Sociology 2: Social Stratification

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Social Stratification
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the division of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige
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Gender
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an ascribed characteristic that contributes to social standing in all stratification systems
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According to Karl Marx
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ownership of the means of production was the primary factor which distinguishes the different classes in industrial capitalism
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Marx argued
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that workers experience false consciousness when they mistakenly with capitalists
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According to Max Weber
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social class is made up three components
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Social class is made up of three components
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property, power and prestige
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According to Mevin Tumin
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the best predictor of college entrance is the family income of a student
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According to Gaetano Mosca
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every society is stratified by power
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Two most striking characteristics of the British class system
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Language, Education
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the Maquiladores
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are assembly for export factories along the U.S. – Mexican Border.
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Neocolonialism
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the practice of industrialized nations controlling the Least Industrialized nations through debt
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Multinational corporations
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companies that operate across many national boundaries and help the most industrialized nations maintain global dominance
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Wealth
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the primary characteristic of social class
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Social class
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a large category of people who share many similar levels of wealth, power and prestige
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\”Distribution of Wealth in America\”
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a very small percentage of Americans control the majority of assets.
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Power Elite
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coined by C. Wright Mills to refer the collection of people who make the major decisions in U.S. society, etc. the military industrial complex
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Three Major Predictors of whether or not Americans are poor are
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race or ethnicity level of education sex of the head of household
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Intergenerational mobility
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the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next
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According to Gaetano Mosca
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every society is stratified by power
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Intragenerational mobility
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movement within one’s own lifetime
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Feminization of poverty
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the trend in the U.S. poverty whereby poor families have been increasingly headed by women
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One out of every _ children in the U.S. live in poverty
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6
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About __ American children live in poverty.
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15 million
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_______ there are more white children in poverty
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Numerically
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_________ there are more African American children in poverty
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Proportionally
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Recently, the U.S. ______ system was restructured.
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Welfare
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A change in the ____________ may result in
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social structure
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Examples of ethnic cleansing
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murder of 6 million jews by the Nazis; the Sand Creek massacre of Native Americans by the u.S. Army; the \”killing fields\” in Cambodia.
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Genocide
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attempt to wipe out an entire gene pool
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Race
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reflects biological heritage
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Ethnicity
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reflects cultural heritage
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Minority groups are singled out for
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unequal treatment
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Minority groups have a shared sense of
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identity
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The \”dominant group\”
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may actually be a numerical minority
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Racial profiling
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or closer monitoring of minority group members resulting in unequal treatment
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Racial profiling is an example of
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discrimination.
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Prejudice describes
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attitudes
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Discrimination describes
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actions
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Institutional Discrimination
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unequal treatment by a formal organization based on minority group membership
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Indirect population transfer
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example: daily living conditions for Jews under Czarist Russia was made so intolerable that millions of Jews left Russia and moved to other countries
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Apartheid
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a form of internal colonialism practiced in South Africa by which the dominant white Africaaners exploited the black minority groups
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Multiculturalism
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Nation in which separate ethnic groups keep their own language and cultural heritage, but are peacefully united economically and politically
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The greater number of latinos in the U.S. trace their heritage to
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Mexico
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Gender Stratification
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unequal access to power, property and prestige based on one’s sex
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Sociologists classify women as a
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minority group because societies set up barriers that prevent women from gaining equal access to power, property and prestige
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Gender Socialization
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the majority of students who earn a degree in library science are WOMEN. Sex-typing due to
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____ degrees are earned by men.
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80% of engineering
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_____ degrees are earned by women
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library science / 90%
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Gender Tracking
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the examples of women and men degrees
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Honor killing
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in some societies, a woman who is beleived to have brought disgrace to the family may be killed by a male relative
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Life Expectancy for men in the year 2000
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76
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Life Expectancy for women in the year 2000
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82
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Ageism
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prejudice, discrimination and hostility directed against people because of their age
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Age Cohort
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people who were born at about the same time and pass through the life course together
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Beginning to disengage from society
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ex. a middle aged man decides to stop working overtime, stop going to local club meetings and career advancement workshops in order to spend more time with his family and friends. According to sociologist Elaine Cumming, he is
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The activities theory
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the theory of aging that equates health and happiness with the amount and quality of participation in various activities is
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Rule by written law
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describes what is known as RATIONAL LEGAL authority
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Monarchy
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form of government in which early city-states were headed by a king or queen
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Direct Democracy
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small new england towns where residents attend monthly town meetings and publicly vote on issues concerning the town
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Representative democracy
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Most of our political system is based on
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Voter Apathy
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relatively few eligible voters in America participate in voting. Some individuals feel that the politcal system has not done anything positive for them and that their vote would not really affect their lives one way or the other.
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Anarchy
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a state of lawlessness or political disorder caused by the absence or collapse of governmental AUTHORITY
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Power elite
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According to C. Wright Mills the important decisions in the u.S. are made by
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Suicide Terrorism
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a tactic used by weaker nations or groups against more powerful nations designed to shock THE WORLD, capture HEADLINES, and DEMORALIZE the enemy
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Conspicuous Consumption
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the elaborate, excessive consumption of MATERIAL GOODS was described by THORSTEIN VEBLEN
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Laissez-Faire capitalism
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a form of CAPITALISM that exists in society when market forces are able to operate without government INTERFERENCE
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Interlocking Directorate
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a group of individuals each own THE CONTROLLING shares of stock in separate companies. They, along with other corporate owners, also sit on the same boards that direct several other major companies, and may make decisions that are MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL
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Polygyny
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in many societies a man may have more than one wife.
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Other types of marriages
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monogamy, serial monogamy, polygamy, polygyny and polyandry and bigamy
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Second Shift
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the work that many working women put in AFTER they get home from working 8 hours for wages, described by sociologist Hoschschild
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Age, Education and Social Class
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the three most significant social variables in PREDICTING the development of social relationships that lead to marriage, occupation has little effect
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Working class couples
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tend to have children earlier than middle couples regarding social class and the arrival of the first child
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Marriage Squeeze
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there is an imbalance in the SEX RATIO , more UNMARRIED women then men
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Different socio-cultural groups tend to _____ their children differently
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discipline
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An Asian-American child
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who misbehaves is likely to be disciplined by her parents by them use shame and guilt to control their behavior
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Sandwich Generation
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today’s middle aged baby boomers who are caring for children of their own as well as their elderly parents
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Regarding children of divorce:
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when they grow up, they tend to have LESS CONTACT with their fathers and mothers. – they are less likely to MARRY than children who grew up in two-parent families – they are more likely to DIVORCE later in life when they do become married
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Regarding divorce in America:
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over/about 50% of marriages end in divorce
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Divorce
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more likely to cause ECONOMIC HARDSHIP for the woman than the man. – the higher a woman’s level of EDUCATION the better prepared she is to survive after divorce – women are more likely to report that divorce is giving them a \”new chance\”
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Most people who divorce tend to remarry other __________
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divorced people
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Women who are MOST LIKELY to remarry are
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young mothers and those with no high-school degree
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Trends which are likely to continue in the century
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– cohabitations are likely to increase – the age of first marriages will increase – more married women will join the work force

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