Sociology 1301 Final Exam

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Alienation
A feeling of isolation and powerlessness that may affect workers in a bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy
A formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks through the efforts of a large number of people in the most efficient way possible.
Formal Organization
A complex and structured secondary group that was deliberately created to achieve specific goals in an efficient manner.
Glass Ceiling
A collection of attitudinal and organizational biases in the work place that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions.
Groupthink
A tendency of in- group members to conform without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas, that result in a narrow view of an issue.
Ideal Types
General traits that describe a social phenomenon rather than every case.
In- Groups
Sets of people who share a sense of identity and “we-ness” that typically excludes and devalues outsiders.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
The tendency of a bureaucracy to become increasingly dominated by a small group of people.
Out- Groups
People who are treated and viewed negatively because they are seen as having values, beliefs, and other characteristics different from those of an in- group.
Primary Group
A relatively small group of people who engage in intimate face- to- face interaction over an extended period of time.
Reference Group
A collection of people who shape our behavior, values, and attitudes.
Secondary Group
A large, usually formal, impersonal, and temporary collection of people who pursue a specific goal or activity.
Social Group
Two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of belonging or “we-ness.”
Social Institutions
An organized and established social system that meets one or more of societies basic needs.
Social Network
A web of social ties that links individuals to others.
Voluntary Association
A formal organization created by people who share a common set of interests and who are not paid for their participation.
Anomie
The condition in which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms.
Corporate Crimes
White- collar crimes committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies. (AKA Organizational crimes)
Crime
A violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by public law.
Crime Control Model
An approach that holds that crime rates increase when offenders don’t fear punishment.
Criminal Justice System
The government agencies- including police, courts, and prisons- that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgement on offenders, and changing criminal behavior.
Criminologists
Researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
Cybercrime
White- collar crimes that are conducted online.
Deviance
Behavior that violates expected rules or norms.
Differential Association
People learning deviance through interaction, especially with significant others.
Labeling Theory
A perspective that holds that society’s reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant.
Occupational Crime
Crimes committed in the work place by individuals acting solely on their own personal interests.
Organized Crime
Activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit.
Primary Deviance
The initial violation of a norm or law.
Rehabilitation
The social control approach that holds that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law- abiding citizens.
Sanctions
Punishments or rewards for obeying or violating a norm.
Secondary Deviance
Rule breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reaction of others.
Social Control
The techniques and strategies that regulate peoples behavior in society.
Stigma
A negative label that devalues a person and changed his or her self concept and social identity.
Strain Theory
The idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain those goals.
Victim Survey
A method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims.
Victimless Crimes
Acts that violate laws but involve individuals that don’t consider themselves as victims.
White- Collar Crimes
Illegal activities committed by high status individuals in the course of their occupation.
Absolute Poverty
Not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities of life.
Bourgeoisie
Those who own the means of production and can amass wealth and power.
Closed Stratification System
A system in which movement from one social position to another is limited by ascribed statuses such as one’s sex, skin color, and family background.
Conspicuous Consumption
Lavish spending on goods and services to display one’s social status and enhance one’s prestige.
Corporate Welfare
An array of direct subsidies, tax breaks, and assistance that the government has created for businesses.
Davis- Moore Thesis
The functionalist view that social stratification has beneficial consequences for a society’s operations.
Feminization of Poverty
The higher likelihood that female heads of households will be poor.
Horizontal Mobility
Moving from one position to another at the same class level.
Intergenerational Mobility
Moving up or down the class hierarchy relative to the position of one’s parents.
Intragenerational Mobility
Moving up or down the class hierarchy over a lifetime.
Life Chances
The extent to which people have positive experiences and can secure the good things in life because they have economic resources.
Meritocracy
A belief that individuals are rewarded for what they do and how well rather than on the basis of their ascribed status.
Open Stratification System
A system that is based on an individuals achievement and allows movement up or down.
Poverty Line
The minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence.
Power
The ability of individuals or groups to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition.
Prestige
Respect, recognition, and regard attached to social positions.
Proletariat
Workers who sell their labor for wages.
Relative Poverty
Not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living.
Social Class
A category of people who have a similar standing or rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources.
Social Mobility
A persons ability to move up or down the class hierarchy.
Social Stratification
The hierarchical ranking of people in a society who have different access to different resources, such as property, prestige, power, and status.
Socioeconomic Status
An overall ranking of a persons position in the class hierarchy based on income, education, and occupation.
Underclass
People who are persistently poor and seldom employed, segregated residentially, and relatively isolated from the rest of the population.
Vertical Mobility
Moving up or down the class hierarchy.
Wealth
The money and other economic assets that a person or family owns, including property and income.
Working Class
People who work at least 27 weeks a year but receive such low wages that they live in or near poverty.
Abortion
The expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus.
Asexuals
Those who lack any interest in or desire for sex.
Bisexuals
Those who are sexually attracted to members of both sexes.
Gender
Learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other.
Gender Identity
A perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine.
Gender Pay Gap
The overall income difference between women and men in the work place. (AKA the wage gap)
Gender Roles
The characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males.
Gender Stereotype
Expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex.
Gender Stratification
People’s unequal access to wealth, power, status, prestige, and other valued resources as a result of their sex.
Heterosexism
The belief that heterosexuality is superior to and more natural than homosexuality or bisexuality.
Heterosexuals
Those who are sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex.
Homophobia
The fear and hatred of homosexuality.
Homosexuals
Those who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex.
Pornography
The graphic depiction of images that cause sexual arousal.
Sex
The biological characteristics with which we are born.
Sexism
An attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually females based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
Sexual Harassment
Any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work.
Sexual Orientation
A preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or of both sexes.
Sexual Script
Specifies the formal and informal norms for legitimate or unacceptable sexual activity, which individuals are eligible sexual partners, and the boundaries of sexual behavior.
Transgendered people
Those who are transexuals, intersexuals, or transvestites.
Apartheid
A formal system of racial segregation.
Assimilation
A process of conforming to the culture of the dominant group and intermarrying with that group.
Contact Hypothesis
The idea that the more people get to know members of a minority group personally, the less likely they are to be prejudice against that group.
Discrimination
Any act that treats a person unequally because of their group membership.
Dominant Group
Any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power, the greatest privileges and the highest social class.
Ethnic Group
A set of people who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage that includes language, geographic routes, food, customs, traditions, and or religion.
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s own culture, society, or group is inherently superior to others.
Gendered Racism
The combined and cumulative effects of inequality due to racism or sexism.
Genocide
The systematic effort to kill all members of a particular ethnic, religious, political, racial, or national group.
Individual Discrimination
Harmful action directed intentionally, on a one- to- one basis by a member of a dominant group against a minor of a minority group.
Institutional Discrimination
Unequal treatment and opportunities that members of a minority group experience as a result of the everyday operations of a society’s law, rules, policies, practices, and customs.
Internal Colonialism
The unequal treatment and subordinate status of groups within a nation.
Minority Group
A group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics, such as gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, or skin color.
Miscegation
Marriage or sexual relations between a man and a woman of different races.
Pluralism
Minority groups retain their culture but have equal social standing in a society.
Prejudice
An attitude, positive or negative, toward people because of their group membership.
Race
A group of people who share physical characteristics, such as skin color and facial features, that are passed on through reproduction.
Racial- Ethnic Group
A group of people who have both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics.
Racism
A set of beliefs that one’s own racial group is naturally superior to other groups.
Scapegoats
Individuals or groups whom people blame for their own problems or short comings.
Segregation
The physical and social separation of dominant and minority groups.
Stereotype
An exaggerated generalization about a category of people.
Capitalism
An economic system in which the ownership of the means of production is in private hands.
Conflict Theory
An approach that examines the ways in which groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources.
Division of Labor
An interdependence of different tasks and occupations, characteristic of industrialized societies, that produce social unity and facilitate change.
Dysfunctional
Social patterns that have a negative impact on a group or society.
Imperical
Information that is based on observations, experiments, or experiences rather than on ideology, religion, or intuition.
Feminist Theories
Approaches that try to explain the social, economic, and political position of women in a society.
Functionalism
An approach that maintains that society is a complex system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a societies survival.
Interaction
Action in which people take each other into account in their own behavior.
Latent Functions
Functions that are unintended and unrecognized; they are present but not immediately obvious.
Macrosociology
The study of large- scale patterns and processes that characterize society as a whole.
Manifest Functions
Functions that are intended and recognized; they are present and clearly evident.
Microsociology
The study of small scale patterns of individuals social interaction in specific settings.
Social Facts
Aspects of social life, external to the individual, that can be measured.
Social Solidarity
Social cohesiveness and harmony.
Sociological Imagination
The intersection between individual lives and larger social influences.
Sociology
The systematic study of social interaction at a variety of levels.
Symbolic Interactionism
A micro- level perspective that looks at individuals everyday behavior through the communication of knowledge, ideas, beliefs, and attitudes.
Theory
A set of statements that explains why a phenomenon occurs.
Value Free
Separating one’s personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.
Content Analysis
Data collection method that systematically examines examples of some form of communication.
Control Group
The group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable.
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning that begins with a theory, prediction, or general principle that is then tested through data collection.
Dependent Variable
The outcome, which may be affected by the independent variable.
Evaluation Research
Research that uses all of the standard data collection techniques to assess the effectiveness of social programs in both the public and private sectors.
Experiment
A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables and measure the effects.
Exerimental Group
The group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable.
Field Research
Data collection by systematically observing people in their natural surroundings.
Hypothesis
A statement of a relationship between two or more variables that researchers want to test.
Independent Variable
A characteristics that determines or has an effect on the dependent variable.
Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning that begins with a specific observation, followed by data collection and the development of a general conclusion or theory.
Nonprobability Sample
A sample for which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross section of the population.
Population
Any well- defined group of people or things about whom researchers want to know something.
Probability Sample
A sample for which each person has an equal chance of being selected because the selection is random.
Qualitative Research
Research that examines nonnumerical material and interprets it.
Quantitative Research
Research that focuses on a numerical analysis of peoples responses or specific characteristics.
Reliability
The consistency with which the same measure produces similar results time after time.
Sample
A group of people or things that are representative of the population that researchers wish to study.
Scientific Method
The steps in the research process that include careful data collection, exact measurement, accurate recording and analysis of the findings, thoughtful interpretation of the results, and when appropriate, a generalization of the findings to a larger group.
Secondary Analysis
Examination of data that have been collected by someone else.
Social Research
Research that examines human behavior.
Surveys
A systematic method for collecting data from respondents including questionnaires, face- to- face or telephone interviews, or a combination of these.
Validity
The degree to which a measure is accurate and really measures what it claims to measure.
Variable
A characteristic that can change in value or magnitude under different conditions.
Counterculture
A group or category of people who deliberately oppose and reject some of the basic beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture.
Cultural Imperialism
The influence or domination of the cultural values and products of one’s society over those of another.
Cultural Integration
The consistency of various aspects of a society, which promotes order and stability.
Cultural Lag
The gap when nonmaterial culture changes more slowly than material culture.
Cultural Relativism
The recognition that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards.
Cultural Universals
Customs and practices that are common to all societies.
Culture
The learned and shared behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and material objects that characterize a particular group or society.
Culture Shock
A sense of confusion or uncertainty that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment.
Folkways
Norms that members of a society look upon as not being critical and may be broken without severe punishment.
Ideal Culture
The beliefs, values, and norms that people in a society say they hold or follow.
Language
A system of shared symbols that enables people to communicate with one another.
Laws
Formal rules about behavior that are defined by a political authority that has the power to punish violators.
Mass Media
Forms of communication designed to reach large numbers of people.
Material Culture
The tangible objects that members of a society make, use, and share.
Mores
Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior.
Multiculturalism
The coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.
Nonmaterial Culture
The shared set of meaning that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world.
Norms
A society’s specific rules concerning right and wrong behavior.
Popular Culture
The beliefs, practices, activities, and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life.
Real Culture
The actual everyday behavior of people in a society.
Society
A group of people that has lived and worked together long enough to become an organized population and to think of themselves as a social unit.
Subsulture
A group or category of people whose distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting differ somewhat from those of the larger society.
Symbol
Anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share a culture.
Values
The standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, beautiful or ugly.
Agents of Socialization
The individuals, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know to participate effectively in society.
Anticipatory Socialization
The process of learning how to perform a role one does not yet occupy.
Generalized Other
A term used by George Herbert Mead to refer to people who do not have close ties to a child but who influence a child’s interalization of society’s norms and values.
Impression Management
The process of providing information and cues to others to present oneself in a favorable light while downplaying or concealing one’s less appealing qualities.
Interalization
The process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we assume they are correct and accept them without question.
Looking- Glass Self
A self- image based on how we think others see us.
Peer Group
Any set of people who are similar in age, social status, and interests.
Resocialization
A process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new attitudes, values, norms, and behavior.
Role Taking
Learning to take th perspective of others.
Self
An awareness of one’s social identity.
Significant Others
The people who are important in one’s life, such as parents or other primary caregivers and siblings.
Social Learning Theories
Approaches whose central notion is that people learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, especially during childhood.
Socialization
The life long process of social interaction in which the individual acquires a social identity and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are essential for effective particpation in a society.
Sociobiology
A theoretical approach that applies biological principles to explain the behavior of animals, including human beings.
Total Institutions
Places where people are isolated from the rest of society, stripped of their former identities, and required to conform to new rules and behavior.
Achieved Status
A social position that a person attains through personal effort or assumes voluntarily.
Ascribed Status
A social position that a person is born into.
Dramaturgical Analysis
A technique that examines social interaction as if occuring on a stage where people play different roles and act out scenes for the audiences with whom they interact.
Ethnomethodology
The study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that make everyday interactions possible.
Master Status
An ascribed or achieved status that determines a persons identity.
Nonverbal Communication
Messages that are sent without using words.
Role
The behavior expected of a person who has a particular status.
Role Conflict
The frusterations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses.
Role Performance
The actual behavior of a person who occupies a status.
Role Set
The different roles attached to a single status.
Role Strain
The stress arising from incompatible demands among roles within a single status.
Self- Fulfilling Prophecy
A situation where if we define something as real and act upon it, it can, in face, become real.
Social Exchange Theory
The perspective whose fundamental premise is that any social interactio between two people is based on each person trying to maximize rewards and minimize punishments.
Social Interaction
The process by which we act toward and react to people around us.
Social Structure
An organized pattern of behavior that governs peoples relationships.
Status
A social position that a person occupies in a society.
Status Inconsistency
The conflict or tension that arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently.
Status Set
A collection of social statuses that an individual occupies at a given time.
Authoritarianism
A political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.
Authority
The legitimate use of power.
Charismatic Authority
Authority based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience.
Democracy
A political system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions.
Government
A formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws.
Lobbyist
A representative of a special- interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the groups behalf.
Monarchy
A political system in which power is allocated solely on the basis of heredity and passed from generation to generation.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A special- interest group set up to raise money to elect a candidate to public office.
Political Party
An organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its members to public office.
Politics
A social process through which individuals and groups acquire an exercise power and authority.
Power Elite
A small group of influencing people who make a nations major political decisions.
Rational- Legal Authority
Authority based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate.
Special- Interest Group
A voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policy makers on a particular issue.
Totalitarianism
A policital system in which the government controls every aspect of peoples lives.
Traditional Authority
Authority based on customs that justify the position of the ruler.
Communism
A political and economic system in which all members of a society are equal.
Conglomerate
A giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries.
Contingent Workers
People who don’t expect their jobs to last or who say that their jobs are temporary.
Corporation
A social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members.
Deindustrialization
A process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufactoring.
Discouraged Workers
Unemployed people who want a job and have looked for work in the proceeding year but have not searched in the past 4 weeks because they have given up.
Downsizing
A euphemism for firing large numbers of employees at once.
Economy
A social insitution that determines how a society produces, distributes, and conosumes goods and services.
Globalization
The growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology around the world.
Interlocking Directorate
A situation in which the same people serve on the boards of directors of several companies or corporations.
Monopoly
Domination of a particular market or industry by one person or company.
Offshoring
Sending work or jobs to another country to cut a company’s costs at home.
Oligopoly
A market dominated by a few large producers or suppliers.
Socialism
An economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services.
Transnational Conglomerate
A corporation that owns a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries.
Transnational Corporation
A large company that is based in one country but operates across international boundaries.
Underemployed
People who have part- time jobs but want full- time work or whose jobs are below their experience and education level.
Work
Physical or mental activity that accomplished or produces something, either goods or services.
Activity Theory
Proposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles and activities, including work.
Ageism
Discrimination against older people.
Boomerang Generation
Young adults who have moved back into their parents home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place.
Child Maltreatment
A wide range of behaviors that place a child at serious risk, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional mistreatment.
Cohabitation
An arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship.
