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Society: Ch.8 Social Stratification

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What does *social mobility* refer to?
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Social mobility refers to *changes in people’s positions in the social hierarchy*.
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True or False: For most people in the United States, *social standing* remains *much the same* over the course of a lifetime.
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*True*: For most people in the United States, *social standing* remains *much the same*.
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True or False: *Social stratification* is found in most – but not all – societies.
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*False*: Social stratification is found in *all* societies.
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True or False: *Caste* systems are typical of high-income societies.
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*False*: *Caste systems* are typical of *low-income* (traditional, agrarian) societies.
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True or False: In *class* systems, *social categories* are more clearly and rigidly defined than they are in caste systems.
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*False*: In class systems, *social categories* are *less* clearly and rigidly defined.
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True or False: *Class systems* assign social position based on both *birth* and *individual achievement*.
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*True*: *Class systems assign social position based on both *birth* and *individual achievement*.
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True or False: The more a society is a *meritocracy*, the greater the society’s level of *social mobility*.
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*True*: As *meritocracy* increases, *social mobility* also increases.
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True or False: Compared with people in United States, people in *Great Britain* are more likely to experience *social mobility*.
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*False*: People in the *U.S.* are *more* likely to experience social mobility; and people in *Great Britain* are *less* likely to experience social mobility.
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True or False: *Great Britain* has eliminated all aspects of its historic aristocracy.
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*False*: Although the UK has a class system today, a small number of British families still have *evident aristocratic backgrounds*.
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True or False: The *former Soviet Union* was a classless society without social stratification.
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*False*: In reality, the Soviet Union was *not classless at all*. The Soviet people were actually stratified into *four unequal categories*.
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True or False: *Structural social mobility* refers to an individual’s upward or downward social movement due to personal effort or good or bad luck.
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*False*: Structural social mobility refers to *a shift in the social position of large numbers of people* due more to *changes in society itself* than to individual efforts.
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What does *ideology* refer to?
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Ideology refers to *ideas* that support *social stratification*.
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True or False: The *Davis-Moore thesis* implies that societies without social inequality would be the most productive.
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*False*: The Davis-Moore thesis implies that *social stratification* has *beneficial consequences* for the operation of a society.
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True or False: *Max Weber* said that *social stratification* involved three distinct dimensions: economic class, status, and power.
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*True*: Max Weber said that *social stratification* involved *these three distinct dimensions*.
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True or False: *Conspicuous consumption* refers to the fact that rich people and poor people generally shop for different products, such as food and clothing.
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*False*: Conspicuous consumption refers to buying and using products because of *the “statement” they make about social position*.
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True or False: The *Kuznets curve* shows that industrial societies have the greatest *social stratification*.
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*False*: The *Kuznets curve* shows that greater *technological sophistication* is generally accompanied by greater *social stratification*.
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True or False: The *richest 20 percent of U.S. families* earn 48 percent of all income, while the *bottom 20 percent* earn only about 4 percent.
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*True*: The richest 20 percent of U.S. families earn *48 percent of all income*, while the bottom 20 percent earn only about *4 percent*.
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True or False: The *wealth of rich people* is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments that typically increase in value and generate income.
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*True*: The wealth of rich people is not only *greater*, but more of it is in the *form of investments*.
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True or False: In general, *white-collar occupations* have more prestige than blue-collar occupations.
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*True*: In general, *white-collar occupations* have *more prestige* than blue-collar occupations.
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True or False: Because education is a right in the United States, there is very little inequality in schooling.
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*False*: Although education is a right, and industrial societies have expanded opportunities, *there is still a lot of inequality in schooling*.
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True or False: Today, on average, African American families have about the same income and wealth as white families
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*False*: *White people* have a *higher overall occupational standing* than African Americans and also receive *more schooling*.
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True or False: *Hispanic families*, on average, lag behind non-Hispanic white families in both income and wealth.
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*True*: Hispanic families, on average, *lag behind non-Hispanic white families* in both *income and wealth*.
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True or False: In the United States, there are *more people* in the upper class than in the lower class.
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*False*: In the United States, there are *more people* in the *lower class* than in the upper class.
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True or False: The *working class* is sometimes called the “lower-middle class.”
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*True*: The *working class* is sometimes called the “*lower-middle class*.”
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True or False: *Intergenerational mobility* refers to changes in social position within an individual’s lifetime.
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*False*: Intergenerational mobility refers to *upward or downward* social mobility of *children* in relation to their parents.
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What does *intragenerational mobility* refer to?
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*Intragenerational* mobility refers to changes in social position *within an individual’s lifetime*.
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True or False: *People who marry and stay married* accumulate only half as much *wealth* as people who remain single.
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*False*: People who marry and stay married accumulate *about twice* as much wealth as people who remain single.
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True or False: The *expansion of the global economy* has helped create more high-paying jobs in manufacturing in the United States.
