Sociology 101 Final

question
Under which explanation for racial stratification does the African slave trade most clearly fall?
answer
Structural
question
Which of the following is true of racial labels?
answer
They were historically a tool of domination.
question
\"White flight\" refers to ________.
answer
white people moving away from a neighborhood when people of color move in
question
When was the Voting Rights Act passed?
answer
1965
question
The strategy of focusing on color-blind laws that was popular during the civil rights era ended with the introduction of ________.
answer
affirmative action
question
Which aspect of Webster's definition of race is today discarded by most sociologists?
answer
That it is based on inherent physical traits
question
\"Hard\" affirmative action is affirmative action that ________.
answer
creates numerical quotas
question
Which of the following is an ethnic label?
answer
Chinese
question
Which two phenomena are at the core of the sociological definition of racism?
answer
Discrimination and prejudice
question
What distinguishes race and ethnicity from one another?
answer
The characteristics off of which they are based
question
Which view of race argues that racial categories are social creations?
answer
Constructivist
question
One in three black men who finish high school but do not immediately attend college will end up ________.
answer
in prison
question
The system of classifying people as \"black\" when they had only one black grandparent was referred to as ________.
answer
the one-drop rule
question
What factor or legislation has resulted in one in seven African Americans being denied the right to vote?
answer
Felon disenfranchisement laws
question
Which racial group has the highest median income in the United States?
answer
Asian Americans
question
Residents of which neighborhood hold the least political influence?
answer
Racially segregated black urban neighborhoods
question
The systematic killing of Native American people during early European colonization was a form of ________.
answer
genocide
question
Someone immigrating to the United States today is most likely to come from which region?
answer
Asia
question
In which way does Richard Alba argue the transfer of middle-class jobs to non-white workers might occur peacefully in coming years?
answer
Many white people are reaching retiring age.
question
Which identity first became commonly used in the 1970s?
answer
Hispanic
question
People have the most freedom in deciding ________.
answer
their ethnic identification
question
Immigrants from Asia are most likely to come from ________.
answer
upper-middle-class families
question
In which regard has the racial gap between black and white Americans remained almost unchanged?
answer
Wealth
question
Which is the only group to have always been listed on the U.S. Census?
answer
White
question
In 2011, how many members of Congress were black?
answer
44
question
Marriage is most steeply on the decline among ________.
answer
racial minorities
question
What type of relationship features an equal sharing of breadwinning and caretaking tasks?
answer
Egalitarian
question
Which of the following is true of marriage today?
answer
The overwhelming majority of people would like to get married at some point.
question
Most women have which type of relationship in mind as a fallback position?
answer
Self-reliant
question
Which of the following is included in a family of orientation?
answer
Siblings
question
In the view of the economic restructuring perspective, why do families struggle today?
answer
There are not stable systems to provide for their needs.
question
Scandinavian countries guarantee ________.
answer
paid parental leave for everyone
question
Which of the following is true of family forms in the United States today?
answer
There is no majority form of family.
question
\"Kin\" refers to ________.
answer
a group of people sharing the cultural standards used to define family in their context
question
The rise of what other phenomenon occurred alongside the rise of the homemaker-breadwinner household?
answer
Suburbs
question
What defines a nuclear family?
answer
Socially recognized parents and their dependent children
question
United States social policies of the family stress the principle of ________.
answer
individualistic opportunity
question
What did feminist Betty Friedan refer to as \"the problem that has no name\"?
answer
Middle-class women's confinement to domesticity
question
What is covered in the approach to family care by Scandinavian countries that is absent from the approach of Italy?
answer
Universal daycare
question
_____________ define(s) the family as a set of people living together who are connected by biological or legal ties and distinguishes these family households from nonfamily households.
answer
The U.S. Census Bureau
question
What is concerted cultivation?
answer
Intensive parenting with lots of scheduled activities
question
Which is true of the independent homemaker-breadwinner household?
answer
It is a modern invention.
question
Compared to the 1960s, more young adults now ________.
answer
live at home at a later age
question
Which aspect of a divorce is most often harmful for children?
answer
Loss of economic support
question
Which of the following has been the slowest to adapt to new realities?
answer
The organization of jobs in relation to childcare
question
In which of the following family models are children most likely to be raised today?
answer
Two employed parents
question
Why does Sweden enforce a \"use it or lose it\" policy with paternal childcare leave?