Continuity Theory
Posits that older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they’ve lost.
Divorce
The legal dissolution of a marriage.
Dual- Earner Couples
Both partners are employed outside the home.
Egalitarian Family System
Both partners share power and authority fairly equally.
Elder Abuse
Any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm to people aged 65 or older.
Endogamy
The practice of selecting mates from within one’s group.
Exogamy
The practice of selecting mates from outside one’s group.
Extended Family
A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins, and grandparents.
Family
An intimate group consisting of two or more people who: 1) live together in a committed relationship, 2) care for one another and any children, 3) share close emotional ties and functions.
Fictive Kin
Nonrelatives who are accepted as part of an African American family.
Gerontologists
Scientists who study the biological, phychological, and social aspects of aging.
Incest Taboo
Cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercourse between close blood relatives, such as brothers and sisters, father and daughter, or uncle and niece.
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Abuse that occurs between two people in a close relationship.
Life expectency
The average length of time people of the same age will live.
Marriage
A socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring.
Marriage Market
A process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate.
Matriarchal Family System
The oldest females control culture, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over males.
Matrilocal Residence Pattern
Newly married couples live with the wifes family.
Monogamy
One person is married exclusively to another person.
Neolocal Residence Pattern
Each newly married couple sets up its own residence.
No- Fault Divorce
State laws the do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to ge a divorce.
Nuclear Family
A form of family consisting of married parents and their biological or adopted children.
Patriarchal Family System
The oldest men control culture, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females.
Patrialocal Residence Pattern
Newly married couples live with the husbands family.
Polygamy
A marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses.
Sandwich Generation
People in middle generations who care for their own children as well as their aging parents.
Serial Monogamy
Individuals marry several people, but one at a time.
Step Family
A household in which two adults are married or living together and at least one of them has a child.
Charter Schools
Self- governing public schools that have signed an agreement with their state government to improve students education.
Credentialism
An emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that people have certain skills, education attainment levels, or job qualifications.
Education
A social institution that transmitts attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms, and skills to its members through formal, systematic training.
Hidden Curriculum
School practices that transmit nonacademic knowledge, values, attitudes, norms, and beliefs which legitimize economic inequality and fill unequal work roles.
Home Schooling
Teaching children in the home as an alternative to enrolling them in a public or private elementary, middle, or high school.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
An index of an individuals performance on a standardized test relative to the performance level of others of the same age.
Magnet School
A public school that is typically small and offers students a distinctive program and specialized curriculum in a particular area, such as business, science, the arts, or technology.
Schooling
Formal training and instruction provided in a classroom setting.
Tracking
Assigning students to specific educational programs and classes based on the basis of test scores, previous grades, or perceived ability.
Vouchers
Public funded payments that parents can apply toward tuition or fees at a public or private school of their choice.
Charismatic Leader
A religious leader whom followers see as having exeptional or superhuman powers and qualities.
Church
A large established religious group that has strong ties to mainstream society.
Civil Religion
Practices in which citizenship takes on religious aspects.
Cult
A religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices that are outside of those accepted in mainstream society.
Denomination
A subgroup within a religion that shares its name and traditions and is generally on good terms with the main group.
False Consciousness
An acceptance of a system that prevents people from protesting oppression.
Fundamentalism
The belief in the literal meaning of a sacred text.
New Religious Movement (NRM)
Term used in instead of cult by most sociologists.
Profane
Anything that is not related to religion.
Protestant Ethic
A belief that hard work, diligence, self- denial, frugality, and economic success will lead to salvation in the afterlife.
Religion
A social institution that involves shared beliefs, values, and practices based on the supernatural and unites believes into a community.
Religiosity
The ways people demonstrate their religious beliefs.
Ritual
A formal and repeated behavior in which the members of a group regularly engage.
Sacred
Anything that people see as mysterious, awe- inspiring, extraordinary and powerful, holy, and not part of the natural world.
Sect
A religious group that has broken away from an established religion.
Secular
The term sociologists use instead of profane to charcterize worldly rather than spiritual things.
Secularization
A process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or influence of religion.
The causes of the US Civil War include:
all of these:
simultaneous existence of both democracy and slavery as allowed by the US Constitution of 1787, efforts to expand both Northern and Southern economies to the west, and states’ rights.
The first state to secede from the Union was
South Carolina
Fort Sumter was
a federal garrison in the South
The First battle of Manassas
is also known as the First Bull Run and was won by the South (confederates).
General McDowell
was with the North (Union).
Major technological means that assisted the winning side of the First Bull Run was
the railroad
The mechanical cotton gin
both b and c:
separates the seeds, hulls and foreign material from cotton and also led to greater cotton production and need for more slaves in the south.
Social stratification
both a and b:
is a process that involves competition and conflict over the means of production and also is a system of rewards and incentives to encourage efforts to achieve high positions and levels in society.
According to pluralist theory
both b and d:
power is more or less evenly distributed among all the various groups and conflicts among the groups are resolved through negotiation and compromise.
Elite theory
both b and c:
claims existence of a power elite consisting of the top leaders in business, politics, and the military and also points out that private preparatory schools transmit elite status from generation to generation.
Over a 60-year period since 1945, two of the top five countries with the highest average voter participation are
Italy and South Africa
President Lincoln was alarmed by the outcome of the initial battle at Fort Sumter, whereupon he immediately issued orders on April 15, 1861 to recruit
75,000 troops
The confederacy was formed as a separate nation in February 1861 with its own constitution, and who was elected as its president?
Jefferson Davis
General purposes or functions of meso-level economic and political institutions include:
both a and b:
to maintain social control and to protect its citizens.
The sociological perspective in the purposes and functions of meso-level economic and political institutions is
structural functionalist
Sociological Perspective
as seeing the general in the particular
Positivism
a way of understanding based on science
Theory
a statement of how and why specific facts are related
Theoretical Approach
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
Structural-Functional Approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Social Structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Social Functions
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
Manifest Functions
recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
Latent Functions
unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
Social Dysfunction
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
Social- Conflict Approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
Gender- Conflict Approach
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between men and women
Feminism
support of social equality for women and men
Race-Conflict Approach
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial ethnic categories
Macro-level Orientation
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
Micro-level Orientation
a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
Symbolic Interaction Approach
framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
Science
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Empirical Evidence
information we can verify with our senses
Scientific Sociology
the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
Variable
a concept whose value changes from case to case
Measurement
procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Operationalize a Variable
specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
Reliability
consistency in measurement
Validity
actually measuring what you intended to measure
Cause and Effect
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
Independent Variable
variable that causes change
Dependent Variable
variable that changes
Correlation
relationship in which two or more variables change together
Control
holding constant all variables except one in order to clearly see the effect of that variable
Replication
repetition of research by other investigators
Critical Sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
Gender
the personal trait and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
Androcentricity
male perspective
Overgeneralizing
when researchers draw data from people of only one sex to support conclusions
Gender Blindness
failing to consider the variable of gender at all
Double Standards
when researches must be careful not to distort what they study by judging men and women differently
Interference
if the subject reacts to the sex of the researcher, interfering with the research operation
Research Method
systematic plan for doing research
Experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Hypothesis
a statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables
Hawthorne Effect
a change in a subjects behavior caused by awareness of being studied
Survey
research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
Population
people who are the focus of research
Sample
part of a population that represents the whole
Interview
series of questions a researcher asks a respondent in person
Participant Observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Inductive Logical Thought
reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory
Deductive Logical Thought
reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing
Culture
the ways of thinking, acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life
Nomenclature Culture
ideas created by members of a society
Material Culture
physical things created by members of a society
Culture Shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Language
system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
Cultural Transmission
process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Sapir- Whorf Theisis
states that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
Values
culturally defined standards tha people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
Beliefs
specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true
Norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides a behavior of its members
Folkways
norms for routine or casual interaction
Social Control
attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior
Technology
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
Mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
High Culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite
Popular Culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population
Subculture
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s populationcultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population
Multiculturalism
an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions
Eurocentrism
the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
Afrocentrism
the dominance of African cultural patterns
Counterculture
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
Cultural Integration
the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
Cultural Lag
refers to the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
Ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture
Cultural Relativism
the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards
Cultural Universals
traits that are part of every known culture
Sociobiology
a theoretical paradigm that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
Family
a social instrument found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children
Kinship
a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption
Marriage
a legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing, that people expect to be enduring
Consanguine Family
a family unit that includes parents and children as well as other kin
Conjugal Family
a family unit composed of one or two parents and their children
Endogamy
marriage between people of the same social category
Exogamy
marriage between people of different social categories
Monogamy
marriage that unites two partners
Polygamy
marriage that unites three or more peopl
Polygyny
marriage that unites one man and two or more women
Polyandry
marriage that unites one woman and two or more men
Patrilocality
a residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the husband’s family
Matrilocality
a residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife’s family
Neolocality
a residential pattern in which a married couple lives apart from both sets of parents
Descent
the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations
Patrilineal Descent
a system tracing kinship through men
Matrilineal Descent
a system tracing kinship through women
Bilateral Descent
a system tracing kinship through both men and women
Incest Taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
Homogamy
marriage between people with the same social characteristics
Infidelity
sexual activity outside marriage
Family Violence
emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another
Cohabitation
the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple
Karl Marx
person who is a capitalist who fought for the rights of workers
“the only reason business’ prosper are because of the workers, and they often don’t realize they are worth more”
Emile Durkheim
person who explained the differences in terms of social integration and the rates of suicide between men and women
W.E.D DuBois
person who solved parameters of social inequality
Philip Zimbardo
known for experiment in the “Stanford County Prison” – found that even normal people can be prone to violence in specific settings
August Comte
person who coined the term sociology to describe a new way of looking at society
August Comte
person who’s approach is called POSITIVISM – a way of understanding based on science
Herbert Spencer
person who compared society to the human body
Robert K. Merton
person who distinguished between manifest and latent functions
Jane Addams
person who ran the women’s hull house
Ida Wells Barnett
woman who campaigned tirelessly for racial equality
Max Weber
a German sociologist who emphasized the need to understand a setting from the point of view of people in it
Herbert Mead
person who explored how our personalities develop as a result of social experience
foundations
appreciating forces that shape you, your choices, and lifestyle
seeing the strange in the familiar
what you take for granted and how its familiar to you but realize how strange it is to others
sociological perspective
way of looking at and seeing out interpreting something- particular way of seeing something
metaphysical
saw society as a natural rather than supernatural system
global perspective
study of the larger world and our society’s place in it
harriet marteneau
first woman sociologist
oscar wilde
said “truth is rarely simple and never simple”
statistical measure
“average” for a large number of people
concept
mental construct that represents some part of the world
proscription
what people should not do
prescription
what people should do
sanctions
positive or negative and are used to keep the control
ideal culture
what we want
real culture
occurs in everyday life
key values of US culture
equal opportunity, achievement & success, material comfort, activity & work, practicality & efficiency, progress, science, democracy & free enterprise, freedom, racism & group superiority
Harry & Margaret Harlow
conducted monkey experiment- study power and isolation and potential
nature
heredity
nurture
social environment
Solomon Asche
sociologist who conducted the visual perception test (group conformity)
Stanley Milgram
student of Solomon- study of how punishment affects learning- electric chair and shock
fuzzy group
come into occasional contact but lack a sense of boundaries and belonging
3 key words for power and control
minimizes, denies, blames
battered woman syndrome
form of abuse done to woman by her husband or any other man- economic, emotional, physical, or sexual
19-26 years old
what are the ages for most targeted woman of abusers?
3 roles of the future
full time worker, full time caretaker in house, primary caretaker of aging parents
battered child syndrome
when parents have life and death rights over children and could dispose of them at will — condition in young children who have received significant physical abuse ( parent or foster parent) — sexual, emotional, social deprivation, absence of love
4 causes of child abuse
1. both parents are deprived individuals
2. see baby as demanding/ unattractive/ spoiled/ not living up to standards
3. loss of job/ unwanted pregnancy/ prolonged crying has developed
4. no lifeline or rescue operation
4 ways to remedy child abuse
lay therapists, families anonymous, crisis nursery, therapeutic day care center
lay therapists
“mother” & “lifeline” — someone who had a good raised childhood
Families Anonymous
not alone and could derive a great deal of help from one another
crisis nursery
when a child can be quickly removed from situation to place of safety
therapeutic day care center
abusive parents can see kids play with other kids and interchange feelings
social cohesion
keeps social groups together
functions of religion
social cohesion, social control, providing meaning and purpose
functions of the family
1) socialization
2) regulation of sexual activity
3) social placement
4) material and emotional security
Sociological perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
society
a community of people who share a common culture
social location
the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
science
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environments
social sciences
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
generalization
a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
scientific method
the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories
positivism
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
Herbert Spencer
“Survival of the fittest”; Social Darwinism between societies and cultures
Karl Marx
believed people should change society through revolution; society is made up of 2 classes: bourgeoisie and poletariat
class conflict
Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
Bourgeoisie
Marx’s term for the capitalists, those who own the means of production
Proletariat
Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Emile Durkheim
goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate discipline and show how social forces affect people’s behavior; used suicide research to realize that social factors are underlying for behaviors; human behaviors cannot be understood only in terms of the individual, must exam the social factor’s that affect people’s lives
Social integration
the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; social cohesion
Max Weber
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity’s greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.
value free
the view that a sociologist’s personal values or biases should not influence social research
values
beliefs about what is good or desirable in life and the way the world ought to be
objectivity
value neutrality in research
replication
the repetition of a study in order to test its findings
Verstehen
a German word used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as “to have an insight into someone’s situation”
social facts
Durkheim’s term for a group’s patterns of behavior
basic (pure) sociology
sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups
applied sociology
the use of sociology to solve problems—from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of global pollution
theory
a statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
symbolic interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
functional analysis
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium (functionalism/ structured functionalism)
functions
beneficial consequences of people’s actions
dysfunctions
consequences that harm a society
conflict theory
a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources founded by Marx
Macro-level analysis
an examination of large-scale patterns of society
micro-level analysis
an examination of small-scale patterns of society
social interaction
what people do when they are in one another’s presence
nonverbal interaction
communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on
public sociology
sociology being used for the public good; especially the sociological perspective guiding politicians and policy makers
globalization
the extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
globalization of capitalism
capitalism becoming the globe’s dominant economic system
research model
1] select a topic 2] define the problem 3] review the literature 4] formulate the hypothesis 5] choose a reasearch method 6] collect the data 7] analyze the results 8] share the results ->stimulates more ideas for search ->generates hypotheses ->back to 1
hypothesis
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
variable
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior which can vary from one case to another
operational definitions
the way in which a researcher measures a variable
research method
one of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures
validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
replication
the repetition of a study in order to test its findings
survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
population
a target group to be studied
sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the research
respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
questionnaires
a list of questions to be asked of respondents
self-administered questionnaires
questionnaires that respondents fill out
interview
direct questioning of respondents
interviewer bias
effects that interviewers have on respondents that lead to biased answers
structured interviews
interviews that use closed-ended questions
closed-ended questions
questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
unstructured interviews
interviews that use open-ended questions
open-ended questions
questions that respondents answer in their own words
rapport
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
participant observation (fieldwork)
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
generalizability
the extent to which the findings from one group can be generalized or applied to other groups
case study
an analysis of a single event, situation, or individual
secondary analysis
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
documents
in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photos, movies, CDs, etc.