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*False*: The expansion of the global economy has moved industrial production overseas, causing a loss of factory jobs and creating more low-wage service work in the U.S. However, the expansion has helped create more high-paying jobs in law, finance, marketing, and computer technology.
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True or False: The *age category* of the U.S. population *most likely to be poor* is children and young adults under age twenty-four.
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*True*: The age category of the U.S. population most likely to be poor is *children and young adults under age twenty-four*.
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True or False: Two-thirds of all poor people in the United States are *African American*.
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*False*: *Twenty-three percent* of all poor people are *African American*; and seventy-one percent of all poor people are white.
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True or False: In recent decades, *William Julius Wilson* claims, many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there.
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*True*: William J. Wilson claims that *many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families living there*.
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True or False: Recent *welfare reform* has greatly reduced the *poverty rate* in the United States.
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*False*: The reform has *greatly reduced the number of people receiving welfare*, but it has *done little to reduce the extent of poverty*. Instead, it has weakened families and encouraged poor people to become dependent on government handouts.
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True or False: *Societal factors that contribute to homelessness* include low wages and a lack of low-income housing.
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*True*: Societal factors that contribute to homelessness include *low wages* and *a lack of low-income housing*.
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True or False: In the wake of *the recession* that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say *their belief that their family can achieve the American dream* has declined.
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*True*: In the wake of the recession that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say *their belief* that their family can achieve the American dream has *declined*.
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What does *social stratification* refer to?
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Social stratification refers to *ranking categories of people in a hierarchy*.
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Using the sociological perspective, what do we see that *social stratification* does?
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We see that social stratification *gives some people more privileges and opportunities* than others.
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Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may be universal, but….what/how/why…. *varies from one society to another*.
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*what is unequal* varies; *how unequal people are* varies; and *why people are unequal* varies from one society to another.
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The definition of a *caste system*:
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social stratification based on *ascription*, or *birth*.
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Ravi was born into a *caste system* in a small village in Sri Lanka. What can he expect?
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He can expect to *have the same social standing as his parents*.
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If you lived in a society with a *traditional caste system*, how would you expect your *marriage* to be?
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You would expect your marriage to be *endogamous*.
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If you were born into a *traditional caste system*, what would you expect based on birth?
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Based on birth, you would be…. – raised to do a certain type of job; – required to marry someone of your own social category; and – encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category.
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The *historical replacement* of caste systems with class systems….(?).
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replaces *one kind of inequality* with another.
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The concept *”meritocracy”* refers to what kind of *social stratification*?
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“Meritocracy” refers to social stratification *based entirely on personal merit*.
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Where is the *degree of status consistency* higher?
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The degree of status consistency is *higher in caste systems* than in class systems.
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A *college professor* with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having what?
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The college professor can be described as having *low status consistency*.
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What is the *point of the story about passenger deaths* that accompanied the sinking of the Titanic?
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The point of the story about passenger deaths is that *social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death*.
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Which concept refers to the historical practice in England of *passing on property to only the first-born male descendant*?
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The law of *primogeniture* refers to the historical practice of passing on property to only the first-born male descendant.
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What is one good indication that *caste still operates in the United Kingdom*?
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One good indication is the importance people attach to *accent in speech*.
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In 1917, *the Russian Revolution* transformed the feudal aristocracy and *placed productive property* under the control of….(?).
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In 1917, *the Russian Revolution* placed *productive property* under the control of *the state*.
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What does the concept of *structural social mobility* refer to?
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The concept of *structural* social mobility refers to change in *the social position of many people* due to changes in society itself.
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Which statement accurately describes *social stratification* in the *People’s Republic of China*?
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In the People’s Republic of China, a *new set of social classes* is *gradually emerging*.
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Where is *ideology*, cultural beliefs, found?
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Ideology is found in *both class and caste systems*.
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According to the *Davis-Moore thesis*, what is *true*?
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According to the Davis-Moore thesis, more *important jobs* must *provide enough rewards* to attract the talent necessary to perform them.
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According to Davis and Moore, how does *a system of unequal rewards* increase productivity?
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A system of unequal rewards increases productivity by…. – encouraging people to *want an important job*; – motivating people to *work longer, harder, or better*; and – encouraging people to *gain the schooling and skills needed to perform more important jobs*.
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Who *coined* the concept *”survival of the fittest”*?
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*Herbert Spencer* coined the concept *”survival of the fittest”*.
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According to Karl Marx, what does *social stratification in a capitalist society* always involve?
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Social stratification in a capitalist society always involves *class conflict*.
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What is the idea that *social inequality benefits society* associated with?
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The idea that *social inequality benefits society* is associated with the *structural-functional* approach.
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What is the idea that *social inequality is harmful and divides society* associated with?
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The idea that *social inequality is harmful and divides society* is associated with the *social-conflict* approach.