answer
To ensure more fathers actually take the time off
question
Which of the following is a common parenting strategy in a working-class family?
answer
Deference to authority figures
question
What is one benefit of the \"age of independence\"?
answer
Time to forge relationships free of prejudice from earlier generations
question
A young adult who has not taken on financial independence and spends a lot of time in social and party interactions is in ________.
answer
delayed adulthood
question
Brainstorming fits into which common competency?
answer
Curiosity, imagination, and creativity
question
Socioeconomic status is based on _______.
answer
education, income, and current occupation
question
Anthony has decided to enter a traditionally female-dominated field. What is his chosen degree?
answer
Elementary education
question
Which function of education includes teaching students to be good citizens?
answer
Socialization
question
What is the relationship between tracking and instructional differences?
answer
Teachers of higher-track students use more interesting teaching methods and materials.
question
In which country would you expect to see the largest gap between social classes on achievement tests?
answer
United States
question
Where would you expect to see the greatest gender gaps?
answer
College placement testing
question
Learning how to behave in a classroom is part of ________.
answer
the hidden curriculum
question
Oscar is taking online courses at a university with a large online program. Based on the information suggested in a large research study of 51,000 community-college students, what can you conclude?
answer
Oscar has a higher chance of dropping out than students in face-to-face courses.
question
_______ earn advanced degrees such as MAs, PhDs, and law, medical, and dental degrees.
answer
Men and women equally
question
The common competencies individuals need to function well in the twenty-first century include _______ that includes the ability to draw inferences and conclusions from information.
answer
critical-thinking and problem-solving skills
question
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between class background and occupation and income?
answer
Social origins have a strong relationship to occupation and income for upper-class white males, a moderate relationship for middle-class white males, and a large negative relationship for lower-class white males.
question
Which is true in the United States today?
answer
It is harder to be considered for employment without credentials than in the past.
question
Rachel is heading off to college. If she is like three-quarters of U.S. college students, she will attend a _______ college or university.
answer
public nonprofit
question
What conclusions can you draw about racial achievement gaps?
answer
Racial differences are due to social inequalities.
question
Compared to students in the 1950s, students today study ________.
answer
half as much
question
Annalise is a college student and spends an average of 15 hours a week studying. If she is a typical student she probably attends a _______ college.
answer
highly selective
question
What did researchers Arum and Roksa find about U.S. college students today?
answer
U.S. college students are not making large gains in critical thinking.
question
Which state had the highest per-pupil spending in 2006-2007?
answer
New York
question
The process of assigning students to groups based on ability or curriculum is known as _______.
answer
tracking
question
In Texas, an educational system that defines a good teacher as one whose students pass the test resulted in _______.
answer
teachers competing instead of cooperating
question
Keith and Josh were neighbors growing up in a lower-class neighborhood. Keith went to college and Josh decided to stay in the neighborhood and work at the factory where their parents worked. What is likely to be true?
answer
Keith is more likely to be employed and earn more than Josh.
question
The number of private-sector labor union jobs has been _______ since the 1970s.
answer
shrinking
question
Jessica has a degree in elementary education. This tells employers she is _______.
answer
credentialed
question
Riley and Morgan disagree about the income differences between high school and college degreed workers. Riley insists that the skills one obtains in college make that individual a better and more productive employee, whereas Morgan believes that the degree just convinces employers that the employee is worth more. Which theory would you expect Morgan to agree with?
answer
Allocation theory
question
The philosophies of Marx, Engels, and Diamond are all ________.
answer
determinist
question
CFCs are most directly responsible for ________.
answer
ozone depletion
question
The escalation in CO2 levels corresponds with the escalation in ________.
answer
burning of fossil fuels
question
How many plastic and glass bottles produced in the United States are recycled?
answer
Less than one-third
question
The history of the Maori and the Moriori shows that ________.
answer
access to resources is fundamental to development
question
How many barrels of oil does the United States consume daily?
answer
19 million
question
The use of disposable products prioritizes ________ above sustainability.
answer
convenience
question
Why did many people who stayed in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina not evacuate?
answer
Lack of a vehicle
question
Most deforestation occurs because of ________.
answer
farming
question
How did the development of agriculture relate to individualism?
answer
With agriculture, more individuals could focus time on tasks outside of food production, heightening individualism.
question
A person involved in organizing to ensure that those who produce coffee are paid a fair wage is engaged in ___________.