experiments
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
experimental group
the group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
control group
the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
dependent variable
a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable
unobtrusive measures
ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
aggregate
consists of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together
category
people who have similar characteristics
primary group
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
secondary group
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
in-groups
groups toward which people feel loyalty
out-groups
groups toward which people feel antagonism
reference group
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
social network
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
clique
a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another
electronic community
individuals who regularly interact with one another on the Internet and who think of themselves as belonging together
group dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
small group
a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
dyad
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
triad
a group of three people
coalition
the alignment of some members of a group against others
instrumental leader
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; task-oriented leader
expressive leader
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; socioemotional leader
leadership styles
ways in which people express their leadership
authoritarian leader
an individual who leads by giving orders
democratic leader
an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus
laissex-faire leader
an individual who leads by being highly permissive
rationality
using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs
traditional society
a society in which the past is thought to be the best guide for the present; characterizes tribal, peasant, and feudal societies
rationalization of society
a widespread acceptance of rationality and social organizations that are built largely around this idea
capitalism
the economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition
formal organization
a secondary group designed to achieve explicit objectives
bureaucracies
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications, and records
mcdonaldization of society
the process by which ordinary aspects of life are rationalized and efficiency comes to rule them, including such things as food preparation
bureaucratic alienation
Marx’s term for worker’s lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by their being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product, which leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness
peter principle
a tongue-in-cheek observation that the member of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence; there they cease to be promoted, remaining at the level at which they can no longer do good work
goal displacement
an organization replacing old goals with new ones; goal replacement
voluntary association
a group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; voluntary memberships
the iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels’ term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
social environment
the entire human environment, including direct contact with others
feral children
children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans
socialization
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group—the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them
self
the unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us
looking-glass self
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us
o 1. We imagine how we appear to those around us
o 2. We interpret others’ reactions
o 3. We develop a self-concept
taking the role of the other
putting oneself in someone else’s shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act
significant others
an individual who significantly influences someone else’s life
generalized other
the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self
Piaget and Development of Reasoning
• 1. Sensorimotor stage—(birth to 2)—direct contact (touching, sucking, listening and looking)
• 2. Preoperational stage—(2-7)—develop the ability to use symbols
• 3. Concrete operational stage—(7-12)—reasoning abilities are developed and concrete
• 4. Formal operational stage—(12+)—abstract thinking
id
Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives
ego
Freud’s term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society
superego
Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups
Kohlberg and Development of Morality
Children begin in amoral stage and continue to the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional stages
gender
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females
gender socialization
the ways in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female
peer group
a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
mass media
forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, television, and blogs that are directed to mass audiences
gender roles
the behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are female or male
social inequality
a social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied by others
agents of socialization
individuals or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors or other orientations towards life
manifest functions
the intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions
latent functions
unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions
anticipatory socialization
the process of learning in advance an anticipated future role or status
social structure
the framework that surrounds us, consisting of relationships of people and groups to one another, which gives direction to and sets limits on behavior
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in property power and prestige
status
the position that someone occupies in a social group
status set
all of the statuses or positions that an individual occupies
ascribed status
a position an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
achieved status
a position that is earned, accomplished, or involves at least some effort or activity on the individual’s part
status symbols
items used to identify a status (ex. Wedding rings)
master status
a status that cuts across the other statuses that an individual occupies (ex. Gender, race)
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status discrepancy
role
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
group
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called social group
social institution
the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
social integration
the degree to which members of a group or society feel united by shared values and other social bonds
mechanical solidarity
Durkheim’s term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
division of labor
the splitting of a group’s or a society’s tasks into specialties
organic solidarity
Durkheim’s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs
Gemeinschaft
a type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
Gesellschaft
a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next
material culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, and jewelry
nonmaterial culture
a group’s ways of thinking and doing
patterns
recurring characteristics or events
culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
ethnocentrism
the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their lives, norms, and behaviors
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
symbolic culture
another term for nonmaterial culture
symbol
something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
language
symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf’s hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving; Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world
values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
norms
expectations, or rules of behavior that reflect and enforce behavior
sanctions
either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them
positive sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reactions such as a frown to a formal reactions such as a prison sentence or an execution
folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are though essential to core values or to the well-being of the group
taboo
a norm so strong that it brings extreme sanctions and even revulsion if someone violates it
subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
counterculture
a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its member in opposition to the broader culture
pluralistic society
a society made up of many different groups, with contrasting values and orientations to life
value cluster
values that together form a larger whole
value contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come in conflict with the other
ideal culture
a people’s ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
real culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
cultural universals
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
technology
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
new technology
the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
cultural lag
Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial culture traits
cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations
deviance
the violation of norms (or rules or expectations); It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant
crime
the violation of norms written into law
stigma
“blemishes” that dis-credit a person’s claim to a “normal” identity
social order
a group’s usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives
social control
a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or execution
positive sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material award
genetic predisposition
inborn tendencies
street crime
crimes such as muggings, rape and burglary
personality disorders
the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms
differential association
Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that people who associate with some group’s learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant
control theory
the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate
inner controls
internalized morality; stronger our bonds (attachments, commitments, involvements and beliefs), the more effective our inner controls
outer controls
people who influence us not to deviate
degradation ceremony
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to reshape someone’s self by stripping away that individual’s self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
labeling theory
the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity
techniques of neutralization
ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society’s norms
o Denial of responsibility
o Denial of injury
o Denial of a victim
o Condemnation of the condemners
o Appeal to higher loyalties
cultural goals
the objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve
strain theory
Robert Merton’s term for the strange engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal but withholds from some of the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation to the strain is crime, the choice of an innovative means to attain the cultural goal
Four deviant paths
o Innovators—people who accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to try and reach them
o Ritualism—people who become discouraged and give up on achieving cultural goals yet cling to conventional rules of conduct
o Retreatism—reject both cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them
o Rebellion—reject both society’s goals and its institutionalized means
illegitimate opportunity structure
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
white collar crime
Edwin Sutherland’s term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations
corporate crime
crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
criminal justice system
the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
recedivism rate
the proportion of released convicts who are rearrested
capitol punishment
the death penalty
serial murder
the killing of several victims in three or more separate events
hate crime
a crime that is punished more severely because its motivated by hatred of someone’s race
police discretion
the practice of the police, in the normal course of their duties, to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter
medicalization of deviance
to make deviance a medical matter; a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians
3 dimensions of social stratification
property, power, and prestige
colonialism
the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources
world system theory
economic and political connections that tie the world’s countries together

o 1. Core nations—the countries that industrialized first grew rich and powerful
o 2. semiperiphery—located around the Mediterranean; economies stagnated because they grew dependent on trade with core nations
o 3. Periphery—fringe nations; developed the least; Eastern European nations which sold cash crops to core nations
o 4. External area—nations left out of the development of capitalism altogether; most of Africa and Asia

globalization of capitalism
capitalism becoming the globe’s dominant economic system
culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
neocolonialism
the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized nations by the Most Industrialized Nations
multinational corporations
companies that operate across national boundaries, also called transnational corporations
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, prestige and power; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
property
material possessions: animals, bank accounts, bonds buildings businesses, cars, furniture, land and stocks
wealth
the total value of everything someone owns, minus the debts
income
money received, usually from a job, business or assets
power
the ability to get your way, even over the resistance of others
power elite
C. Wright Mills’ term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military and politics who make the nation’s major decisions
prestige
respect or regard
status consistency
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
status
the positions that someone occupies in a social group
anomie
Durkheim’s term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior
Marx’s model of social class
o 1. Capitalists—bourgeoisie, those who own the means of production
o 2. Workers—proletariat, those who work for the capitalists
o 3. Inconsequential others—beggars, etc
contradictory class locations
Erik Wright’s term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests
Wright’s Modification of Marx’s Model
o 1. Capitalists
o 2. Petty bourgeoisie
o 3. Managers
o 4. Workers
6-tier model for class structure
o Capitalist class—1% of population; worth more than entire bottom 90% of country; owns 1/3 of nations assests; old vs new money
o The upper middle class—most shaped by education; 15% of population
o The lower middle class—34% of population; can afford but struggle to maintain mainstream lifestyle
o The working class—30% of population; relatively unskilled blue collar and white collar workers; less education and lower incomes; only high school diploma
o The working poor—16% of population; unskilled, low paying, temporary and seasonal jobs; depend on food stamps
o The underclass—a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations; inner city; 4% of population
intergenerational mobility
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
upward social mobility
movement up the social class ladder
downward social mobility
movement down the social class ladder
structural mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts
exchange mobility
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change
poverty line
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than three times a low cost food budget
feminization of poverty
refers to the situation that most poor families in the U.S. are headed by women
culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, and that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
deferred gratification
doing without something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future
Horatio Alger myth
the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough
economic revolution
rise of capitalism, the growth of urban life and the Industrial Revolution
political revolution
development of nation-state system; movements for democracy; rise of popular struggles
philosophical revolution
Enlightenment; intellectuals started to focus more on science, rationality and empiricism
causality
the factors or variables that explain a particular outcome
mechanical solidarity
social solidarity based on common consciousness
organic solidarity
social solidarity based on cooperative and interdependent relations in society
empiricism
using measurable and verifiable facts to support a hypothesis (proposition of cause and effect)
ethics
behavior that follows a set of rules oriented towards the welfare of larger society instead of professional self-interest
morals
the judgment of “good” or “bad” human behavior (usually based on philosophical principles)
expressive ties
based on emotional investment or connection with others (ex. Parents, bf or gf)
instrumental ties
based on goal attainment/maximizing interests (ex sports team, alliances/coalitions)
coercive organizations
those which hold people against their will, such as mental institutions and prisons
A child learns to act like adults, she observes and internalizes her parents’ values and attitudes into her personality. Lawrence Kohlberg refers to this behavior as:
none of the above
Socialization refers to
the process of transmitting cultural values to young members
For charles H. Cooley, the process wherby our self image develops from the ways others treat us is called the ________ process
looking-glass self
The cases of children who were raised in extreme isolation demonstrate that
normal human development requires continuing human interaction
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development argues that
virtually all children go through the same sequence of mental development
Which of the following statements about the nature/nurture debate would Alex Thio see as the most accurate?
While nature sets limits, socialization plays a very large role in determining who we are
John is playing with his toys and he is pretending to be a fireman like his father. According to Jean Piaget, by seeing himself from his father’s point of view, John is
none of the above
For humans to be socialized ,it is imperative that they have:
regular social interaction with adults
Which of the following describes behavior associated with Jan Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
when a child learns with his senses and body to interact with the environment
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, at the first level of moral development, young adults have a preconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of
a right and wrong consequence
Taylor is a young girl whose parents surrounded her with books, challenging discussions, and ideas. based on our understanding of socialization, Taylor is probably
ahead of other children in the areas she had been trained in
According to George Herbert Mead, when children learn to internalize the values of society as a whole in the game stage, they take on the role of the
generalized other
Charles H. Cooley viewed society as a group of individuals helping each other to develop their personality. this means that
the core of the self is in the concept of the self image that develops from the way others see us
Natasha recieves good grades, she learns a lot and she is liked by her professors, parents, and friends. she is outgoing and also participates in several extra curricular activities that the school develops for the betterment of the students. charles H. cooley would suggest that natasha
has a good self image
in the sixth grade of the levels of development of the self, the “I” represents?
the spontaneous, creative, and impulsive personality we can have
social exchanges are usually governed by
the norm of reciprocity
which of the following statements about socialization are true EXCEPT?
it is difficult to change an adult’s personality becasue it has been formed in childhood
competition in the global market has helped U.S. companies
become more efficient and productive
an ethnomethodologist would likely study
the conversations among roommates in a college dormatory
many people use the internet as a key tool of communication. which of the following is a disadvantage of electronic communication?
all of the above
Which of the following forms of social interaction are more likely to unsettle the social structure?
competition
everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. the pioneering sociologist who developed microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding it was:
Erving Goffman
select below that one statement that is NOT a reason for studying social interaction in everyday life:
examining social interaction in everyday life allows sociologists to see how relatively unimportant language is in creating social reality
the use of internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites, such as MySpace and Facebook:
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life
at the third level of moral development, young adults have a postconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of
conflicting norms
Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain
an incongruity between two realities
the analysis of how people define the world in which they live is called
ethnomthodology
which of the following would NOT be classified as civil inattention?
working on a group project in your sociology class
which of the following statements about conflict is the most true?
conflict can often help a social structure by unifing members
the supportive social interaction’s function that provides hidden, underlying meanings is absolutely crucial for
ensuring social order
intelligence is either inherited or learned
false
anticipatory socialization is the process by which an individual learns to assume a role in the future
true
superego is Freud’s term for the part of the personality that is moral; popularly known as conscience
true
Jean Piaget’s described seven stages of cognitive development that each child goes through
false
to be a genius, you must be born one
false
preconventional morality is Kohlberg’s term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms
false
humor is only fun and games
false
because they speak the same language, men and women can easily understand each other
false
Non verbal communication may involve proxemics, the use of space as a means of communication
true
to symbolic interactionists, people usually don’t take supportive interactions at face value but pay more attention to the hidden meanings behind expressed words and actions
true
parents in ______ families try to cultivate a strng acceptance and security in tehir young children by indulging them, letting them have practically anything they want and letting them behave and misbehave in any way they want
Asian Americans
according to _______, children develop their self concept in three stages
George H Mead
________ morality was Kohlberg’s term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms
postconventional
Children of _________ parents are traditionally socialized through an extensive network of relatives
Native Americans
________ is an interaction in which two individuals follow mutually accepted rules, each trying to achieve the same goal before the other does
competition
________ is an interaction in which two individuals disregard any rules, each trying to achieve his or her own goal by defeating the other
conflict
________ is the use of body movements as a means of communication; also called body language
kinesis
Alex Thio affirms that by studying and appreciating social diversity in our society, we ultimately
develop a better understanding of ourselves
US sociology was reshaped during the 1960’s by renewed awareness of
poverty and years of social unrest
critics of the feminist theory criticize the theory becasue it
overemphasizes the oppressiveness of patriarchy
a scientific theory is
always open to revision in the light of new evidence
according to symbolic interactionists
people respond to the interpretations of symbols and experiences
if you wanted to determine whether there is a gender difference in how often people think about sex, the best research method would be
the survey
by using each of the three major sociological perspectives, researchers can
bring more aspects of society into a sharper focus
Herbert Spencer’s classic study of suicide makes the sociological point that
none of the above
sociologist Jane Johnson lived with Kickapoo indians and studied the tribal members’ beliefs. This type of research is called
ethnography
sociologists study human behavior through books, magazines, letters, songs, etc. this type of research is called
content analysis
which of the following statements is most clearly linked with herbert spencer’s view of society?
the primary feature of society is its interactive parts that contribute to the function of the whole
the fourth step or level we have in the scientific method is
selecting a research design by choosing one or more research methods
tom was a sunday school teacher, he played on a softball team and at nights he studied a master degree in computers. however, his main commitment was to his job. this mans that softball, chirch activities and his master program were his
subordinate statuses
sam works overtime everyday in an important company as the head of the company, he therfore cannot spend as much time as he would like wih his children. he feels guilty but knows that if he does not work overtime he could loose his job. his situation is an example of
role conflict
lisa attended her best friends funeral wearing cut off jeans and a red tank top. when the service started lisa whistled and cheered. lisa’s mode of dress and behavior at the funeral was a violation of society’s
folkways
with time, norms and values have changed in our society and become law. the following are norms and values that have changed overtime and have become part of the law EXCEPT
we support saluting each other
which if the following is apart of the concept of society?
a collection of interacting persons who share culture and territory
the functionalist perspective explains cultural practices by looking at
the purpose of the practice serves for society as a while
symbolic interactionists tend to stress the importance of culture as
a guide and product of human creation
which of the following statements about hunting and gathering societies is false?
these societies domesticate animals to eat
the sapir-whorf hypothesis about language and culture suggests that
language shapes the ways in which people percieve the world
which of the following statements is the definition of social institution
the stable sets of widely shared beliefs, norms, and procedures that are organized to satisfy basic needs
sociology is the systematic, scientific study of human society
true
economic globalization is a closely knit community of all the world’s societies
false
participant observation is a research method that involves only asking questions about opinions, beliefs, or behaviors
false
a micro view focuses on the immediate social situation in which people interact with one another
true
patriarchy is a system of domination in which women exercise power over women
false
primary group is a group whose members interact formally, relate to each other as players of particular roles, and expect to profit from each other
false
condoleezza rice’s position as national security advisor in the bush administration is an ascribed status, and her status as an african american and a woman are achieved
false
according to alex thio, we feel role strain if we have to play two conflicting roles from the same status
true
according to alex thio, both functionalist and conflict perspectives provide a structural view of culture as largely capable of constraining us
true
according to the sapir-whorf hypothesis, our language makes us see the world in a certain way
true
statuses that are given to us based on what we do, rather than who we are are called
achieved status
social stratification is a profoundly important subject in sociology because
almost every aspect of our lives, from family size to how much money we need, is linked to ou status in society
which of the following statements about economic inequality in the US is true?
the poorest 20% in the US have 4.2% of the national income
a stratification system where there is little opportunity to accumulate wealth and where there is much social equality is called
egalitarian system
for feminists, gender inequality should be studied as part of the overall stratification system because
an analysis of a stratification system must include all of its members
sociologists are using the ____ method of identifying social class when they rely on a group of people from the community to rate or locate people in the class structure
reputational
joseph is automatically rated as a member of the middle class because he has a master’s degree. this way of assigning people to social classes, based on year’s of education and occupation is called the
objective method
according to the absolute definition of poverty in the united states, persons are poor when they
lack the income needed to sustain a minimum standard of living
due to job loss, divorce, disabilities and old age, studies suggest
a majority of americans will experience a brief period of poverty in their life
oscar lewis characterized people living in a culture of poverty as having all of the following attitudes EXCEPT
future oriented
the essence of global stratification is
inequality among nations
sociologists who follow the functionalists theory believe that social stratification is
universal and necessary, it serves societies
the lack of minimum food and shelter necessarily for maintaining life is called
absolute poverty
conflict theorists argue that social stratification
is a reflection of power, not necessity
according to karl marx, the difference between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is
the capitalists own the means of production and the workers do not
simon kuznets curve refers to the changing relationship between
economic development and social inequality
which of the following statements about race and ethnicity is true?
