Social Work Essay
1) Problem identificationOver the last decade, the number of children exposed/ infected with HIV/AIDS in the US has drastically increased.
This has been linked to the fast changing lifestyles in the country. Notably, the increasing levels of unemployment in the country have shifted the common considerations of the people who have responded by neglecting the children either physically or mentally from early stages. Over the years, scholars have differed over the people to shoulder the blame for the children neglect.However, it is clear that though the parents have more to blame, the society has generally failed or is in a downward trend as a result of this neglect.
Such has been the case with Camden, New Jersey where the levels of the infected/ exposed HIV/AIDS children has reached critical proportions. This has mainly been caused by lack of involvement by the parents and guardians but still have rights that often hinder services provision to these children in the child care homes (Hornberger et al, 2005).This has been cited as a major platform for latter poor development of the children due to lack the necessary attendance and assistance from the society. Following this neglect, children are exposed to less mental and physical developmental assistance systems different from those of other states. This has cumulatively added to the states fast rising levels of crime making Camden one of the most dangerous cities in US (City services and Government, 2008).
Though analysts have called for legal interventions into the system as a direct shaping factor for the town, it is clear that the root cause of the problem should be addressed holistically and conclusively if change is to be seen (Dooley House Inc, 2007). This paper explores Mal-fragile children exposed/infected with HIV/AIDS in Camden NJ with an aim of establishing the source of the problem and recommending workable solution for the Camden. Therefore, the paper uses the theoretical framework to evaluate the causes, effects, policy consideration, as well as the social cooperative networks necessary to reverse the situation. . Assessment and analysis of the problem Family lifestyles and their relation to the problem Since historical periods, family is considered as the best system and operational unit that gives a child the most appropriate setting for physical and psychological development in the society.
According to Erickson theory of personal development, children who grow in a well organized family and undergo minimal disturbances have higher potential to grow faster and reach their maximum potential with ease (Stallard, 2002).However, where neglect reigns in a family due to internal or external factors, children lose more due to their dependence nature. Communitarian theory views the society as a block which is entirely dependent on its structures for present and later survival. Underscoring the varying levels upon which the society operates the widespread neglect of children in Camden NJ points at possible later collapse of the society. Whereas all the levels are supposed to be self regulating for ensuring increased harmony and growth, Camden NJ has taken it as a minor shenanigan.Institutional consideration of the Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS As indicated earlier, the community theory emphasizes on the need for effective coordination and participation of the societal structures for proper growth and development of children.
Contributing to the debate, socialists have indicated the precarious nature that states which give less focus to their children put themselves to. Globally children are the future leaders that fit into the niches of their parents with time. Camden therefore perpetuates a highly dangerous system into children upon which they would pass to the later generations.Following this revelation, the New Jersey & DYFS removed the children away from the parents due to their neglect. Over the last two decades, New Jersey has had its name tainted due to the rising crime rates by the youths.
Though considered highly debatable, some analysts have linked the neglect to the large number of African-Americans in the state (Dooley House Inc, 2007). The community theory further indicates that success of a community is dependent on the people’s ability to rectify their overall actions either through self corrective systems or the judicial proceedings.The coordinative and harmonic capacity for the various institutions depends on this harmony. Following this consideration the NJ ; DYFS do not withdraw or totally suspend the parental rights of the parents who had earlier neglected their children. This puts these institutions into conflicts as most of the children have sad memories with their parents before being adopted.
As BF, Skinner noted in the theory of personality development, it is very essential for stability to be emphasized at the early stages of a child for consistency and focus.However, the New Jersey courts failure to suspend the parental-rights of the parents until when they are ready for adoption from the foster care has dealt the children assistance initiatives a major blow. It is hard to make the child forget the older memories harassment and induced suffering that they went through. Arguably, the demand for education, food, shelter, association, and guardianship is considered as a major non negotiable demand of any child. As indicated earlier, effective child upbringing is one of the main aspects that any nation can offer to itself as a guarantee for the future existence.
Like other cities in US, Camden has children organizations like Dooley House Inc which offer child care program to the highly vulnerable/affected with HIV/AIDS. As a major consideration, these children are neglected and at times disowned as most of the people do not want to be associated with HIV/AID positive children (Naughton-Travers, 2001). Systems readiness for change in relation to the problem Over the years, change has been cited as one of the most difficult aspects in life. According to the change theories, the demand for transformation in a community becomes easier after people realize the benefits they would derive from the same.