answer
the fair trade and organic foods movement
question
For what reason did primitive societies often seem to select images from nature for their totems?
answer
The societies themselves were intimately connected with nature.
question
Which region is likely to house the largest number of hazardous waste facilities?
answer
A poor region with a high concentration of minorities
question
Why is malaria expected to spread in coming years?
answer
Increasing temperatures allow mosquitoes to thrive.
question
By 2035, it is estimated that the world will annually create over ________ billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions.
answer
40
question
Which president refused to sign the Kyoto Protocol?
answer
George W. Bush
question
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the environment and society?
answer
Dynamic
question
Pollution in the world is most likely to come from ________.
answer
the United States and China
question
What equation determines the impact a group will have on the environment?
answer
Population size multiplied by affluence and technology access
question
Which of the following was the most effective environmental action in recent years?
answer
The Montreal Protocol
question
The basis of capitalism is ________.
answer
continual economic expansion
question
In his writing on the tragedy of the commons, ecologist Garrett Hardin argues that self-regulation needs to be replaced with ________.
answer
government regulation
question
Which tension is highlighted by the tragedy of the commons?
answer
Short-term and long-term rewards
question
The environmental issues at Love Canal occurred as a result of ________.
answer
waste disposal
question
Which scenario presents the highest level of environmental justice?
answer
There is a moderate level of pollution that all people encounter with the same regularity.
question
Because he was ridiculed in school for being too thin, Lee got poor grades, did not get a very good job, and generally did not do well in life. Had his ________ been different, he might have succeeded.
answer
social trajectory
question
In a small town in the southern United States, drunk driving is the main cause of death among teenagers. Educational efforts have failed to curb these deaths. Research showed that in the social context of this town, ________.
answer
drunk driving may be considered \"normal\" behavior
question
Truly rapid growth in the world population did not begin until ________ CE.
answer
1810
question
Improving the health of an entire population is better than ________ that say who is sick and who isn't.
answer
cutoff points
question
A new treatment for cancer is tested on groups from all economic levels. When the treatment is proven, it will be available to all income levels. Yet, upper-income people will probably use it most. Why?
answer
They have the resources to find out when and where it is obtainable.
question
The predicted ________ will probably not take place.
answer
population bomb
question
Which of these is true of a life-course perspective?
answer
It involves past influences on health.
question
The age pyramids for the United States and Japan show ________.
answer
a post-war baby boom
question
________ may be an unexpected factor in the health disparities between blacks and whites.
answer
Geography
question
If the fertility rate in the United States were to rise suddenly to a very high level, this phenomenon would be ________.
answer
unheard of
question
The socioeconomic status factor in health is ________.
answer
universal
question
Another issue that may make socioeconomic status the major factor in health is that higher level jobs ________.
answer
may offer workers more control over their working conditions
question
Helen and Bob are married. Helen is three years older than Bob, but he will probably still die first. Why?
answer
Women typically outlive men by about five years.
question
As the population ages, there are fewer young workers to support their benefits. What might be a result of this?
answer
Eighty-year-old factory workers
question
Which of the following is a sociological question about health?
answer
...
question
Instead of doubling in the next 45 years, world population growth will probably ________.
answer
slow down gradually
question
If you were born in the United States, you ________.
answer
have a better likelihood of getting diabetes than in England
question
Which of these health issues is predominant in blacks over whites?
answer
High blood pressure
question
Officials in Country Y are encouraged to see that even though their fertility rate is declining, the population is still growing. Why might this be?
answer
Population momentum
question
Two of the most pressing global problems today related to demographics are ________.
answer
rising populations and aging populations
question
Because of ________, calculating population growth through the transitional phases is not the same in the United States as in most other countries.
answer
immigration
question
Hispanics and blacks have a much lower suicide level than whites, and Hispanics are actually healthier in some ways. This shows that ________.
answer
whites do not always have a health advantage over other groups
question
What appears to be the main health advantage granted by high socioeconomic status?
answer
Education
question
An aging population is of particular concern to the United States right now because the baby boomers are ________.
answer
the largest birth cohort in history
question
A population is decimated by a plague. The group has not yet reached ________.
answer
the epidemiological transition
question
What is the average worker in the global value chain in China doing?
answer
Companies usually outsource parts of their manufacturing to ________.
question
When globalization took off in the 1870s, it seemed like it was driven by _____________, but it was really being driven by ___________.