while a people’s physical features do not change when they move to another country, their racial identification as blacks or whites may change
the term life chances refers to
opportunities of living a good, long, successful life
the cultural traits of an ethnic group
are culturally learned and passed from one generation to another
the famous golfer tiger woods, as an african american, has created the acronym cablinasian to describe his mixed racial background. mr woods is an example of all of the following EXCEPT
the definition of race is the same in all societies
one of several problems with the biological classification of races is that
most people are not physically distinctive
the sociological definition of race is based on
the perception of society in defining people as biologically different
which of the following is an example of prejudice
feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group
which of the following statements is NOT a false concept that the european settlers created a stereotype native americans
they were accused of living in tribes
one result of efforts by the US government to promote tribal economic development and self-sufficient has been
a national movement to make native americans feel proud of their cultural heritage
jim crow refers to
laws enacted after federal troops left the south that segregated blacks from whites
the largest component of the hispanic community in the united states are the
mexicans
chinese and japanese americasn are educationally and occupationally
among the most succesful minorities
a degree of human prejudice can be explained by the tendency of human beings to place the blame for one’s troubles on persons incapable of offering much resistance. this device is known as
scapegoating
robert merton called people who believe in equality and put their beliefs into action
unprejudice non discriminators
which of the following statements is NOT a reason why ethnic conflict is so fierce in many countries?
the victims of ethnic conflict acted in ways that brought out ethnic hostility
Karl Marx believed that capitalist sough tomaximize profit by exploiting workers
true
the class system is the least stratified, with minimal inequality
false
according to alex thio, it is harder today than 30 years ago for americans to move from a lower to a higher social class
true
as the world’s leading democratic society, the united states has the most equal distribution of income
false
according to the conflict perspective, society creates and maintains poverty because benefits can be derived from it
false
according to the conflict perspective, racial and ethnic groups can contribute to social cohesion through assimilation, amalgamation or cultural pluralism
false
genocide is the wholesale killing of members of a specific racial or ethnic group
true
there are there distinct, pure races: white, asian and black
false
according to alex thio, despite the history of discrimination against them, asian americans are doing relatively well today
true
the feudal system is made up of several segregated groups whose positions are ascribed and fixed in society
false
when using the ______________ to determine class structure, sociologists find that some people generally rank themselves higher than what they really are
subjective method
sociologists apply the ________ because it identifies social class using occupation, income and education
objective method
which of the following is a social group?
a couple married less than one
which of the following is true?
a person measures his or her own worth by the standards of a reference group
which of the following is a social aggregate?
people waiting at terminal C for flight 181
the key to increased productivity in today’s organizations is not, as frederick taylor assumed, in the formal organization, but in the
informal organization, the relationships of workers
what term do sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a specific goal?
organization
jane was in charge of a difficult project in a large office. she was a tough leader and kept pushing people to accomplish the project’s goals. she would be an example of a
instrumental type of leader
which of the following situations most likely illustrates a primary relationship?
a family enjoying a picnic at the beach
how do japanese corporations differ from the bureaucratic model followed by the most business organizations in the west?
japanese corporations use a horizontal, collaborative model
which of the following is among the characteristic of a bureaucracy?
all of the above
which of the following best describes the relationship between group size, intamcy, and stability?
larger groups, such as fraternity, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group and relationships
the McDonaldization of society refers to
the increased of regulated and standardized of society due to automation
the privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their group’s norms is called
idiosyncrasy credit
reference groups provide us with
a standard for judging one’s attitudes and behaviors
people with a common characteristic, such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity, but not necessarily interacting with each other nor gather in one place are called a
social category
among the informal controls that we have in our society, the most effective to control deviance is
socialization
tom brown was the supervisor of a group of computer programmers. he provided support if needed, but generally allowed members of his group to work by themselves. his leadership style would be called
laissez-faire
early attempts to explain deviant behavior in individuals were based on teh assumption that crime was committed mostly by people with certain physical traits. this view was called
biological determinism
the culture of rape suggests all of the following attitudes EXCEPT
women are treated as equals to men in all aspects of society
if you live in a high crime area, many of teh people you will befriend will be involved in criminal ativites, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. the conceptual context for the phenomenon is known as
differential association
according to edwin sutherland, how do criminals adopt behavior?
they learn criminal behavior from peers
with which of the following statements might a conflict theorist most closely agree?
deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control less powerful
the first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as
anomic
many characteristics of organizations appear orthodox but activities are all illegal, easy to evade law enforcements, they are called
organized crime
sociological research and theory suggest that
crime and deviance are rooted in the structure of society, including poverty, urban conditions, and generally, the crises faced by many young men
nowadays, corporate crime, or white collar crime, occurs at a higher rate than individual criminal acts. which of the following is an example of corporate crime?
all of the above
which two theories explaining deviance are classified as symbolic interactionist?
differential association and labeling theory
most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment
is not effective deterrent to murder
a global analysis of deviance reveals social differences in a number of deviant activities. which of the following is NOT one of those differences?
prostitution is more of a problem i the united states than in other countries
which of the following is NOT a reason why college students become binge drinkers?
prior involvement in drug use
according to some experts, the current drug laws do more harm than good becasue they
lead to many crimes, including murder
the influence of organizations over our lives is entirely beneficial
false
government agencies have goals and rules that are stated explicity so that the work of their many members can be coordinated
true
according to amitai etzioni, in an organization, the function of the higher participants is to exercise power over the lower participants so that the latter will help the organization achieve its goals
true
studies show that western companies cannot successfully operate with the kind of bottom up decision making used in japan
false
human resource theory is a style that seems human resources issues as the responsibility of the whole organization, not just the human resources department
true
the pentagon is an example of a secondary group
true
having a network of friends and relatives can only bring joy and chase away lonliness, worries, and trouble, especially for widows
false
the peter principle is the observation that “in every hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence”
true
the addition of only one person to a group greatly increases the number of relationships
true
most homicides and rapes involve killing and raping acquaintances, friends, and family members, and only a few involve strangers
true
according to ____is the observation that “work expands to fill the time available for its completion”
parkin’s law
______ is a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another
social aggregate
herb, joe, and judy routinely meet for breakfast to discuss how to solve problems and promote work in the office. their meetings are part of their company’s
informal organization
individuals who commit _____ suicide are so strongly tied to their group that they effectively lose their selves and stand ready to do their group’s bidding
alturistic
in ___ the wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized in effect, banished from conventional society
disintegrative shaming
according to research, many of the sexual differences found in early childhood, such as boys’ superiority in math, are due to:
socialization and culture
According to Naomi Wolf, the reason why women have not recognized their power as a majority of the voting population is:
a lack of unity regarding the role of women.
Which of the following represents the third wave of feminism?
Welcoming men to join women in addressing problems that affect both sexes.
It can be safely said that
nature accounts only for physical differences between men and women.
Cross-cultural studies concerning gender roles suggest that in other societies:
a division of labor between the sexes is found only in the U.S.
Which statement is TRUE about the role of women in politics today?
Women play an important role but they are far from achieving equality.
Anna wanted to enter a political race against a man. Which of the following statements by her opponent is most likely based on sexism?
Her emphasis on day care programs shows that she is a one-issue candidate.
The basic division of labor underlying traditional gender roles in the United States has been accompanied by many popular:
stereotypes of what women and men are supposed to be.
Which statement is TRUE about the role of women today in the work force?
Women are still far from economically equal to men.
Which of the following definitions of sexual harassment was accepted by the Supreme court in 1993?
Any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive.
The physical process of aging is called:
senescence
Social factors that may contribute to the aging process include all of the following EXCEPT:
hereditary genes.
Some sociologists believe that the elderly should be considered a minority group because
like many other minority groups, they face prejudice and discrimination.
Which of the following kinds of intelligence continues to grow with age?
Crystalline intelligence.
Prejudice against older people is expressed in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
exclusion from politics
The elderly can be divided into three age groups. Aside from their younger age, what advantages do the “young old” have over the “oldest old”?
all of the above
The basic division of labor in society has been influenced by gender stereotypes about how men and women should behave and therefore what work they are best suited to do.
true
As a highly democratic society, the United States has proportionately more female political leaders than other nations.
false
According to the conflict perspective, interaction between the sexes often sustains or reinforces gender inequality.
The normal process of aging cannot be avoided but good health, proper diet, nutrition and exercise can make a significant difference in health for people of all ages.
true
_____ is the belief that women and men should be equal in various aspecs of their lives.
feminism
According to _____ perspective, it is functional for society to assign different tasks to men and women.
functionalist
_____ refers to the physical process of aging.
senescence
_____ is an abnormal condition characterized by serious memory loss, confusion, and loss of the ability to reason
senility
_____ also involves sexual abuses against women, of which the most common is sexual harassment.
sexism
According to Sigmund Freud, the ____ is the part of the personality that is rational.
ego
_______ referred to supportive interactions as ‘supportive interchanges’ ‘mutual dealings’ or ‘acts of identificatory sympathy.
erving Goffman
Hank tends to treat others as enemies. This type of interaction with others is called _____ interaction.
Oppositional
According to economist ____ 1.1 billion or nearly one-fifth of the people in the world is extremely poor, struggling to survive with an income of less than $1 a day
Jeffrey Sachs
The changing relationship between development and inequality is known as the work developed by economist:
Simon Kuznets
______is an unfavorable action against individuals that is taken because they are members of a certain category.
discrimination
For African Americans, progress has not been significant in housing and economic conditions because of tradition and customs. We called it:
de facto segregation
In some of our social institutions, there is still the persistence of _____. The problem is that it is not recognized by everybody because of the long history that we have practiced it.
institutionalized discrimination
A manager who becomes the vice president of a company illustrates:
intragenerational mobility
_____ is a negative attitude toward members of a minority that is often based on negative stereotypes.
prejudice
At the end of the nineteenth century, there was mob violence in the North against African Americans of the Deep South blaming them for their failures and lack of money. This is call:
scapegoating
jane is a nursing student who reads books about the life of nurses, and uses nursing expressions when talking to her friends. for her nurses are her:
reference group
according to ______ capitalist organizations are the capitalist’ tool for exploiting the working class
Karl Marx
american sociologist in the 1930’s, ______ agreed with Emile Durkheim theory concerning that deviance is an integral part of all healthy societies
Robert Merton
accordin to _______ deviance is learned through interactions with other people like friends
Edwin Sutherland
race, class and ______ play a significant role in deviance, particularly crime and delinquency
gender
_____ ______ is the condition in which the same individual is given two conflicting status rankings
status inconsistency
judy begins a new job as a nurse. her supervisor expects her to be on time and take good care of her patients. these expectations make up her:
prescribed role
we will experience ____ ______ if we simultaneously play two conflicting roles from two different statuses
role conflict
______ are strong norms that specify normal behavior of people and constitute demands on our behavior, not just expectations
mores
functionalist perspective emphasizes society’s stability while the _____ ______ portrays society as always changing and always marked by conflict
conflict perspective
charles wright mills called the ability to see the impact of social forces on individuals the ____ _____
sociological imagination
in ____ _____ sociologists search for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher
secondary analysis
the perspective that views society as a set of interdependent parts working together to provide social order is known as the ______ perspective
functionalist
Roles
the behaviors, obligations, & privileges attached to a status. (What is expected of you)
Group
People who regularly interact with one another. Members share similar values, norms, & expectations. Belonging allows others to decide our behavior.
Social Institutions
The ways that each society develops to meet its basic needs. Shape behavior. (Family, Religion, Education, Economy, Medicine, Politics, Law, Science, Military, Mass Media)
Society
People who share a culture and a territory.
Social Transformations of Society
Hunting & Gathering->Horticultural/Pastoral(dmestication of animals)->Agricultural(Invention of plow)->Industrial(invention of steam engine)->Postindustrial(microchip)->Biotech?(decoding human genome)
Hunting & gathering Society
This first society depended on men hunting & women gathering plants. Small groups. No rulers, accumulate few personal items, decisions through discussion.
Pastoral Society
2nd society (herding). Based on pasturing of animals. Developed in regions with low rainfall. Nomadic.
Horticultural Society
2nd society. (gardening) Based on cultivation of plants by use of hand tools. Developed permanent settlements. Started division of labor and with surplus started trade. This started social inequality. (war-slavery)
Consequences of animal domestication & plant cultivation
More dependable food supply->food surplus->larger human groups->division of labor->trade->accumulation of objects->war->slavery->social inequality->inherited wealth->concentration of wealth & power->Change in leadership.
Agricultural Society
3rd society. When plow was invented it created a food surplus. People developed cities & “culture”. The dawn of civilization. Inequality became fundamental of life. Elite protected status with armies & taxes.
Industrial Society
4th society. The industrial revolution with the steam engine. Even more surplus & inequality. Shift from slavery to wages. Shift from monarchies to political systems.
Postindustrial Society
5th society. Technology & information. Selling expertise rather than raw materials. Not producing- transmitting. Service industries.
Biotech Society
Emerging society. Economy centered on applying & altering genetic structures to produce food, medicine, & materials.
Social integration
(Durkheim) the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values & other social bonds (mechanical solidarity)
Mechanical Solidarity
People who perform similar tasks develop a shared consciousness.
Organic Solidarity
(Durkheims social integration)When the division of labor makes people depend on one another- the work of each person contributes to the whole group.
Gemeinschaft to Gesellshaft
Moving from small villages with intimate bonds and reliance to reliance on paid work outside of the family and self interests.
Modernization
The sweeping changes brought by the industrial revolution.
G7 plus
(Geopolitics) The division of world power btwn- Japan, Germany, US, Canada, France, Great Britain, Italy
Unilinear theories
A theory on cultural evolution that assume that all societies follow the same path- savagery, barbarism, civilization.
Multilinear theories
A theory on cultural evolution assumes that there are different routs that lead to the same stage of development-industrialization.
Ogburn’s Processes of Social Change
Invention, Discovery, & Diffusion (technology drives changes)
Cyclical theories
Assume that civilizations are born, youth, maturity, then decline & die like an organism (egypt, greece, & rome)
Thesis
(Marx) An arrangement of power, containing its own antithesis. A struggle creates a new arrangement known as a Synthesis. This Synthesis becomes the new thesis and so on.
Dialectical Process
Marx- view that each ruling group sow the seeds of its own destruction. Thesis->Antithesis->Synthesis->Classless state.
Invention
Ogburn’s process- Combination of existing elements to form new ones ie. cars, computers, plastics. Urban sprawl, Telework, New construction.
Discovery
Ogburn’s process- New way of seeing some aspect of the world. ie. Columbus discovering N.America, DNA
Diffusion
Ogburn’s process- Spread of an invention or discovery from one area to another. ie. airplanes, money, condoms.
Cultural Lag
Ogburn- How some elements of a culture lags behind the changes that come from invention, discovery, & diffusion. Technology is usually first to change & culture lags behind.
Demography
the study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations. Can the world support all of this growth?
Malthus Theorem
Argument that although population grows geometrically, the food supply increases only arithmetically. This means that if births go unchecked, population will outstrip its food supply.
New Malthusians
Believe that the population issue is really & even worse than the Malthus theorem. That it follows the exponential growth curve.
Exponential Growth Curve
new malthusians believe that if growth doubles during approximately equal intervals of time, it suddenly accelerates. Currently @ 7 billion.
The Demographic Transition
(Anti-malthusions) Stable Population->Rapidly growing Population->Stable Population->Shrinking Population (population free fall?)
Population Pyramids
Depict a countries population by age & sex.
Fertility Rate
A demographic variable. The number of children that the average woman bears.
Fecundity
The number of children that women are CAPABLE of bearing. Not Fertility rate.
Crude Birth Rate
The annual number of live births per 1,000 population. Can be inaccurate.
Mortality
measured by the crude death rate.
Migration (net migration rate)
The difference btwn the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000. (push & pull factors)
Push Factor
What people want to escape- poverty, persecution of religion, political ideas.
Pull Factors
What draws people to a new land- opportunity of education, higher wages, better jobs, freedom to worship, future for children.
Growth Rate
The net change after people are born, die, & migrate. Calculated by the basic demographic equation-> growth rate=births-deaths+net migration
City
a place in which a large number of people are permanently based and don’t produce their own food. (started w/the plow)
Urbanization
the movement of the majority of the population to cities and the influence it is having on society.
Metropolis
a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs. They are linked by transportation and communication.
Megalopolis
When a metropolis is so big and influential. It is an overlapping area of at least 2 metropolises & suburbs.
Megacity
When a cities pop hits 10 million. New york & 19 others.
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA’s)
The US census bureau divides the country. Each area has a central city of at least 50,000.
Edge Cities
Clusters of buildings and services near the intersection of major highways. Not traditional cities.
