45
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The majority of the Latinos in the United States come from:
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Mexico

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