To add to that, it becomes hard for the change to be articulated in the societal ties especially when it relates to their overall culture. Notably, Camden has assimilated a culture where children neglect is the order of the day. Due to this neglect, children often find themselves in the wrong peer groups as they grow up since they do not have the correct supportive systems and education platform to secure better jobs and careers later in life. Part of the overall obstacles in achieving effective turn around is unemployment in the state.
According to Clifford and Clifford (2008), residents cite lack of self sustaining jobs to be their main problem in assimilating a more ethical consideration for their children. Notably, they point out that children with HIV/AIDS are an extra liability that calls for extra funds to nurture. To add to that, there is lack of general goodwill to ensure that children are effectively taken care of. Even after understanding the special care that the children needs, the courts of law fails to secure the serene environment for these children’s development.
Parents are not denied paternal rights even after their prior neglect is evident. Notably, there is lack of effective harmony between the child care homes, the judiciary and the criminal justice system which seem to be highly reactive. Following the noble task that child care programs are involved with, the federal and state administration government has been of great assistance. During the state’s 2007 fiscal year budget, there was a strong commitment to increase the overall coverage of the children without health insurance.
It was estimated that over 50, 000 children were uninsured in NJ.To enhance greater support for the overall system, the country embarked on a safe Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (ECCS) which was being coordinated by the Department of Human Services and the Office of Children’s Services. Considering the overall deterioration of the system in New Jersey, the Division of Family Health Services (FHS) has dedicated its mission to improve health, and safety of all the people with emphasis to the children (Hornberger et al, 2005). 3. Goal setting, intervention, evaluation and termination a). Planning and intervention strategiesFollowing the overall demand from the rising numbers of the children being affected by the disease, it became necessary for particularistic options to be taken to assist in reducing the overall prevalence.
Whereas the number of the number of the children being affected by AIDS/HIVS globally declined in the year 2005 & 2006, it is clear that the numbers are still very high. Notably cooperation between various parties is of great essence and harmonic application of the legal policies in different sectors. In Switzerland, the government used a mixed system where all the parties felt equally represented and their view addressed effectively.Though this mode of open democracy and governance has been criticized for being slow in reacting to various aspects, the final results were very encouraging and it served as a major guideline globally (Gerow, 2006).
To add to that, welfare state has assisted greatly in ensuring strong and sufficient funding of the system. Arguably, all the child HIV/AIDS prevalence can only be addressed effectively through establishing enough and sustainable funds to the child care programs (Naughton-Travers, 2001). Notably, a system for research in medical demands and social consideration require effective funding to counter the affected systems.Britain and Australia have managed to establish efficient welfare systems that take care of the young infected or susceptible to the HIV/AIDS demand. Notably, successful address of the HIV/AIDS affected and vulnerable children systems were located under the system of that integrated other issues like tuberculosis and related post pregnancy connotation. In all the systems, education and serene environment for or the children to grow and become responsible people in the society has been their key demand.
b). Goals and objectivesOver the years, the problem of Mal-fragile children exposed/infected with HIV/AIDS in Camden NJ has escalated to affect people at all ages. Notably, the affected children due to lack of effective education that can assist them in understanding the complexity of the issue have later become the main cause of the virus spread in Camden. A holistic consideration that is externally and future focused will therefore be used.
To add to that, most of the children especially the neglected girls are at higher risks of contracting HIV/AIDS due to the rising cases of sexual crime in the town.Recently, major complains have been launched of insecurity especially for the young girls being susceptible to rapes. As indicated earlier, children are the most important assets that a country can boast of at any particular time. This is due to their ability to guarantee a future and ensure continuity of a community, state, and the whole nation in general (Netting et al, 2008).
The main objectives are therefore inclined towards giving the children a clear environment that would lead to ensuring they achieve maximum development.To begin with, it aims at taking care of the infected and neglected children in Camden BY offering them with the daily requirements that they need. According to analysts, it is clear that these children require extra attention to assist them in living positively and attaining maximum development like others. Besides, the strategy will focus on assisting vulnerable children from contracting the disease. Currently, it is clear that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS and all prevention strategies should be emphasized at all cost.Of greater importance will be the objective aimed at ensuring the children get the correct education and the necessary love that they need for growth.