Gentrification
The movement of middle class people into rundown areas of a city for cheaper prices. Results in renovation but displaces original, low-income residents.
Suburbanization
People moving from cities to suburbs. Automobile major drive to this.
Human Ecology
(Park) describes how people adapt to their environment. (urban ecology)
Concentric Zone Model
(Burgess) That a city expands outward from its business district center. (bullseye)
Sector Model
(Hoyt) Reformed from concentric zones- That a city has many sectors i.e. working class housing & expensive homes. (invasion-succession cycle)
Multiple-Nuclei Model
Cities have several centers, each having a specialized activity.
Peripheral Model
Portrays the impact of radial highways on the movement of people and services away from the central city.
Gans Research
Research in Boston showing that community does exist in the city. The residents liked living there because of the low rent.
Who lives in the cities
(Gans) Cosmopolites, Singles, Ethinic Villagers, Deprived, & Trapped.
Diffusion of Responsibility
The more bystanders there are, the less likely people are to help.
Norm of Noninvolvement
Urban dwellers avoid intrusion from strangers. (newspaper, ipod, personal space)
Disinvestment
a result of bank redlining. pushes areas further into decline and raises crime.
Deindustrialization
Companies moving factories to countries where labor costs are lower. Leaving people without manufacturing jobs and no other experience.
Urban Renewal
A social policy to tear down and rebuild- displaces residents of low-income.
Enterprise zone
A designated area of a city offering economic incentives (tax breaks) for businesses to move there. Usually fail due to crime.
Federal Empowerment Zone
a form of enterprise zone that also offers low interest loans to sustain businesses during transition. More successful.
Social Movements
Large numbers of people who organize either to promote or resist social change. A result of social inequality. (cultural crisis)
Proactive social movements
When a social movement finds a particular condition intolerable and have a goal to promote social change.
Reactive Social Movement
When a social movement feels threatened because of a condition of society changing. They react to resist that change.
Social Movement Organizations
When a social movement want to further their goals they develop this. They can then effectively recruit members and publicize their message.
Alterative Social Movement
seeks only to alter a specific behavior in individuals. (woman’s christian temperance union)
Redemptive Social Movement
Targets individuals for a total change. (Christianity)
Reformative Social Movement
Seek to reform some specific aspect of society. (animal rights movement)
Transformative Social Movement
Seeks to transform the social order itself. (revolutions)
Transnational Social Movement
Wants to change some specific condition that cuts across society. Improving quality of life. (Womans movement)
Public opinion
How people think about some issues.
Propaganda
The presentation of info in an attempt to influence people.
Stages of social movements
Initial unrest->Resource mobilization->Organization->Institutionalization->Organizational decline and possible resurgence.
Post modern society
The use of technology to extend out ability to communicate, travel, & analyze info.
social stratification
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
social mobility
a change in position within the social hierarchy
caste system
social stratification based on ascription, or birth
class system
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
meritocracy
social stratification based on personal merit
status consistency
the degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
structural social mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
ideology
cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
Davis-Moore Thesis
the assertion that social stratification exists in every society because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
capitalists
people who won and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
proletarians
people who sell their labor for wages
alienation
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
blue-collar occupations
lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
white-collar occupations
higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
conspicuous consumption
buying and using products because of the “statement” they make about social position
income
earnings from work or investments
wealth
the total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts
intragenerational social mobility
a change in social position occurring during a person’s lifetime
intergenerational social mobility
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
relative poverty
lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
absolute poverty
a lack of resources that is life-threatening
feminzation of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
global stratification
patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole
high-income countries
the nations with the highest overall standards of living
middle-income countries
nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
low-income countries
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
colonialism
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations
neocolonialism
a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
multinational corporation
a large business that operates in many countries
modernization theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
dependency theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
gender
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
gender stratification
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
matriarchy
a form of social organization in which females dominate males
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which males dominate females
sexism
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
gender roles
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
minority
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
intersection theory
analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, which often results in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
sexual harassment
comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
feminism
support of social equality for women and men, opposition to patriarchy and sexism
race
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
ethnicity
a shared cultural heritage
minority
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
stereotype
a simplified description applied to every person in some category
social distance
how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category
prejudice
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
racism
the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
scapegoat
a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles
discrimination
unequal treatment of various categories of people
institutional prejudice and discrimination
bias build into the operation of society’s institutions
pluralism
a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
assimilation
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
segregation
the physical and social separation of categories of people
genocide
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
miscegenation
biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
kinship
a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
family
a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children
extended family
a family composed of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family
nuclear family
a family composed of one or two parents and their children also known as a conjugal family
marriage
a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing
endogamy
marriage between people of the same social category
exogamy
marriage between people of different social categories
monogamy
marriage that unites two partners
polygamy
marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
descent
the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations
incest taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
homogamy
marriage between people with the same social characteristics
family violence
emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another
cohabitation
the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple
profane
included as an ordinary part of everyday life
sacred
set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
religion
a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred
totem
an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred
liberation theology
the combining of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character
church
a religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
state church
a church formally linked to the state
denomination
a church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism
sect
a religious organization that stands apart from the larger society
charisma
extraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followers
cult
a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions
animism
the belief that elements of the natural world are conscious life forms that affect humanity
religiosity
the importance of religion in a person’s life
secularization
the historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred
civil religion
a quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular society
fundamentalism
a conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion
social change
the transformation of culture and social institutions over time
social movement
an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
claims making
the process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue
relative deprivation
a perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison
disaster
an event, generally unexpected, that causes extensive harm to people and damage to property
modernity
social patterns resulting from industrialization
modernization
the process of social change begun by industrialization
division of labor
specialized economic activity
anomie
Durkeim’s term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
mass society
a society in which prosperity and bureaucracy have weakened traditional social ties
class society
a capitalist society with pronounced social stratification
social character
personality patterns common to members of a particular society
tradition-directness
rigid conformity to time-honored ways of living
other-directedness
openness to the latest trends and fashions, often expressed by imitating others
postmodernity
social patterns characteristic of postindustrial societies
affirmative action
a policy made by the Kennedy administration to provide broader opportunities to qualified minorities
authoritarian personality
individuals that rigidly conform to conventional cultural values and see moral issues as clear-cut matters of right and wrong
block busting
The illegal and discriminatory practice of helping ethnic or minority individuals into predominantly non-ethnic or minority-dominated areas, and then using scare tactics to force current neighborhood residents to sell their homes at depressed prices.
National Housing Act 1934
passed to make housing and mortgages more affordable, created the Federal Housing Administration, white flight, block busting
red-lining
neighborhoods that were outlined in red because they were risky investments because of the habitation of minorities
Thomas Theorem
If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
teacher expectancy effect
if a teacher expects something out of his/her students then the students feel obligated to meet these expectations, but if these expectations are low then the students have a limited potential
zakah
zakah is a fixed proportion collected from the surplus wealth and earnings of a Muslim. It is then distributed to prescribed beneficiaries and for the welfare as well as the infrastructure of a Muslim society in general.
residential security map
maps used by the FHA to ensure maximal value for richer communities by getting rid of minorities
income
earnings from work or investments
wealth
the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
tracking
assigning students to different types of educational programs
domestic violence
violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women
Rostow’s Stages of Development
1. traditional stage: cannot imagine life can or should be any different
2. take-off stage: people start to use their talent and imagination sparking economic growth
3. drive to technological maturity: “growth” is widely accepted idea that fuels a society’s pursuit of higher living standards
4. high mass consumption: economic development driven by industrial technology raises living standards as mass production stimulates mass consumption
urban renewal
following World War II, and continuing into the early 1970s, “urban renewal” referred primarily to public efforts to revitalize aging and decaying inner cities, although some suburban communities undertook such projects as well.
just-world hypothesis
people’s tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve
horizontal mobility
changing jobs at the same class level
false consciousness
is the Marxist thesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society are misleading to the proletariat, and to other classes
vertical mobility
changing jobs at a higher class level
divorce causes
individualism, romantic love fades, women are less dependent on men, marriage is stressful, divorce is socially acceptable, divorce is easy to get
family forms
one parent families, cohabitation, gay and lesbian couples, singlehood, two parents
functionalist view of religion
Durkheim defines three major functions of religion:
1. social cohesion: unites people through shared symbolism, values, and norms, establishes rules of fair play
2. social control: “divine right”, encourages people to obey cultural norms
3. providing meaning and purpose: our lives serve some greater purpose
hidden curriculum
we teach different to students of different social statuses, richer students are encouraged more, and poorer students are encouraged less
Pierre Bourdieu
education serves as a means of social reproduction, inequality is spread from one generation to the next, did studies in France to show greater class division because of social capital
confessions of an economic hitman
Perkins takes the reader through his career and explains how he created economic projections for countries to accept billions of dollars in loans they surely couldn’t afford. He shares his battle with his conscience over these actions and offers advice for how Americans can work to end these practices which have directly resulted in terrorist attacks and animosity towards the United States.
conflict view on religion
divides people rather than uniting them
cost of sexism
men have higher suicide rates, limits talents and ambitions of women
cycle of violence
is Bachman and Saltzmans theory that domestic violence occurs in four stages: happiness, glossed-over disagreements, acute battering and violence, finally a honeymoon period
David Jacobs
institutional racism criminologist at OSU, does research on prison admissions
wage trends
minimum wage continues to increase, but so do the price of goods canceling out the effect, the increased wages keeping the poor, poor
Milkhemet Mitzvah
Jewish term similar to the meaning of Jihad or “Just War,” meaning to go out and seek territory or wealth
political economy theory
analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society’s economic system.
Protestant work ethic
capitalism grew in protestant areas. Their work ethic went up
Rerun Novarum/Laborem Exercens
Memo passed out by Pope Leo to Bishops on social issues; workers deserved wages that would support their families. Pope John Paul then later reiterates what Pope Leo says in 1981.
Van Ausdale and Feagan
class position, race and ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation form a multilayered system that provides disadvantages for some and privileges for others, adults see children as not being racist but they really are
Joe Feagin
Talks about the glass ceiling. Point at which women can see the next level in work, but are unable to reach that level. Says that class position, race and ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation form multi-layered system that provides disadvantages for some and privileges for others.
Kinsey
Study in 1940. Found 37% men had at least 1 sexual experience with another man.
Lauman
Study in 2000’s. Says that 1.4% of women and 2.8% or men identify as homosexual.
Mead
If gender is natural, it wouldn’t vary, but this isn’t always true. Also did societies in New Guinea
international monetary fund
international organization that oversees monetary issues among countries
Culture
the entire way of life a group of people that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next (material and symbolic) ex: language, gestures, style, beauty, custmos/rituals, tools/artifacts, music, family practices, the way we do things/think. all societies have it. it is not innnate. everything we do has to do with it.
Ethnocentrism
the principle of using one’s own culture as a means of standard by which to evaluate another group of individuals ~ leading to the view that other cultures are abnormal ~ suspend it through sociological imagination, culture shock, and beginners mind
Cultural Relativism
the principle of understand other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging them by ones own culture
Material Culture
objects associated with culture
Symbolic Culture
ideas associated with culture (beliefs, values, assumptions, ways of behavior, norms, interactions, communication)
Values
ideas about what is desirable or contemptible and right an wrong in a particular group ~ articulates the essence of everything a group cherishes and honors
Norm
Rule/guideline regarding what kinds of behaviors are acceptable and appropriate within a culture
Law
formally defined norm ~ what is legal/illegal in a society
Folkway
loosely enforced norm that ensures smooth social interaction
More
norm that carries a greater moral significance ~ severe reprecussions for violations
Taboo
norm engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust and horror
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
the idea that language structures thoughts and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language
Sanction
positive or negative reactions to the way that people follow or disobey norms ~ rewards for conformity and punishments for violations
Social Control
the formal and informal mechanism used to increase conformity to values and norms and they increase social cohesion
Multiculturalism
policy that values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and encourages the retention of cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation
Hogemony
Antonio Gramsii ~ describes the cultural aspects of social control, whereby the ideas of the dominant social group are accepted by all of society
Counter Culture
group within society that openly rejects and opposes society’s values and norms
Prescriptions
behaviors approved by group
Proscription
behaviors to avoid
Subculture
group within a society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms and lifestyles
Culture Wars
clashes within the society as to what the norms should be
Ideal Culture
what members believe it should be
Real Culture
what actually exists
Compliance Conformity
mildest type of conformity
Identification Conformity
inbetween ~ desire to maintain a relationship
Internalization Conformity
strongest type of conformity, makes a groups beliefs their own
Popular Culture
high culture of elite groups ~ usually associated with the masses, consumer goods and commercial products
Reference Group
group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves
Group Cohesion
sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong
Group Think
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members ~ creating a demand for unanimous agreement
Social Loafing
as more individuals are added to a task each individual contributes a little less
Social Identity Theory
group formation that stress the need of the individual members to feel a sense of belonging
Coercive Power
force
Influential Power
persuasion
McDonaldization
the spread of rationalization and the accompany increases in efficiency and dehumanization
Deviance
behavior, trait, belief that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction (social – not moral – judgement)
Functionalist Theory on Deviance
argue that deviance serves as a positive social function by clarifying moral boundaries and promoting social cohesion
Conflict Theory on Deviance
believe that a society’s inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so the less powerful are more likely to be criminalized
Dominant Culture
group within society that is most powerful
High Culture
associated with the elite
Polysemy
having many interpretations/meanings
Cultural Diffusion
the dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group to another
Cultural Leveling
the process by which cultures that were once distinct became increasingly similar
Cultural Imperialism
the imposition of one’s culture on another through mass media and consumer products
Informal Norms
(what sociologist are more interested in) lines, personal space, no eye contact in elevators
Nature vs. Nurture
refers to an ongoing discussion of the respective roles of genetics and socialization in determining individual behaviors and traits *both sides play a role, hereditary provides the potential, social environment determines which potential we realize
Socialization
2 fold process: 1) process by which individuals are taught to become functioning members of society 2) process by which individuals learn and internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of our own social group (begins in infancy)
Self
experiences of a distinct, real, personal identity that is seperate and different from all other people
Sociologists and the Self
they look at both the individual and society to gain a sense of where the self comes from – the self is created and modified over the course of a lifetime
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalytic approach divides the mind into 3 interrelated systems: id, ego, superego
Id
consists of basic inborn drives that are the source of instinctive energy
Dramaturgy
Goffman; compares the social interaction to the theatre, where individuals take on roles and act them out to present a favorable impression to the “audience”
Thomas Theorem
Goffman; “if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”
Erving Goffman
believed that the meaning was constructed through interaction (dramatology and impression management)
Generalized Other
the perspectives and expectations of a network of others (or society in general) that a child learns and takes into account when shaping their behavior
3 Stages of creating self through social interactions
Meade; 1) preporatory stage: under 3, no sense of self, imitating others 2) play stage: pretend to be someone else 3) game stage: generalized others (children see themselves as objects)
George Herbert Meade
expanded Cooley’s ideas abou the developmental self, he also believed that the self was created through social interaction and that his process started in childhood (children learn language and develop self at the same time) – the acquisition of language skills coincide with the growth of mental capacities (think of selves as seperate, see us in relationships with others)
Looking Glass Self
Charles Cooley; notion that the self develops through our perception of others evaluations and appraisals of us ** other people are like a mirror that show us who we are, they give us a response and we interpret it
Charles Cooley
believed that one’s sense of self depends seeing our self reflected in interactions with others (LGS)
Unconscious Mind
source of our conscious thoughts and behaviors
Ego
deals with the real world, operates on reason, mediates with the id and super ego
Super Ego
conscience- keeps us from engaging in socially undesirable behaviors; ego ideal: upholds our vision of who we believe we should be
Psychosexual Stages of Development
4 distinct stages of development of the self between birth and adulthood; ages 1 through 5 set stage for the rest of life
Agents of Socialization
social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations in which social situations take place (family, schools, peers, and mass media)
Socially Constructed
changes over time by society
Impression Management
Goffman; social life is sort of a game, where we work to control the impressions others have of us– effort to control the impressions we make on others to create desired views
Group
collection of people who share the same attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other
Innovators
individuals who accept society’s approved goals, but not society’s approved means to achieve them
Ritualists
individuals who have given up hope of achieving society’s approved goals, but still operate to approved means
Retreatists
reject society’s goals and the means to achieve them
Rebels
reject both society’s goals and means to achieve them and instead create their own goals by own means
Labled Theory
deviance is a consequence of external judgements or labels which both modify the individuals self concept and change the way others respond to the labled person (self fulfilling prophecy- prediction causes itself to come true)
Crowd
temporary gathering of people in a public area, members might interact but they do not identify with each other and won’t remain in contact
Aggregate
collection of people who share a physical location but do not have listing social relations
Primary Groups
people who are most important to our sense of self ~ face to face interactions, intense feelings of belonging
Secondary Groups
large, less intimate, temporary
Social Network
web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to others who may also affect them
Anomie
alienation and loss of purpose that results from weaker social bonds
In Group
group one identifies with
Out Group
group one feels opposition/rivalry towards
Merton’s Structural Strain Theory
argues that the tension/strain between socially approved goals and an individuals inability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject the goals, the means, or both
Differential Association Theory
we learn to be deviant through out associations with deviant peers
Studying Culture
scientists usually focus on thier culture, we need to study the mundane as well as exceptional and look at everyday life
Conflict Theory
sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change, emphasizes a materialistic view of society, an economic structure is a crucial factor in shaping society
Manifest Functions
the obvious intended functions of a social structure for the social system (education=to learn/get degree)
Latent Functions
the less obvious/unintended functions of a social structure (education=experience school problems and opportunities, provides jobs for the community)
Microsociology
interactions between individuals and the ways in which those interactions construct the larger society
Paradigm
broad theoretical model about how things work in the social natural world
Sociological Imagination
a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level
Socologists study…
how society affects the individual and how the individual affects society
Sociology
the systematic or scientific study of human society and social behavior, from large scale instituions and mass culture to small groups and individual interactions
Society
group of people who shape their lives in aggregated and patterned ways that distinguish their group from others
Martineau
translated Comte’s Philosophy into English
Macrosociology
looks at the large scale social structure to see how it effects the individual
Mechanical Solidarity
social bond where shared traditions and beliefs create a sense of social cohesion (sameness, don’t like outsiders, agrarian societies) ld?