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What is *work involving mostly mental activity* called?
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Work involving mostly mental activity is called *white-collar* work.
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What is *not* a reason given for *why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted*?
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The statement, *”Wealth is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few”*, is not a reason given for why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies.
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What are the reasons given for *why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted*?
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A socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies because…. – Stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people; – Living standards for the majority have gone up; and – The law affords workers far more legal protections.
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Olga works as *a district sales manager for a small corporation*. Which category correctly describes her work?
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The *white-collar* category correctly describes the work of a district sales manager for a small corporation.
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What statements about *social stratification* are *true*?
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– Living standards in the United States have risen since Marx’s lifetime; – More workers have unions to represent them than in Marx’s lifetime; – Today, laws enhance workplace safety and set minimum wages, which was not the case during Marx’s lifetime; and – Today, ordinary working people *still* experience the effects of social inequality.
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Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In what terms did *Weber* envision inequality?
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In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of *a socioeconomic ranking*.
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To which dimension of *social inequality* did Max Weber claim that *agrarian societies give special importance*?
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*Max Weber* claimed that *agrarian* societies give special importance to *social prestige or honor*.
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What is a common *micro-level pattern involving social interaction*?
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A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that *people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position*.
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What does the concept *”conspicuous consumption”* refer to?
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The concept “conspicuous consumption” refers to *the practice of buying things* to make *a statement about one’s social position*.
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Looking around the world today, *income inequality* is *greatest* in which region?
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Income inequality is greatest in *Latin America*.
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Which concept refers to *earnings from work or any investments*?
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*Income* refers to earnings from work or any investments.
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What is the *total amount of financial assets, minus any debts,* referred to as?
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The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as *wealth*.
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What was the *median income for U.S. families* in 2010?
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In 2010, the median income for U.S. families was *$60,395*.
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What percentage of the nation’s privately held wealth is *controlled by the wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the “super-rich”)*?
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The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the “super-rich”) controls about *35 percent* of the nation’s privately held wealth.
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Based on what you know about *occupational prestige*, which statement is *correct*?
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Occupational rankings are *similar in all high-income nations*.
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What fraction of the richest people in the United States *gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance*?
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About *one-third* of the richest people in the United States gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance.
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If you followed the lead of *Max Weber*, in what terms would you think of *social stratification*?
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You would think of social stratification in terms of *a multidimensional status hierarchy*.
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What is being in the *upper-upper class* usually the result of? And, What is being being in the *lower-upper class* more a matter of?
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Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of *birth*; and, Being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of *achievement*.
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How would *the family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith* be best described?
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The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith would be best described as *lower-upper class*.
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Within which class does *roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population* fall?
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Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the *middle class*.
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How might *working class people* also be described?
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*Working class* people might also be described as *lower-middle class*.
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According to Karl Marx, which class *forms the core of the industrial proletariat*?
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According to Marx, *the working class* forms the core of the industrial proletariat.
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On which issues are people of *low social position* are more liberal? On which issues are they more conservative?
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People of low social position are more *liberal* on *economic* issues and are more *conservative* on *social* issues.
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Which concept refers to *change in social position during a person’s lifetime*?
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The concept, *intragenerational social mobility*, refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime.
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According to *Lisa Keister’s research*, what is a *correct* statement?
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Social mobility is lowest for people at the top and the bottom of the wealth hierarchy
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Which factor tends to *raise your social standing*?
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*Marrying and staying married* tends to raise your social standing.
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What kind of people are *most likely to vote* in the United States?
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In the United States, people of *high social position* are most likely to vote.
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What is *true* about *relative poverty*?
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Relative poverty is *found everywhere*.
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In 2010, about *what share* of the U.S. population was *officially counted as poor*?
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In 2010, about *15.1 percent* of the U.S. population was *officially counted as poor*.
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In the United States, which *age category* has the *highest poverty rate*?
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*Children and young adults under twenty-four years of age* have the highest poverty rate.
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What does the concept *”feminization of poverty”* refer to?
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The concept “feminization of poverty” refers to the fact that, in the United States, *women make up an increasing percentage of the poor*.
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Which *area of the United States* has the highest rate of poverty?
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*Central cities* have the highest rate of poverty in the United States.
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Where did the anthropologist *Oscar Lewis* suggest *the cause of poverty* lies?
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The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in *a lower-class culture of poverty*.
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If you believe that *people living in central cities are likely to be poor because there are few jobs available in these areas*, who are you in agreement with?
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You are in agreement with *William Julius Wilson*.
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What do *critics of the 1996 welfare reforms* claim about the new system?
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Critics of the 1996 welfare reforms claim that the new system *has done little to reduce poverty in the United States.*
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What is a *true* statement about *homelessness*?
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*One-third* of all homeless people consist of *families*.