answer
economic forces; the state
question
The purpose of the ISI strategy is ________.
answer
to eliminate competition so that business will grow
question
An economy supported by ISI could not thrive without ________.
answer
government limits
question
When Henry Ford invented the assembly line to manufacture cars, the chain of operations was done ________.
answer
under one roof
question
NAFTA benefitted Mexico's informal economy, that is, the economy that ________.
answer
had no standardized rules
question
Employers in the United States have resorted to threats of ________ to keep employees from unionizing.
answer
outsourcing
question
________ seems to be better for the developing world than globalization.
answer
Elimination of competition
question
Modern globalization is ________ global trade that has been going on for centuries.
answer
different from
question
________ benefits regional integration.
answer
Using nearby countries in the global value chain
question
According to economist Kate Brofenbrenner, when employers in the U.S. threaten to move production to another country, they ______________.
answer
follow through less than 3 percent of the time
question
What prompts sociologists to question the idea that globalization is an unpreventable transformation of the world?
answer
The fact that it slowed drastically in response to government controls
question
The label says \"Made in the USA.\" The item was actually assembled in a U.S. factory from parts made elsewhere. This is an example of ________.
answer
a global value chain
question
________ partially fueled widespread globalization at the turn of the twentieth century.
answer
Colonialism
question
Had peasants not become ________, we might still have a pre-capitalist economy.
answer
market dependent
question
Regional growth in international trade means that globalization is not really taking place. What is wrong with this statement?
answer
Growth was also regional in 1914.
question
The opposite of the ISI is ________.
answer
the Washington Consensus
question
From 1913 to about 1970 the United States experienced a period of ________.
answer
de-globalization
question
Because of workers in Mexico and the Caribbean, ________.
answer
American clothing is less expensive
question
The ________ of NAFTA were more than offset by the agricultural losses.
answer
government regulations
question
Because Mexican factory workers are almost all women, ________ are common.
answer
complaints of sexual harassment
question
A business executive said, \"There's no American plant that can match\" the speed of Chinese workers. Why not?
answer
American workers get overtime pay.
question
There are records that indicate ancient civilizations quite distant from each other traded along waterways and roads. How is this different from globalization today?
answer
Government policy was not involved.
question
____________ are the inputs—such as land, labor, capital, and technology—that go into the production of any good or service.
answer
Factors of production
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question
Under which explanation for racial stratification does the African slave trade most clearly fall?
answer
Structural
question
Which of the following is true of racial labels?
answer
They were historically a tool of domination.
question
\"White flight\" refers to ________.
answer
white people moving away from a neighborhood when people of color move in
question
When was the Voting Rights Act passed?
answer
1965
question
The strategy of focusing on color-blind laws that was popular during the civil rights era ended with the introduction of ________.
answer
affirmative action
question
Which aspect of Webster's definition of race is today discarded by most sociologists?
answer
That it is based on inherent physical traits
question
\"Hard\" affirmative action is affirmative action that ________.
answer
creates numerical quotas
question
Which of the following is an ethnic label?
answer
Chinese
question
Which two phenomena are at the core of the sociological definition of racism?
answer
Discrimination and prejudice
question
What distinguishes race and ethnicity from one another?
answer
The characteristics off of which they are based
question
Which view of race argues that racial categories are social creations?
answer
Constructivist
question
One in three black men who finish high school but do not immediately attend college will end up ________.
answer
in prison
question
The system of classifying people as \"black\" when they had only one black grandparent was referred to as ________.
answer
the one-drop rule
question
What factor or legislation has resulted in one in seven African Americans being denied the right to vote?
answer
Felon disenfranchisement laws
question
Which racial group has the highest median income in the United States?
answer
Asian Americans
question
Residents of which neighborhood hold the least political influence?
answer
Racially segregated black urban neighborhoods
question
The systematic killing of Native American people during early European colonization was a form of ________.
answer
genocide
question
Someone immigrating to the United States today is most likely to come from which region?
answer
Asia
question
In which way does Richard Alba argue the transfer of middle-class jobs to non-white workers might occur peacefully in coming years?
answer
Many white people are reaching retiring age.
question
Which identity first became commonly used in the 1970s?
answer
Hispanic
question
People have the most freedom in deciding ________.
answer
their ethnic identification
question
Immigrants from Asia are most likely to come from ________.
answer
upper-middle-class families
question
In which regard has the racial gap between black and white Americans remained almost unchanged?