Social Theory
guiding principle that attempt to explain and predict the social world
Paradigm Shift
major break from the assumptions made by the previous model
Troubles and Issues
ex. marriage: experience personal troubles, 250/1000 result in divorce=issues
Culture Shock
the experience of visiting an exotic foreign country
Symbolic Interactionism
sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that behaviors are not inherent but are created through interaction (American Thought)
The Classical Period
1800’s; work from this period forms the theoretical foundations for all sociological work; wanted to make sense of the changing worlk by the french and industrial revolution
Scientific Method
procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasized collecting concrete data through observation and experiment
Theory
abstract proposition that both explains the social world and makes predictions about future events (change over time, like a pair of eye glasses)
Research Ethics
confidentiality, informed consent, honesty
Existing Sources
access to distant times and places
Experiments
control over every aspect
Surveys
quantitative, representative/random sample
Hypothesis
relationship between the dependent and independent variable
Interviews
direct contact with respondents, qualitative data, carful contructing questions, must avoid leading questions and double barreled questions
Dependent Variable
factor changed by the independent variable
Independent Variable
factor that is predicted to change
Variable
what you try to explain
Ethnography
active participation in and observation of a naturally occurring setting AND written account (field notes) of what goes on, can’t be replicated, not representative of population, researcher bias
Quantitative Data
numerical
Qualitative Date
non numerical
Organic Solidarity
social bond based on a division of labor that created interdependence and individual rihts (industrial societies)
Beginner’s Mind
Bernard McGrane; people wanting to use a sociological perspective should use this, approaching the world without preconceptions in order to see things in a new way, does not deny individual responsibility
Disenchantment
the inevitable result of the dehumanizing features of bureaucracies that dominated the moderned societies, bureaucratic goals had become more important than traditions and values
Rationalization
the application of economic logic to all human activity
Structural Functionalism
Talcott Parsons; society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its seperate structures
Social Cohesion
shared values provided by religion helping to bring people together
Suicide
the more firmly connected people are to other, the less likely they are to commit suicide
Emile Durkheim
tried to establish sociology as an important academic discipline, social bonds exist in all societies, had theories about mechanical and organic solidarty, suicide, and anomie
Talcott Parsons
structural functionalism, addressed the types of functions that social structure might fulfill (adaptation to the environment, socialization of children, realization of goals, social cohesion, maintenence of cultural patterns)
Robert Merton
clarified the difference between manifest functions and latent functions
Max Weber
interested in the shift to industrial society, interested in rationalization, believed society was governed by bureaucracies (large military operations), believed life was filled with disenchantment
Karl Marx
lived during the industrial revolution, capitalism was emerging, believed capitalism was creating class conflict and social inequality between the rich and the poor
Auguste Comte
early classical, coined the term sociology, began thinking about how the scientific method can be applied to social affairs
Positivism
Comte; seeks to identify laws that describe the behavior of a particular reality (math, physics, not religion)
Herbert Spencer
early classical, for the idea of evolution and coined the term “survival of the fittest”, believed SOCITIES over time adapt to their environment as well (social darwinism)
Middletown Clip
a lot changed once the town wasn’t industrial based, policy actions: shorten the work week – more time with children, sociological: why is this happening-what’s next?
Peter Burger’s Invitation to Sociology
sociology is not just about collecting statistical data, it is about understanding, has to be tested again and again, question is what is going on, why, how, not what is right or wrong.
Social Stratification
the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy – every society has it, passed from parents to children, creates beliefs about groups in society, (slavery, caste system, social class)
Social Inequality
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of society
Apartheid
the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups, used to be legal in South Africa
Upper Class
largely self sustaining group of the wealthiest people in a class system (in US = 1% of the population)
Upper Middle Class
mostly professionals and managers, considerable financial stability (14% US)
Middle Class
white collar workers, broad range of incomes, (30% US)
White Collar
workers and skilled laborers in technical and lower management jobs
Working/Lower Middle Class
blue collar, less likely to have a college degree (30% US)
Blue Collar
manual labor
Working Poor
poorly educated workers who work full time but remain below poverty line (20%)
Underclass
poorest Americans who are chronically unemployed and may depend on public or private assistance (5%)
Status Inconsistency
situation in which there are serious differences between the different elements of an individuals socioeconomic status
Marx and Social Stratification
saw capitalism arising, the rich owned the means of production and the poor owned only their labor
Feudal System
system of social stratification based on hereditary nobility who were responsible for and served by a lower stratum of forced laborers- serfs (breaking down as capitalism formed)
Prestige
Weber; social honor people are given because of their membership in well regarded social groups
Social Reproduction
Pierre Bourdieu; the tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class is passed down from one generation to the next
Cultural Capital
the tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge, and other cultural dispositions that help us gain advantages in society
Class Consciousness
awareness of one’s own social status and that of others
Education and SES
how children perform in school usually determines whether they go to college, more education=more money, the higher the family’s SES, the higher the expectations
Criminal Justice and SES
people of lower SES are more likely to encounter the CJS, white collar criminals can hire the best legal representation
Family and SES
people are likely to marry people with similar social and cultural backgrounds
Health and SES
bottom of the social class ladder are least likely to obtain adequate nutrition, shelter, clothing, health care, >> more prone to illness
Social Mobility
the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes
Closed System
social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
Open System
social system with little opportunity to more from one class to another
Intergenerational Mobility
movement between social class from one generation to next
Intragenerational Mobility
occurs over one’s lifetime
Horizontal Social Mobility
the occupational movement of individuals/groups within a social class
Vertical Social Mobility
movement between different class statuses
Structural Mobility
changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
Relative Deprivation
a relative measure of poverty based on the standard of living in a particular society
Absolute Deprivation
an objective measure of poverty, defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care
Culture of Poverty
entrenched attitudes that can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate rather than attempt to improve it
Just World Hypothesis
argues that people have a deep need to see the world as orderly and predictable and far which creates a tendency to view victims of social injustice as deserving of their fates
Residential Segregation
the geographical segregation of the poor from the rest of the population
Disenfranchisement
the removal of the rights of citizenship through economic political means
Meritocracy
a system based in which rewards are distributed based on merit
Simplicity Movement
a loosely knit movement that opposes circumcision and encourages people to work less, earn less, and spend less in accordance with nonmaterialistic views
Slavery
the most extreme system of social stratification and is based on legal ownership of people
Caste System
form of social stratification in which status is determined by one’s family history and background and cannot be changed
Karl Marx and Stratification
bourgeosie=capitalists and proletariat=larborers, inequality would grow as workers continued to be exploited, class status results from wealth, power, and prestige
Goffman and Stratification
according to our clothing, speech, gestures, possessions, friends and activities people know our SES (cars, word choice)
American Dream
justifies the class hierarchy by reinforcing the idea that success depends only on effort, suggesting the poor are lazy (criticized)
Race
a socially defined category, based on real or percieved biological differences between groups of people
Ethnicity
a socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or other cultural factors
Symbolic Ethnicity
an ethnic identity that is only relevant on specific occasions and does not impact everyday life
Situational Ethnicity
ethnic identity that can be either displayed or concealed depending on its usefulness in a given situation
Minority Group
group that is denied the same access to power as the dominant group, not necessarily fewer in number
Racism
set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group, used to justify inequality (assumption that the differences between groups are genetic)
Prejudice
an idea about the characteristics of a group that is applied to all members of that group and is unlikely to change despite evidence against it
Discrimination
unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in a social group (motivated by prejudice)
Individual Discrimination
one person against another
Institutional Discrimination
carried out by an institution
Passing
presenting yourself as a member of a different racial or ethnic group than the one you were born into
Embodied Identity
those elements of identity that are generated through others perception of our physical traits
Genocide
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial and ethnic, national, or cultural group
Population Transfer
the forcible removal of a group of people from the territory they have occupied
Internal colonialism
the economical and political domination and subjugation of the minority group by the controlling group within a nation
Segregation
the formal and legal seperation of groups by race and ethnicity
Assimilation
a pattern of relations between ethnic or racial groups in which the minority group is absorbed into the mainstream or dominant group, making society more homogeneous
Racial Assimilation
racial minority groups are absorbed through intermarriage
Cultural Assimilation
racial groups are absorbed by adopting the dominant group’s cultre
Pulralism/Multiculturalism
pattern of intergroup relations that encourage racial and ethnic variation within a society
Functionalists and Race
focus on how race creates social ties and strengthens group bongs (could also lead to conflict)
Symbolic Interactionist and Race
focus on the ways race, class and gender intersect each other to produce an individual’s identity
Weber and Stratification
class status was the product of 3 components (wealth, power and prestige
Sex
individual’s membership in one of two biologically distinct categories (male/female)
Gender
the physical, behavioral, and personality traits that a group considers normal for its male and female members
Intersexed/Hermaphroditic
person whose chromosomes are neither male/female
Human Sexual Dimorphism
the extent to which physical differences define the distinctions between two sexes
Essentialists
those who believe gender roles have a genetic or biological origin, and cannot be changed
Gender Identity
the roles and traits that a social group assigns to a particular gender
Constructionists
those who believe that notions of gender are socially determined
Patriarchy
“rule of the father”, male dominated society
Instrumental Role
the position of the family member who provides the family’s material support and is often an authority figure
Expressive Role
position of the family member who provides emotional support
Transgendered
one whose sense of gender identity is at odds witht heir physical sex, but they have not sought surgery
Gender Role Socialization
the life long process of learning to be masculine or feminine primarily through 4 agents: families, schools, peers, and media
Social Learning
the process of learning behaviors and meanings through social interaction
Feminization of Poverty
the economic trend showing that women are more likely than men to live in poverty, due in part to the gendered gap in wages, the higher proportion of single mothers compared to single father and increasing costs of child care
Second Shift
the unpaid housework and childcare often expected of women after the days paid labor is completed
Feminism
belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes, also the social movements organized around the belief
First Wave
the earliest period of feminist activism in the US, including the period from the mid 19th century until American women learn the right to vote in 1920
Suffrage Movement
the movement organized around gaining voting rights for woman
Second Wave
the period of feminist activity during the 1960s and 70s often asociated with the issues of women’s exual access to employment and education
Third Wave
the most recent period of feminist activity, focusing on issues of diversity and the variety or identities women can possess
Male Liberationism
a movement that originated in the 1970’s to discuss the challenges of masculinity
Mens Right Movement
an offshoot of male liberationism whose members believe that feminism promotes discrimination against men
Pro feminist Mens Movement
an offshoot of men’s liberationism whose members support feminism and believe that sexism harms both men and women
Sexual Orientation
the inclination to feel sexual desire toward people of a particular gender or toward both genders
Homosexuality
the tendency to feel sexual desire towards emmbers of one’s own gender
Civil Unions
proposed as an alternative to gay marriage, a form of legally recognized committment that provides gay couples some of the benefits and protections of marriage
Bisexuals
individuals who are sexually attracted to both genders
Transsexuals
individuals who identify with opposite sex and have surgery
Asexual
person who has no interest in or desire for sex
Queer Theory
social theory about gender identity and sexuality that emphasizes the importance of difference and rejects as restrictive the idea of innate sexual identity
Homophobia
fear or discrimination towards homosexuals or toward individuals who display gender innappropriate behavior
Functionlists and Gender
gender roles exist because they are an efficient form of social organization
Conflict Theory and Gender
gender roles result from male dominance
Symbolic Interactionists and Gender
emphasizes HOW gender is socially constructed, maintained and produced everyday
Social Institutions
systems and structures within society that shape the activities of groups and individuals
Politics
methods and tactics intended to influence govrnment policy, policy related attitudes, and activities
Government
the formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society, especially through the creation and enforcement of laws
Power
the ability to impose one’s will on others
Authority
non coercive power
Authoritatianism
system of government by and for a small number of elites that does not include representation of ordinary citizens
Monarchy
a government by a king or queen and kept in family
Democracy
a political system in which all citizens have the right to participate
Disenfranchised
stripped of voting rights
Plurialism
system of political power in which a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and mechanisms of power
Power elite
C Wright Mills; small number of people who control the economic, political, and military institutions of asociety
Special Interest Groups
organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials or public opinion
Political Action Committee
organization that raises money to support the interests of a select group or organization
527 committees
organizations that have no official connection to candidate but raise and spend funds like a campaign does
Durkheim and Work
workplace can be a source of community life for workers (esp during industrial revolution), afterwards there was a stronger sense of community
Disembodied Colleagues
Durkheim; more common for people to communicate over technology
Marx and Work
importance of capitalism in our economy, increasing alienation felt by workers, loss of control over their work because of capitalism and how to do their work,
Weber and Work
rationalization of work, increase in division of labor to increase efficiency, each person has a job and they have to get it done quickly
Opinion Leaders
high profile people whose interpretation of events influence the media
Simulcram
an image or media representation that does not show reality
Tracking
the placement of students in education tracks that determine the types of classes they shoudl take
Hidden Curriculum
values or behaviors learned indirectly
Charter Schools
public schools run by private entitiess to give parents greater control
Early College High Schools
students earn a high school diploma and 2 years of credit towards a bachelors
Home Schooling
parents teach children
School Vouchers
money from government to parents toward private school if the public school fails
Community College
2 years of general education
Distance Learning
online
Religion
system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship between the sacred and the profane
Belief
proposition or idea held on the basis of faith
Ritual
practice based on religious beliefs
Sacred
holy, divine, supernatural
Profane
everyday
Monotheistic
single devine figure
Liberation Theology
movement within to catholic church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor
Religiosity
regular practice or religious beliefs, measured in frequency of attendence
Fundalmentalism
emphasizes literal interpretation of texts and a return to a time of greater religious purity (conservative)
Evangelical
conservative christians who emphasize converting others to their faith
Unchurched
those who are spiritual that are not religious and adopt aspects of religious attractions
Secular
seperates church from state
C Wright Mills and Politics
American Political System- controlled by 6000 elite members only club
Early Education
Greece, in church until Enlightenment
Agricultural Revolution
social and economic changes, including population increases, that followed from the domestication of plants and animals and the gradually increasing efficiency of food production
Industrial Revolution
rapid transformation of social life because of technological or economical developments
Information Revolution
recent social revolution made possible by the development of the microchip in the 70d
Knowledge workers
people who work with info, ideas, judgements, designs, etc
Service Work
helps others, not manufacturing goods
Capitalism
free market competition, privitization of the means of production, supply and demand
Socialism
collective ownership of means of production, collective distribution of goods, and services and government regulation of the economy
Communism
eliminates private property, extreme socialism, all citizens work for government and no class distinctions
Telecommunity
working from home using technology
Resistance Strategies
workers express discontent with working conditions and try to reclaim control of them
Union
workers who bargain for increased wages, benfits or condition
Globalization
changes due to increased international trade in the late twentieth century
Sweatshop
workers are extremely expolitated, low wages and long hours poor conditions
Outsourcing
company uses labor from another country because its cheaper
Independent/Third Sector
nonprofit organizations
Family
social group whose members are bound by legal, biological or emotional ties
Extended Families
large group of relatives (3 generations) in one household
Kin
relatives
Nuclear Family
couple with children
Endogamy
marriage to someone within their social group
Exogamy
marriage to someone from a different social group
Antimiscegination
the prohibition of interacial marriage, cohabitation or sexual interaction
Monogamy
marriage/relationship with one person
Polygamy
marriage to more than one person at once
Polygyny
men have multiple wives
Polygandry
women have multiple husbands
Propinquity
tendency to marry people in close proximity
Instrumental tasks
tasks to maintain family life
Expressive Tasks
emotional tasks
Domestic Violence
verbal physical financial sexual psychological behaviors to gain power
Cycle of Violence
common behavior patterns in abusive relationships, happy>tense>tension explodes>abuse>repeat
Cohabitation
living together not married or involved
Custody
physical and legal repsonsibiliy of child decided by court
Intentional Community
any of a variety of groups who form a communal living arrangements outside of marriage
Social Ecology
study of human populations and their impact on the natural world
Environment
natural world, human made environment, and interaction between the two
Biosphere
parts of Earth that support life
Environmental Sociology
study of the interaction between society and the natural environment (social cause and consequences of environmental problems)
Renewable Resources
replenish at a rate comparable to the rate they are consumed
Nonrenewable Resources
take long to replenish
Biodiversity
variety of species and plants and animals existing at any given time
Environmental Protection Agency
1969, so man and nature can exist together
Greenhouse Gases
allow sunlight to pass through, but trap heat, effecting temp.
