Social Work Chapter 2

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S. Humphrey Gurteen
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Founded the first U.S. Charity Organization Society (COS) in 1877 in Buffalo– Fascinated with the work of the London Society for Organizing Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendicancy.
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19th Century Social Welfare Organizations
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1) New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism (1818) 2) Associations for Improving the Conditions of the Poor (1840s) 3) Various child-saving agencies 4) American Social Science Association (1865)
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National Conference of Charities
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Formed in 1879 to address social problems such as poverty, crime, and dependency.
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Friendly Visitors
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Met with applicants on a regular basis– provided encouragement and served as models of moral character.
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Charity Organization Workers (COS)
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Tried to find resources within the family as they wanted financial support to be a last resort.
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Mary Richmond
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1861-1928– Worked with the COS– started off as a member for the Baltimore COS– Appointed General Secretary of Philadelphia COS in 1900 and moved on to work for the Russell Sage Foundation.
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History of the COS
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Initially, services were provided exclusively to white people. It was seen as a privilege to take care of whites first and focused on colored later on
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Memphis COS
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Operated the Colored Federated Charities, a Black auxiliary to the organization, it had its own black board of directors, and they conducted their own activities.
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New York COS
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Founded the first school of Social Work (now Columbia University School of Social Work) and conducted field research.
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Where and when did the Settlement House Movement begin?
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London in the late 19th century.
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Who created the first Settlement House?
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Samuel Barnett– Founded Toynbee Hall– Converted his church into a neighborhood center– recruited university students to live at the center and work with families in the neighborhood.
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Stanton Coit
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First Settlement House in the United States– Neighborhood Guild of New York City.
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Other Settlement Houses
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1) Chicago’s Hull House (Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr) 2) Chicago Commons (Graham Taylor) 3) Boston’s Andover House (Robert Woods) 4) New York Henry Street Settlement (Lillian Wald)
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Jane Addams
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1860-1935– was known for her social activism and social reform– Began Hull House with Ellen Starr in an old mansion– programs included women’s boarding club, day care, a community kitchen, a book bindery, and numerous educational programs.
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What was Jane Addams elected head of in 1912?
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Elected the first woman president of the National Conference of Charities and Correction.
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Settlement Houses in Black Neighborhoods
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1) Locust Street Settlement (Janie Porter Barrett)– Hampton, VA 2) Hop of the Neighborhood Union (Lugenia Burns)– Atlanta, GA 3) Elizabeth Russell Settlement (Margaret Murray Washington)– Tuskegee, AL
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Sarah Fernandis
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First Black Settlement House in the United States– Established it in Washington D.C. and then another one in Rhode Island– initiated the Women’s Cooperative Civil League that advocated changes in conditions in Black neighborhoods.
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What influenced social work as a profession?
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1) Emergence of social casework (Early 1900s) 2) Psychoanalytic Movement (1920s) 3) Public Welfare Movement (1930s) 4) Acceptance of group work and community organizing (1940s and 1950s) 5) Social Reform Activities (1960s) 6) Popularity of Social Systems (1970s and 1980s) 7) Increased emphasis on empowerment, social justice, human rights, and international social work (1990s) 8) Evidence and competency based social work (2000s)
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What four processes does casework incorporate?
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1) Insight into the individual 2) Insight into the social environment 3) Direct action mind upon mind 4) Indirect action through the social environment.
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Psychoanalytic Movement
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1920’s– Sigmund Freud– stressed people intrapsychic dynamic as opposed to the effect of environmental factors on social functioning.
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Mary Cromwell Jarrett
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Founded the Association of Psychiatric Social Workers– shifted the focus of social work from focusing on environmental conditions to internal, personal distress.
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Public Welfare Movement
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Emphasized socioculture, political, and economic dimensions of social functioning– grew after the Great Depression.
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Harry Hopkins
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Played a significant role in the development of social policy during the era of the Great Depression– administrator of the New York State’s Temporary Emergency Relief Administration– provided relief for the unemployed.
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Frances Perkins
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First woman to be a member of the U.S. president’s cabinet– originally she was advocating to help change people’s hazardous working conditions.
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Group Work
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Uses small-group interaction as a vehicle for social change.
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Community Organization
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Creates changes in larger groups and organizational units– change in situations of environments often changing people’s personal well-being.
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What were the four contributors for Dual Perspective?
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1) Bertha Capen Reynolds 2) Hollis-Taylor Report 3) Working Definition of Social Work Practice 4) Person-in-situation
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Bertha Capen Reynolds
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Social advocate for working and oppressed groups– felt Social Workers needed to demonstrate concern for social justice and civil rights issues through political activity.
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Hollis-Taylor Report
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Portrays social work as a helping activity (gives assistance in respect to problems), a social activity (organizations made to benefit the community), and a liaison activity (people have access to resources that help meet their needs).
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Whitney Young
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Civil Rights Leader–Began with the Minnesota Urban League– President of the National Conference of Social Welfare and NASW– Fought for initial resources in poor neighborhoods.
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Abraham Flexner
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Speech delivered at Baltimore Conference of Charities and Corrections–agreed that Social Work was heading in the rights direction to being a profession; however, it was not yet a profession– Felt social work incorporated other professions so there was no need.
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What makes a profession a profession?
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Ernest Greenwood states: 1) Profession must have fundamental knowledge 2) Empowered to regulate and control its own members 3) Professional authority and credibility 4) Enforceable, systematic, and binding Code of Ethics 5) Guided by culture, values, norms, and behavior

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