answer
Wealth
question
Which is the only group to have always been listed on the U.S. Census?
answer
White
question
In 2011, how many members of Congress were black?
answer
44
question
Marriage is most steeply on the decline among ________.
answer
racial minorities
question
What type of relationship features an equal sharing of breadwinning and caretaking tasks?
answer
Egalitarian
question
Which of the following is true of marriage today?
answer
The overwhelming majority of people would like to get married at some point.
question
Most women have which type of relationship in mind as a fallback position?
answer
Self-reliant
question
Which of the following is included in a family of orientation?
answer
Siblings
question
In the view of the economic restructuring perspective, why do families struggle today?
answer
There are not stable systems to provide for their needs.
question
Scandinavian countries guarantee ________.
answer
paid parental leave for everyone
question
Which of the following is true of family forms in the United States today?
answer
There is no majority form of family.
question
\"Kin\" refers to ________.
answer
a group of people sharing the cultural standards used to define family in their context
question
The rise of what other phenomenon occurred alongside the rise of the homemaker-breadwinner household?
answer
Suburbs
question
What defines a nuclear family?
answer
Socially recognized parents and their dependent children
question
United States social policies of the family stress the principle of ________.
answer
individualistic opportunity
question
What did feminist Betty Friedan refer to as \"the problem that has no name\"?
answer
Middle-class women's confinement to domesticity
question
What is covered in the approach to family care by Scandinavian countries that is absent from the approach of Italy?
answer
Universal daycare
question
_____________ define(s) the family as a set of people living together who are connected by biological or legal ties and distinguishes these family households from nonfamily households.
answer
The U.S. Census Bureau
question
What is concerted cultivation?
answer
Intensive parenting with lots of scheduled activities
question
Which is true of the independent homemaker-breadwinner household?
answer
It is a modern invention.
question
Compared to the 1960s, more young adults now ________.
answer
live at home at a later age
question
Which aspect of a divorce is most often harmful for children?
answer
Loss of economic support
question
Which of the following has been the slowest to adapt to new realities?
answer
The organization of jobs in relation to childcare
question
In which of the following family models are children most likely to be raised today?
answer
Two employed parents
question
Why does Sweden enforce a \"use it or lose it\" policy with paternal childcare leave?
answer
To ensure more fathers actually take the time off
question
Which of the following is a common parenting strategy in a working-class family?
answer
Deference to authority figures
question
What is one benefit of the \"age of independence\"?
answer
Time to forge relationships free of prejudice from earlier generations
question
A young adult who has not taken on financial independence and spends a lot of time in social and party interactions is in ________.
answer
delayed adulthood
question
Brainstorming fits into which common competency?
answer
Curiosity, imagination, and creativity
question
Socioeconomic status is based on _______.
answer
education, income, and current occupation
question
Anthony has decided to enter a traditionally female-dominated field. What is his chosen degree?
answer
Elementary education
question
Which function of education includes teaching students to be good citizens?
answer
Socialization
question
What is the relationship between tracking and instructional differences?
answer
Teachers of higher-track students use more interesting teaching methods and materials.
question
In which country would you expect to see the largest gap between social classes on achievement tests?
answer
United States
question
Where would you expect to see the greatest gender gaps?
answer
College placement testing
question
Learning how to behave in a classroom is part of ________.
answer
the hidden curriculum
question
Oscar is taking online courses at a university with a large online program. Based on the information suggested in a large research study of 51,000 community-college students, what can you conclude?
answer
Oscar has a higher chance of dropping out than students in face-to-face courses.
question
_______ earn advanced degrees such as MAs, PhDs, and law, medical, and dental degrees.
answer
Men and women equally
question
The common competencies individuals need to function well in the twenty-first century include _______ that includes the ability to draw inferences and conclusions from information.
answer
critical-thinking and problem-solving skills
question
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between class background and occupation and income?
answer
Social origins have a strong relationship to occupation and income for upper-class white males, a moderate relationship for middle-class white males, and a large negative relationship for lower-class white males.
question
Which is true in the United States today?
answer
It is harder to be considered for employment without credentials than in the past.
question
Rachel is heading off to college. If she is like three-quarters of U.S. college students, she will attend a _______ college or university.
answer
public nonprofit
question
What conclusions can you draw about racial achievement gaps?
answer
Racial differences are due to social inequalities.
question
Compared to students in the 1950s, students today study ________.