Greenhouse Effect
increased greenhouse gasses cause the earths temp. to rise (from human activity)
Global Warming
increase in temp. due to increase in greenhouse gasses and human activity
Global Dimming
less air reaching the earth because of pollution (more light into space)
New Ecological Paradigm
understanding that humans have to coexist and need to modify their human activity
Anthropocentric
human centered- humans should take priority over concerns in the environment
Environmental Movement
first stage, organized around concerns with the relationship between humans and environment
Conservation Era
earliest stage of environmental movement (wilderness areas)
Modern EM
second stage, focused on consequences of new technologies, oil, chemical production, and nuclear power plants
Mainstream Environmentalism
third stage, campaigns, politics, scientific expertise
Grassroots Environmentalism
fourth stage, major, citizen participation
NIMBY
not in my backyard
Green Party
US political party to bring political attention to enviromentalism
Ecoterrorism
violence to protect the environment
Sustainable Development
reconcile economic growth with environmental protection
Ecological Footprint
estimation of goods one uses and waste they make
Emigration
leaving one country to live in another
Immigration
permanent residence in another country
Malthusian Thoery
population growth will outplace growth in food production and other resources – leading to a major health disaster
Demographic Freefall
decrease in fertility rates because having children is an economic liability
Family Planning
contraception
Suburbanization
after WW2, people moved away from center cities and to the edges
Urban Sprawl
the expansion of urban boundaries with poorly planned development
White Flight
movement of upper and middle class whites who could afford to move to the subarbs
Urban Renewal
efforts to fix decaying inner cities
Gentrification
poor into middle class communities
Social Atomism
social situations that emphasizes individualism over group identities
Altruism
unselfish concern for the well being of others and helping performed without self interested motivation
Bystander Effect
the more people the less likely one is to do something
Pluralistic Ignorance
one groups decides not to take action because other groups haven’t
Social Change
transformation of a culture over time
Collective Behavor
behavior that follows from the formation of a group who take action towards a shared goal
Contagion Theory
collective action, individuals who joined a crowd become infected by mob mentality and lose the ability to reason
Emergent Norm Theory
collective behavior, individual members of a crowd made their own decisions about behavior and norms are created through these behaviors
Mass Behavior
large groups of people engaging in the same behaviors without being in the same place
Social Dilemma
situation in which a behavior that is fine by one person is practiced by many and leads to collective disaster
Tragedy of the Commons
Social dilemma in which individuals over exploit a resource
Public Goods Dilemma
individuals most give money to a resource even though it does not benefit them
Social Movement
any group with committment to promoting or resisting change
Mass Society Theory
people join social movements not because of the ideals but to satisfy a psychological need to belong to something larger than themselves
Relative Deprivation Theory
actions of oppressed groups who seek rights or opportunities already enjoyed by others in society
Resource Mobilization Theory
practical constraints that help or hinder social movements’ action
Activism
any activity intended to bring about social chane
Regressive
resistance to particular social changes
Progressive
efforts to promote forward thinking social change
Technological Determinism
assumes changes in technology drive changes in society, not the other way around
Virtual Community
people linked by their consumption of the same electronic media
Global Village
new communication technologies override barriers of space and time, people everywhere can interact
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of non material culture to new cultural groups regardless of the movement of people
Globalization
increasing connection between economic social and political systems all over the globe
Cultural Imperialism
cultural influence caused by adopting another culture’s products rather than by military force
Cultural Leveling
process by which societies lose their uniqueness
troubles
privately felt problems that come from events or feelings in one’s individual life.
issues
problems that effect large numbers of people, and have their origins in the institutional arrangments and history of a society.
Alexis de Tocqueville
wrote “Democracy in America”
Harriet Martineau
wrote “Society in America”
The Classic three
Karl Marx (capitalism), Max Weber (multidimensionalism, Verstehen), Emile Durkheim (functionalism)
Jane Adams
ran the hull house, a place to improve lives of slum-dwellers and immigrants, etc.; wanted improvement for the poor; won nobel peace prize
Auguste Comte
“father” of Sociology; idea of ‘positivism’
Organic metaphor
conceiving society as an organism, a system of interrelated functions and parts that work together to create a whole.
Replication Study
research that is repeated exactly but on a different group of people at a different time.
dramaturgical model
a perspective that sees society like a stage (that is, a drama) wherin social actors are “on stage,” projecting and portraying social roles to others.
verstehen
the process of understanding social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
C Wright Mills
Described the importance of the sociological imagination when viewing the world, especially for people with power.
Dependent variable
the variable that is a presumed effect
Independent variable
a variable treated as the presumed cause of a particular result.
Intervening variable
a variable caused by the independent variable and which in turn causes the dependent variable.
Data
the systematic information that sociologists use to investigate research questions.
reliability
the likelihood that a particular measure would produce the same results if the measure was repeated.
validity
the degree to which an indicator accurately measures or reflects a concept.
probability
the likelihood that a specific behavior or event will occur.
Karl Marx
‘conflict theory’; believed society is shaped by money; two classes: working, and capitalist
Max Weber
to understand social behavior you have to understand the meaning that a behavior beholds. (verstehen) also developed a multidimensional analysis of society.
multidimensional evolutionary theory
(of social change) a theory predicting that over time societies follow not one but several evolutionary paths. Weber came up with this
Mode
the value that appears most frequently in a set of data.
Median
the midpoint in a series of values that are arranged in numerical order.
mean
the sum of a set of values divided by the number of cases from which the values are obtained; an average.
types of research
1. survey: polls, questionnaires, and interviews 2. participant observation 3. Controlled experiment 4. Content analysis 5. Historical Research 6. Evaluation Research
culture shock
feeling of disorientation that can come when one encounters a new or rapidly changed cultural situation
5 characteristics of culture
1. is shared 2. is learned 3. is taken for granted 4. is symbolic 5. varies across time and place.
Mcdonaldization
process by which the characteristics and principles of the fast-food restaurant come to dominate other areas of social life. Calculability, control, predictability, and efficiency.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language determines other aspects of culture because language provides the categories through which social reality is understood. (associating the word purple with seeing the color) language determines how we see things.
Deviant cultures
subculture and counter culture
mores
strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior
reflection hypothesis
contends that the mass media reflect the values of the general population.
ethnomethodology
a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how others respond. Pissin’ people off and see what they do.
Ethnocentrism
the habit of seeing things only from the opinion/point of view of one’s own group.
ascribed status
a status determined at birth
achieved status
a status attained by effort
zytago music
originates from Louisiana and Eastern Texas
blue grass music
originates from the Appalachians
id
the part of the personality that includes various impulses and drives, including sexual passions and desires, biological urges, and human instincts.
superego
the dimension of the self representing the standards of society.
ego
the part of the self representing reason and common sense
symbolic interaction theory
a theoretical perspective claiming that people act toward things because of the meaning things have for them.
Emile Durkheim
believed in functionalism and the scientific method; saw society as a set of independent parts that maintain a system but each separate part has a function
deviance
behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms.
primary group
a group characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships.
secondary group
a group that is relatively large in number and not as intimate or enduring as a primary group
Positivism
Accurate observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge
W.E.B. Dubois
Said “The problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line”. 1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard. Helped create NAACP
Oliver Cox
Was a Trinidadian-American sociologist noted for his early Marxist viewpoint on Fascism.
Primary data
When sociologists gather original data and material
Secondary data
Data that has already been gathered and organized by another party
Cultural diffusion
The spreading of of ideas or products from one culture to another
Norms
shared rules of conduct which tell people how to act in specific situations
Values
Shared set of beliefs among a society
Dominant culture
The culture of the most powerful group in society
Counterculture
A culture created to defy the dominant culture. For example hippies and “emos”
Institution
An established and social organization of social behavior with a recognized purpose
Social structure
An organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together compose a society
Sociological Imagination
When we “think ourselves away” from the familiar routine to see things in a different, more sociological perspective.
Develop a better understanding of ourselves
According to Thio, by studying and appreciating social diversity, we ultimately
Always open to revision in the light of new evidence
A scientific theory is
An important factor behind the emergence of the new sociological thinking in the nineteenth century
a) new political forms and ideas, such as those expressed in the French Revolution b) New economic forms created in the Industrial Revolution c) New ways of understanding he world in scientific rather than religious terms
Emile Durkheim’s classic study of suicide makes the sociological point that
suicide rates can increase as a result of excessive isolation from people
Karl Marx
An early theorist who saw class conflict as the main source of soical change.
Feminist Theory
The theoretical approach places gender, class, and race at the core of the theory.
Functionalism
The theoretical approach that uses the analogy of the human body in assessing the role of each part of society in the continuation of society as a whole.
Postmodernism
The theoretical perspective holds that the grand narratives that have meaning to history in the past no longer make any sense.
Practical Benefits of the study of sociology
a) increased awareness and understanding of cultural differences b) ability to assess the effects, including unintended consequences of public policies c) increased self understanding d) increased understanding of the implications of globalization in your community
Independent Variable
There are many different kinds of variables. A variable that produces an effect on another variable is called an
independent; dependent
“The better the grades Sheri gets in school, the better paying job she is likely to get.” In this example, the grades are (blank) variable and occupational income is the (blank) variable.
Ethnography
The research method that would give a rich, detailed, inside view of a particular group, setting, or subculture.
Advantage of survey research
Results can be easily quantified and analyzed
Experiment
The research method that tests hypotheses under controlled conditions
Triangulation
The use of two or more methods of research to verify results is called
The second step in the research procedure
Review the literature (evidence) and familiarize with related research
Subculture
a) high school students who are members of the chess club b) vegans, that is, strct vegetarians who will not eat eggs or cheese. c) computer hackers who spend their time creating computer viruses d) people who live in Hawaii apart from the core culture
Ethnocentrism
Judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own
Hunting and Gathering Societies
The type of society that is described as the oldest, having little inequality, no divisions of rich and poor, few differences in power, emphasis on cooperation rather than competition, participatory decision making, and the use of simple tools.
Sapir and Whorf
The linguistic hypothesis holds that language predisposes us to see the world in a certain way was developed by these two.
Folkways
Lisa attended her friend’s wedding wearing cut-off jeans and a tank top. When the minister began the ceremony, Lisa whistled and cheered. Lisa’s mode of dress and behavior at the wedding was a violation of society’s (blank).
Role Conflict
Bob works overtime and he therefore cannot spend as much time with his children as he would like. He feels guilty but knows that if he does not work overtime he could lose his job. The is an example of (Blank).
NOT part of the characteristics of Postindustrial Societies
Production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations
Cultural relativism
assessing society by its own cultural standards is known as (blank)
His Role Set
Charles is always overwhelmed with work; among the many activities he develops apart from being a father, he has to write papers, teach too many courses, attend the conference, advise his students, and cheer on his colleagues. His situation is an example of (blank).
Sociocultural evolution
the process of changing from a technologically simple society to a more complex one with significant consequences for social and cultural life.
Participant Observation
a research method that involves askig questions about opinions, beliefs, or behaviors.
Patriarchy
A system of domination which men exercise power over women.
Sociology
The systematic, scientific study of human society
Class Conflict
Durkheim’s terms for the struggle between capitalists, who own the means of production, and the proletariat, who do not.
Primary Group
A group whose members interact formally, relate to each other as players of particular roles, and expect to profit from each other
Knowledge
A collection of relatively objective ideas and facts about the physical and social worlds.
Scientific findings
Always subject to verification or refutation by other scientists.
Secondary analysis
The sociologist searches for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher.
For humans to be socialized, it is imperative that they have
regular social interaction with adults
Taking the role of the other
A child learns to act like adults she observes. Mead refers to this behavior.
The importance of human conduct
Social scientists have developed alternative theories of child development. All the theroies of child socialization share a common understanding of…
Behavior associated with Jean Piaget’s sensorimotor stage
When a child learns with his senses and body interact with the environment
The stages of cognitive development
Jean Piaget’s theory of child development learning how to think is based on
Conflicting norms
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, at the third level of moral development, young adults have a postconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of.
Ahead of other children int he areas he has been trained in
Frank is a young boy whose parents surrounded him with books, challenging discussions, and ideas. Based on our understanding of socialization, Frank is probably…
Generalized other
According to George Herbert Mead, when children learn to internalize the values of society as a whole, the take the role of the…
Developmental socialization
John received a work promotion that will permit him more autonomy than his previous position. Sociologists see these new responsibilities as part of John’s…
The socialization process is complex and involves different and distinct stages throughout the life course. These stages are determined by:
a) biological factors b) social influences c) cultural differences d) economic circumstances
The difference between social identity and self-identity
Social identity focuses on similarities among people, whereas self-identity focuses on individual differences.
Taking on the role of the other
Brooke likes to pretend taht she is a firefighter. She uses her mother’s garden hose to put out pretend fires and climbs trees to rescue her teddy. Mead would say that she is…
The understanding of collaborative behavior among peers
In the fifth stage of the Levels of Development of The Self, the ‘WE’ represents…
Is probably well organized
Bobby receives good grades in school, he is outgoing and participates in several extra-curricular activities. Cooley would suggest that Bobby…
Twixters are financially dependent
Lev Grossman states that the major reason young people have to live back with their parents is because…
Civil Inattention
Two people walking on a city sidewalk quickly glace at each other and then look away as they pass. Erving Goffman called this type of inteaction…
Studying day-to-day interactions is important because
it gives us insight into the similarities and varieties of behaviors
Ethnomethodology
The study of folk methods people use to make sense of what others say and do
An ethnomethodologist would likely study
the conversations among roommates in a college dormitory
Many people use the Internet as a key tool of communication. The following are disadvantages of electronic communication.
a) Contact between people becomes indirect rather than face-to-face. b) People become isolated from one another as we all work at our own computers. c) We lose then ability to interpret other people’s faces and other forms of nonverbal communication. d) It takes more time to communicate what we want and feel.
Not classified as civil inattention
riding the bus to work
Erving Goffman
Everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. The pioneering sociologist who developed it and emphasized the importance of understanding it was…
Not a reason for studying social interaction in everyday life
Examining social interation in everyday life allows sociologists to see how relatively unimportant language is in creating social reality.
The use of the Internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites, such as Myspace and Facebook
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life.
Oppositional
Tom see his coworkers as competitors and tends not to share information with any of them. He would be involved in (blank) interaction with his coworkers.
Status and Independence
When the two sexes communicate with each other, women tend to use the language of connection and intimacy, and men the language of…
Presenting his self
Julian was a salesman who took a prospective client to dinner. He dressed carefully, spoke in a confident way, and hoped his guest did not notice his obvious flaws. Julian was involved in…
Social construction of reality
The process by which people create through social interaction a certain idea, feeling, or belief about their environment is called the…
An incongruity between two realities
Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain…
Proxemics
The use of space as a means of communication
Social reproduction
Made possible by socialization
The concept of childhood
As a distinct phase of life between infancy and teenage did not arise until the past two or three centuries.
The id
Freud’s term for the part of personality that is irrational, concerned only with seeking pleasure
Example of a social group
A couple married less than a year
Standards of a reference group
A person measures his or her own worth by this.
Example of a social aggregate
people waiting at Terminal C for flight 181
Social Networks
a) It’s not what you know, it’s who you know b) Not all networks are social groups. c) The Bohemian Grove is an elite network.
Organization
That term that sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a specific goal.
Instrumental
Jane was in charge of a difficult project in a large office. She was a tough leader and kept pushing people to accomplish the project’s goals. She would be an example of an (blank)
A situation that most likely illustrated a primary relationship
A family enjoying a picnic at the beach.
Japanese corporations use a horizontal, collaborative model.
Japanese corporations differ from the bureaucratic model followed by most business organizations in the West in this way.