answer
half as much
question
Annalise is a college student and spends an average of 15 hours a week studying. If she is a typical student she probably attends a _______ college.
answer
highly selective
question
What did researchers Arum and Roksa find about U.S. college students today?
answer
U.S. college students are not making large gains in critical thinking.
question
Which state had the highest per-pupil spending in 2006-2007?
answer
New York
question
The process of assigning students to groups based on ability or curriculum is known as _______.
answer
tracking
question
In Texas, an educational system that defines a good teacher as one whose students pass the test resulted in _______.
answer
teachers competing instead of cooperating
question
Keith and Josh were neighbors growing up in a lower-class neighborhood. Keith went to college and Josh decided to stay in the neighborhood and work at the factory where their parents worked. What is likely to be true?
answer
Keith is more likely to be employed and earn more than Josh.
question
The number of private-sector labor union jobs has been _______ since the 1970s.
answer
shrinking
question
Jessica has a degree in elementary education. This tells employers she is _______.
answer
credentialed
question
Riley and Morgan disagree about the income differences between high school and college degreed workers. Riley insists that the skills one obtains in college make that individual a better and more productive employee, whereas Morgan believes that the degree just convinces employers that the employee is worth more. Which theory would you expect Morgan to agree with?
answer
Allocation theory
question
The philosophies of Marx, Engels, and Diamond are all ________.
answer
determinist
question
CFCs are most directly responsible for ________.
answer
ozone depletion
question
The escalation in CO2 levels corresponds with the escalation in ________.
answer
burning of fossil fuels
question
How many plastic and glass bottles produced in the United States are recycled?
answer
Less than one-third
question
The history of the Maori and the Moriori shows that ________.
answer
access to resources is fundamental to development
question
How many barrels of oil does the United States consume daily?
answer
19 million
question
The use of disposable products prioritizes ________ above sustainability.
answer
convenience
question
Why did many people who stayed in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina not evacuate?
answer
Lack of a vehicle
question
Most deforestation occurs because of ________.
answer
farming
question
How did the development of agriculture relate to individualism?
answer
With agriculture, more individuals could focus time on tasks outside of food production, heightening individualism.
question
A person involved in organizing to ensure that those who produce coffee are paid a fair wage is engaged in ___________.
answer
the fair trade and organic foods movement
question
For what reason did primitive societies often seem to select images from nature for their totems?
answer
The societies themselves were intimately connected with nature.
question
Which region is likely to house the largest number of hazardous waste facilities?
answer
A poor region with a high concentration of minorities
question
Why is malaria expected to spread in coming years?
answer
Increasing temperatures allow mosquitoes to thrive.
question
By 2035, it is estimated that the world will annually create over ________ billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions.
answer
40
question
Which president refused to sign the Kyoto Protocol?
answer
George W. Bush
question
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the environment and society?
answer
Dynamic
question
Pollution in the world is most likely to come from ________.
answer
the United States and China
question
What equation determines the impact a group will have on the environment?
answer
Population size multiplied by affluence and technology access
question
Which of the following was the most effective environmental action in recent years?
answer
The Montreal Protocol
question
The basis of capitalism is ________.
answer
continual economic expansion
question
In his writing on the tragedy of the commons, ecologist Garrett Hardin argues that self-regulation needs to be replaced with ________.
answer
government regulation
question
Which tension is highlighted by the tragedy of the commons?
answer
Short-term and long-term rewards
question
The environmental issues at Love Canal occurred as a result of ________.
answer
waste disposal
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Which scenario presents the highest level of environmental justice?
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There is a moderate level of pollution that all people encounter with the same regularity.
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Because he was ridiculed in school for being too thin, Lee got poor grades, did not get a very good job, and generally did not do well in life. Had his ________ been different, he might have succeeded.
answer
social trajectory
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In a small town in the southern United States, drunk driving is the main cause of death among teenagers. Educational efforts have failed to curb these deaths. Research showed that in the social context of this town, ________.
answer
drunk driving may be considered \"normal\" behavior
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Truly rapid growth in the world population did not begin until ________ CE.
answer
1810
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Improving the health of an entire population is better than ________ that say who is sick and who isn't.
answer
cutoff points
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A new treatment for cancer is tested on groups from all economic levels. When the treatment is proven, it will be available to all income levels. Yet, upper-income people will probably use it most. Why?
answer
They have the resources to find out when and where it is obtainable.
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The predicted ________ will probably not take place.
answer
population bomb
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Which of these is true of a life-course perspective?
answer
It involves past influences on health.
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The age pyramids for the United States and Japan show ________.
answer
a post-war baby boom
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________ may be an unexpected factor in the health disparities between blacks and whites.
answer
Geography
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If the fertility rate in the United States were to rise suddenly to a very high level, this phenomenon would be ________.
answer
unheard of
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The socioeconomic status factor in health is ________.
answer
universal
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Another issue that may make socioeconomic status the major factor in health is that higher level jobs ________.
answer
may offer workers more control over their working conditions
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Helen and Bob are married. Helen is three years older than Bob, but he will probably still die first. Why?
answer
Women typically outlive men by about five years.
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As the population ages, there are fewer young workers to support their benefits. What might be a result of this?
answer
Eighty-year-old factory workers
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Which of the following is a sociological question about health?
answer
...
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Instead of doubling in the next 45 years, world population growth will probably ________.
answer
slow down gradually
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If you were born in the United States, you ________.
answer
have a better likelihood of getting diabetes than in England
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Which of these health issues is predominant in blacks over whites?
answer
High blood pressure
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Officials in Country Y are encouraged to see that even though their fertility rate is declining, the population is still growing. Why might this be?
answer
Population momentum
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Two of the most pressing global problems today related to demographics are ________.
answer
rising populations and aging populations
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Because of ________, calculating population growth through the transitional phases is not the same in the United States as in most other countries.
answer
immigration
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Hispanics and blacks have a much lower suicide level than whites, and Hispanics are actually healthier in some ways. This shows that ________.
answer
whites do not always have a health advantage over other groups
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What appears to be the main health advantage granted by high socioeconomic status?
answer
Education
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An aging population is of particular concern to the United States right now because the baby boomers are ________.
answer
the largest birth cohort in history
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A population is decimated by a plague. The group has not yet reached ________.
answer
the epidemiological transition
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What is the average worker in the global value chain in China doing?
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Companies usually outsource parts of their manufacturing to ________.
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When globalization took off in the 1870s, it seemed like it was driven by _____________, but it was really being driven by ___________.
answer
economic forces; the state
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The purpose of the ISI strategy is ________.
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to eliminate competition so that business will grow
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An economy supported by ISI could not thrive without ________.
answer
government limits
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When Henry Ford invented the assembly line to manufacture cars, the chain of operations was done ________.
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under one roof
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NAFTA benefitted Mexico's informal economy, that is, the economy that ________.
answer
had no standardized rules
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Employers in the United States have resorted to threats of ________ to keep employees from unionizing.
answer
outsourcing
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________ seems to be better for the developing world than globalization.
answer
Elimination of competition
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Modern globalization is ________ global trade that has been going on for centuries.
answer
different from
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________ benefits regional integration.
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Using nearby countries in the global value chain
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According to economist Kate Brofenbrenner, when employers in the U.S. threaten to move production to another country, they ______________.
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follow through less than 3 percent of the time
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What prompts sociologists to question the idea that globalization is an unpreventable transformation of the world?
answer
The fact that it slowed drastically in response to government controls
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The label says \"Made in the USA.\" The item was actually assembled in a U.S. factory from parts made elsewhere. This is an example of ________.
answer
a global value chain
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________ partially fueled widespread globalization at the turn of the twentieth century.
answer
Colonialism
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Had peasants not become ________, we might still have a pre-capitalist economy.
answer
market dependent
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Regional growth in international trade means that globalization is not really taking place. What is wrong with this statement?
answer
Growth was also regional in 1914.
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The opposite of the ISI is ________.
answer
the Washington Consensus
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From 1913 to about 1970 the United States experienced a period of ________.
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de-globalization
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Because of workers in Mexico and the Caribbean, ________.
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American clothing is less expensive
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The ________ of NAFTA were more than offset by the agricultural losses.
answer
government regulations
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Because Mexican factory workers are almost all women, ________ are common.
answer
complaints of sexual harassment
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A business executive said, \"There's no American plant that can match\" the speed of Chinese workers. Why not?
answer
American workers get overtime pay.
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There are records that indicate ancient civilizations quite distant from each other traded along waterways and roads. How is this different from globalization today?
answer
Government policy was not involved.
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____________ are the inputs—such as land, labor, capital, and technology—that go into the production of any good or service.
answer
Factors of production