Characteristics of a bureaucracy
a) Ownership is not in the hands of the workers. b) There is a complete separation between work ad home life c) Each job has a definite and fixed salary attached to it. d) A set of rules governs the conduct of officials at all levels of the organization.
The relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability
Larger groups, such as fraternities, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group and relationships.
The McDonaldization of society
The increased of regulated and standardized of society due to automation.
Idiosyncrasy credit
The privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their group’s norms.
Reference groups provide us with
A standard for judging one’s attitudes and behaviors
Social Category
People with a common characteristic, such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity, but not necessarily interacting with each other nor gather in one place.
Socialization
Among the informal controls that we have in our society, the most effective to control deviance is…
Lasissez-faire
Tom Brown was the supervisor of a group of computer programmers. He provided support if needed, but generally allowed member of his group to work by themselves.
Biological determinism
Early attempts to explain deviant behavior in individuals were based on the assumption that crime was committed mostly by people with certain physical traits.
In the US, virtually everyone has committed a punishable act
Alex Thio reviews the variety of behaviors that is punishable by fines or jail terms, and concludes that…
Differential association
If you live in a high crime area, many people you will befriend will be involved in criminal activities, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. The conceptual context for this phenomenon is known as…
According to Edwin Sutherland, how do criminals adopt criminal behavior?
They learn criminal behavior from peers.
A conflict theorist would closely agree with this statement
Deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control the less powerful.
Anomic
The first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as…
Organized crime
Many characteristics of organizations appear orthodox, but activities are all illegal, easy to evade law enforcements, they are called…
Social studies show that prisons
are more likely to create hardened criminals than rehabilitated them.
Now a days, corporate crime, or white-collar crime, occurs at a higher rate than individual criminal acts. The following are examples of corporate crime.
a) A pesticide company dumps pollutants into the local river. b) Food manufacturers label an item as light when in fact in has as many calories as the regular item. c) Auto mobile companies manufacture a car or truck with a high possibility of an explosion on impact with another object. d) Corporate executives lie about company profits.
Differential association and labeling theory
The two theories that explain deviance are classified as symbolic interactionist.
Not an effective deterrent to murder
Most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment is….
Significant others
The popular perception of rape is that it is committed by strangers. However, research suggests that many rapes are not reported because they are committed by…
Prior involvement in drug use
NOT a reason why college students become binge drinkers
Tackling poverty, inequality, and education
The current ‘war on drugs’ focuses on cutting off the supplies of drugs rather than…
Subtle surveillance
The maintenance of written and computerized records by modern organizations is form of…
Human resource management
A style that sees human resources issues as the responsibility of the whole organization, not just the human resources department.
Labeling theory
begins from the assumption that all deviant acts are intrinsically criminal.
A rebel
According to Merton, (blank) wants to replace old values and change the social structure.
True of all systems of social stratification
A person’s life chances are significantly influenced by his or her position.
Life Chances
This conceptualizes the idea that your probability of economic success is largely dependent on your background.
NOT an accurate statement about class systems
The boundaries between classes are very clear cut.
Increased significantly; dropped
During the twentieth century, the real income of blue-collar workers in Western societies has (blank) overall, though it has (blank) in the past twenty years.
Factors that account for racial disparities in wealth and income.
a) education b) parents’ social class c) discrimination
Working Class
People who work in blue-collar and pink-collar occupations.
What precipitated the emergence of the “new urban poor” in the past quarter century?
a) economic globalization, which led to high unemployment among the unskilled sectors of the lower class b) racial discrimination in hiring for the remaining low-skilled jobs in urban centers c) changes in government policies that cut back or eliminated welfare programs d) the cycle of poverty that is reinforced among the poor.
Social mobility refers to
the movement of individuals and groups between class positions.
Structural mobility
Social mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinda of occupations in a society.
Capitalists; the working class
Karl Marx called those who own the means of production (blank) and those who make their living by selling their own labor power for a wage (blank).
How globalization contributed to the increasing inequality in American society.
a) Some companies have lowered wages to compete with other companies that use cheaper third world labor. b) Globalization has encouraged immigration to the United States, thus increasing the low wage labor pool and pushing wages down. c) Labor unions have been weakened by globalization
Best describes the caste system
It is a stratification system based on one’s fix position at birth.
The reality of economic inequalities that continue to grow in society
Consumerism and consumption have blurred class differences to some extent in our society. Television and widespread mall stores reinforce the idea that there are no intense class boundaries. Consumerism and consumption, however, do NOT alleviate…
Two reasons that have been attributed to the emergence of the new urban poor during the past twenty-five years
unskilled and semi-skilled jobs moving overseas, and dramatic cutbacks of government assistance programs.
Not considered cultural capital
Having your child work at a fast food restaurant after school.
A common criticism of the culture of poverty theory
the poor passively accept their circumstance
As a sociological concept, ethnicity refers to
cultural practices and outlooks, including language, history, ancestry, religion, and styles of dress or adornment that end to set people apart.
Symbolic ethnicity
When people assimilate in to the larger culture, but occasionally participate in ethnic customs, they are practicing…
Prejudice
Preconceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward another are defined as…
Racism
Prejudice based on socially significant physical distinction is…
Institutional racism
Racism that is not simply the opinions of a small segment of the population but systematically pervades all of a society’s structures and operations is known as:
Symbolic ethnicity
John celebrates Bastille Day every year by putting out his French flag, drinking French wine, and eating French food. His friend Charles didn’t even know John was French until he attended his latest party. This is an example of…
Assimilation
When a group takes over the attitudes and language of the dominant community.
Why has racism thrived in the period since European expansion in to the rest of the world?
a) As cultural symbols, white and black have long been seen as opposites in European culture, with white representing purity and black symbolizing evil. b) The concept of race itself was invented and spread by Europeans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. c) Racism was needed to justify the exploitation of nonwhite peoples by Europeans.
An example of the interaction between between micro and macro factors that influence migration
A family that leaves Liberia to escape the civil war moves to Minneapolis, Minnesota, because they can work at a family business.
One of the several problems with the biological classification is that
most people are not physically distinctive.
An example of prejudice
feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group.
Institutionalized discrimination
The long histories of discrimination in education, the economy, politics, and other areas of American life has resulted in…
Scapegoating
A social psychological cause of prejudice and discrimination.
Prejudiced discriminators
According to Robert K. Merton’s analysis of prejudice ad discrimination, the KKK is…
‘Third wave’ of feminism
welcoming men to join women in addressing problems that affect both sexes
A lack of unity regarding the role of women
According to Naomi Wolf, the reason why women have not recognized their power as a majority of the voting population
Gender roles are somewhat flexible from society to society
Cross-cultural studies concerning gender roles suggest that in other societies…
It can be safely said that
nature accounts only for physical differences between men and women
Socialization and culture
According to research, many of the sexual differences found in early childhood, such as boys’ superiority in math, are due to
The role of women in politics today
Women play an important role but they far from achieving equality
Sterotypes that women and men are supposed to be
the basic division of labor underlying traditional gender roles in the United States has been accompanied by many popular
Her emphasis on day care programs shows that she is an one-issue candidate
Mollie wanted to enter a political race against a man. This statement is most likely based on Sexism.
This definition of sexual harrassment was accepted by the Supreme court in 1993
any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive.
This is true about the role of women today in the work force
Women are still far from economically equal to men
Some sociologists believe that the elderly should be considered a minority group because
like other minority groups, they face prejudice and discrimination.
Hereditary genes
Social factors that may contribute to the aging process include all of the following EXCEPT
Social forces such as gender and race
can aggravate the impact of chronic problems of the elderly
Andragogy and geragogy are most likely to emphasize
building on the extensive life experience of older learners
Medical Care
As the number of elderly people continues to grow, which area of public policy will feel the greatest burden
The elderly can be divided into three age groups. Aside from their younger age, what advantages do the young old have over the oldest old?
a) The young old tend to be more educated b) The young old grew up during a time of economic prosperity c) The young old went to school, acquired wealth, and stable employment.
Procreation
The family that one established through marriage, consisting of oneself and one’s spouse and the future children, is called a family of….
Exogamy
In most societies, people are required to practice, (blank) which is the act of marrying someone from outside one’s group.
The interaction between husband and wife
The aspects of family life that would be of the most interest to symbolic interactionists.
Romantic love
It provides for intrinsic satisfaction as opposed to extrinsic rewards.
Two-Career Family
one form of family in the United States that has become very common
Bilateral
In modern American society, for the most part, families prefer (blank) residential patterns.
Violence with the American family
has cultural encouragement
Different research projects have found all of the following to be true about the effect of a wife’s employment on the marriage, EXCEPT that it
almost always benefits both husband and wife
Increased individualism
Jane was married but after a while she became more concerned about her own needs and interests. She decided to get a divorce an dgo back to school. Her experience was based on what cause of divorce?
an increase in unwed mothers
Two reasons for the increase in single-parent families are increased divorce and
Research has found that children raised by homosexual couples
develop the same as children raised by heterosexual parents.
The rise in cohabitation rates
has raised concerns about the institution of marriage.
Domestic Parternship agreement
In the US, gay couples generally do not have the same legal protection and financial benefits as heterosexual couples. Recently, a number of cities in the U.S. have addressed the issue by providing unmarried couples a…
An outcome for the family that sociologists predict as the most likely…
many diverse forms of the family.
Gender Roles
Vary greatly from culture to culture.
Stress
process of perceiving and responding to events (stressors)
Eustress
good stress
Reaction to a Threatening Stressful Event
panic, freeze up
Reaction to a Challenging Stressful Event
alert, focused
Sympathetic Stress Response
body arouses, fight or flight
Parasympathetic Stress Response
calms body, conserves energy
Adrenal Gland
gland that releases hormones
3 Types of Hormones
epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
the body’s resistance to stress can last only so long until exhaustion – seyle’s adaptive response to stress
Phase 1
alarm, mobilize resources
Phase 2
resistance, cope with stressor
Phase 3
exhaustion, reserves depleted
Health Psychology
subfield of psychology – contributes to behavioral medicine
Behavioral Medicine
interdisciplinary field that studies behavior and medicine
18 – 24 years old
most stressed out age group
Change
factor that leads to stress
Learning Process
learning to cope with stress
Catastrophic Events
hurricanes, combat stress, floods
Life Changes
death, divorce, loss of job, promotion
Daily Hassles
traffic, long lines, job stress, burnout
Stress is Intensified By
actual or lack lack of situational control
Coronary Heart Disease
clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle
Atherosclerosis
Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body’s large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels.
Hypertension
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
Type A Personality
higher stress level – competitive, impatient, aggressive, and anger prone
Type B Personality
more laid back – easygoing, relaxed
Type D Personality
distressed, depressed, anxious – newer type
Psychological Illness
“mind-body” illness – stress related – forms of hypertension and headaches
Hypochondriasis
misinterpreting normal physical sensation as symptoms of a disease
Lymphocytes
2 types of white blood cells in body’s immune system
B Lymphocytes
stored in bone marrow – release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
T Lymphocytes
stored in thymus gland – attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
Placebo Effect
positive effects derived from expectations
Nocebo Effect
negative effects derived from expectations
Personality
a characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting – fairly stable across time and situations
Kokology
how you respond to scenarios
What Drives the Unconscious Mind?
childhood sexuality and unconscious motivation – influences personality
Freud’s Theory of Personality
attributes our thoughts/actions to unconscious tension
Psychoanalysis
approach to treating disorders – exposing and interpreting unconscious tenstion
Unconscious
according to Freud…reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories
Freuds 3 Structures That Control Personality
id, superego, ego
Id
unconscious psychic energy – strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives,
Super Ego
the part of personality that presents internalized ideals – promotes standards for judgment (conscience) and for future aspirations
Ego
the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality – the arbitrator between the id and superego – operates on the reality principle, satisfies the id in ways that realistically bring pleasure than pain
Freud Idea
parental strife and sexual motivation are powerful influences on personality development
Identification
children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos
Psychosexual Stages
childhood stages of development – id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Freuds Psychological Stages
oral stage – anal stage – phallic stage – latency stage – genital stage
Oral Stage (0-18 months)
pleasure on the mouth – suckling, biting, chewing
Anal Stage (18-36 months)
pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Phallic Stage (3-6 years)
pleasure zones is the genitals; incestuous sexual feelings
Latency Stage (6-puberty)
dormant sexual feelings
Genital Stage (puberty on)
maturation of sexual interests
Fixation
lingering focus of energy at a psychosexual stage – occurs when conflicts are unresolved
Oedipus Complex (for a male)
sexual desires toward mother – jealousy and hatred for the “rival” father
Freud Idea
the unconscious mind helps us cope with stress and anxiety
6 Defense Mechanisms
repression – regression – reaction – projection – rationalization – displacement
Repression
banish anxiety arousing thoughts and memories from consciousness
Regression
retreat to more infantile psychosexual stage
Reaction
unconsciously switching impulses into its opposite form – expressing the opposite of the anxiety arousing feeling
Projection
disguise threatening impulse by attributing them to other others
Rationalization
provide justification that substitute for the real (more threatening) unconscious reason for actions
Displacement
shifts sexual/aggressive impulses toward “acceptable” or “less threatening” object or person
Projective Test
type of personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli that triggers the projection of one’s inner dynamics
Free Association Test
projective test using methods that explore the unconscious – person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
Other Projective Tests
thematic apperception test (TAT) – rorschach inkblot test –
Rorschach Inkblot Test
the most widely used projective test
3 Criticisms of Freud’s Theories
not a true science – conscious interpretation of events is equally as important as unconscious mind – sex and aggression are not all consuming emotions. people are driven by a variety of goals/needs
Alfred Alder
importance of childhood tension – growth motivation, deficiency motivation – “inferiority complex”
Karen Horney
balanced Freud’s masculine biases; counted notion of “penis envy”
Carl Jung
emphasized the “collective unconsciousness” – shared, inherited reservoir of memory from our species history
Abraham Maslov
studied self actualization in productive and healthy people
Humanistic Perspective
self actualization including ultimate need, after others needs are met, motivation to fulfill one’s potential
Carl Rogers
focused on growth and fulfillment – geniuses, acceptance, empathy – introduced group therapy
Rogers Acceptance
unconditioned positive regard – altitude of total acceptance toward selves and others/self concept: “who am I?” our thoughts/feelings about ourselves
Trait
innate characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Hans and Sybil Eysneck
2 personality dimensions: stability-instability/introversion-extroversion
Personality Inventory
a structured survey – items gauge feelings and behaviors – assess select personality traits
Theory Driven Survey
based on definition of traits
Empirically Derived Survey
develop a pool of items that predict traits
Extrovert
one who gains energy, motivation and comfort from social interactions
MMPI
most widely researched and used personality traits/identifies emotional disorders/used for multi-purpose screening
Big Five Personality Inventory
identifies dominant personality traits/ typically used in healthy populations/used for multi-purpose screening
Social -Cognitive Perspective
behavior influenced by the interaction between people and their social contexts
Reciprocal Determinism
interacting influences between personality and environment
Personal Control
our sense of controlling our environments, rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control
forces beyond one’s control determine fate
Internal Locus of Control
perception that one controls own fate
Learned Helplessness
hopelessness and passive resignation/learned when unable to avoid repeated aversive events/results in stress and depression/uncontrollable bad events->perceived lack of control->generalized helpless behavior
Self
shaped by biases
Self Serving Basis
readiness to perceive oneself today
Spotlight Effect
overestimate others noticing our appearance, performance, and blunders
Self Esteem
ones’ feelings of high or low self worth
Self Efficacy
belief in one’s ability to perform a certain task
Synthetic Model
interaction between biological, psychological, and socio-cultural influences – creates psychological disorders
Mental Healthcare
developing science and practice
Anxiety Disorders
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Order (GAD)
uncontrollable worry about domains of functioning – chronic autonomic nervous system arousal – 66% women
Panic Disorder
minutes long episodes of intense dread
Phobia Disorder
persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
Dissociative Disorders
awareness becomes separated from previous memories; thoughts and feelings
Personality Disorders
disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring behavior patterns; impairs social functioning
3 Clusters of Personality Disorders
expresses anxiety – expresses eccentric behaviors – impulsive behaviors
Antisocial Personality Disorder
“sociopath” or “psychopath” – lacks conscience for wrongdoing – may be aggressive and ruthless, or a clever con artist – usually male; characteristics can emerge at an early age
Mood Disorders
characterized by emotional extremes
Major Depressive Disorder
for no apparent reason, person experiences 2 or more weeks of depressive moods, feelings of worthlessness, diminished interest/ pleasure in most activites
Bipolar Disorder
person alternates between hopelessness and lethargy, and the overexcited state of mania (Manic-Depression)
Manic Episode
disorder marked by a hyperactive widely optomistic state
Depressed Brain Has Less?
serotonin and norepinephrine
Who Is More Likely to Commit Suicide?
men
Who Is More Likely to be Depressed?
women

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