According to the communitarian theory, community structures are responsible for molding their subcomponents in a proactive model that inculcates and reflects the intrinsic consideration of the people. Envisaging the above mentioned objectives will be the overall goal of ensuring better planning and coordinative capacity to bring the human resources, their goodwill and finances under the same roof necessary to execute the system in the most amicable format. ). Intervention strategy implementation To articulate the above goals and objectives in Camden, it will be essential to establish the relevant stakeholders with similar interest. Arguably, the strategy demands special coordination between the Division of Family Health Services and the child care programs.
This would assist in ensuring the relevant resources are flowing to support the system. in addition, there would be established closer cooperation with guardians of the children.Due to lack of information and resources, the parents have been resistant to their children being taken to the child care programs even when they are highly vulnerable. This has been blamed on the existing systems failure to install effective informative systems to the parents and guardians. However, the most important part would entail the children handling, education, and the overall care that would culminate to their maximum potential realization. To effectively assist the Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS they require closer attention to ensure that their overall capabilities are established and developed.
In Dooley House Inc, the art therapy was appreciated by the management for its great capacity to motivate and develop great self esteem for the children. Notably, children have feelings that are in most of the cases hard to express. As BF Skinner indicated in his theory of personal development, a child’s mind is usually blank at the tender age and progresses to assimilate the later demands depending on the environment they are brought up in. Therefore, the strategy would encourage closer and better attachment between the care givers and the Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS in the care programs.Due to the large number of children that are exposed/ infected with HIV/AIDS, it would be very necessary to increase the number of foster homes that are willing to take them.
This would ease the overall burden for various child care programs and foster homes due to congestion. Arguably, it would assist in ensuring better attention given to every child for maximum development at all times. To add to that, the length of period that children takes at the childcare homes would also be extended from the current three months to about six months.Child development requires stability within a given period of time for effective conceptualization and understanding by the immediate care givers. As indicated earlier, every child is unique and demands careful and personalized understanding for its development to be effectively planned. This can only be done through ample time allowance to them before they are ready for placement.
d). Managing the barriers Notably, the success of a strategy is based on the ability to manage the various barriers towards achieving the overall objectives.According to the theory of strategic management, it is important to ensure that opportunities and strengths are built upon and effectively established to reduce the barriers to the main strategy (Netting ET AL, 2008). One of the main barriers in Camden is the parents who are unwilling to release their Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS.
However, an inclusive strategy where the parents are included in the decision making of the affected or risky child to be taken to the child care homes should be established. The theory further indicates that resistance is generally out of seclusion of one party.Therefore, as part of the stakeholders capacity building operation, the strategy would harmonize the system where education programs would be intensified making the initiative to gain popularity in the whole city. In the program, the system would emphasis on the positive impacts to be achieved via giving the Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS to the child care programs. e).
Measuring the accomplishment Whereas measuring the overall success of a program requires long term analysis, the overall progress of the goals assimilation would be done in a short term basis and projected towards the final objectives.To begin with, the parents cooperation through their reduced resistance to allow their Mal-fragile children exposed/infected to HIV/AIDS be taken care of in special child care homes would form a major indicator. This would also be measured by their overall cooperation after understanding that their children would actually be in better positions to develop both physically and mentally when given the serene environment for growth. To add to that, the children’s ability to harmonize and openly assume the development path would indicate the ability of the initiative to achieve the overall objectives.
To add to that, the accomplishment of the goals would be broken down to short term demands upon which the ability to trace the major objectives would be weighed. Therefore, strong observation and sensitivity skills would be very necessary in ensuring easier identification of child’s progress (Hornberger et al, 2005). This would help in establishing holistic strategies that can be used for the whole state. f). Special considerations required for termination of the program Effective projects and programs administration operates within specific time frame guidelines.
During this time frame, the overall capacity for the strategic operations should have realized its objectives as stipulated in the management strategy. This intervention therefore would consider funds availability to ensure that the children are able to get the best according to the stipulated objectives. As indicated earlier, the funds allocated to the initiative are subject to the number of children to be catered for in the child care facility. Therefore, the completion of this amount should be considered as the correct period to terminate the program.
To add to that, achievement of the objectives should be the main platform for termination consideration. To effectively operate a given program, the ability to assess and point at the success of a project should form a good termination point (Copeman, 2009). However, the termination demands should be considered against the overall Camden’s city ability to self perpetuates the system that would make the children have the correct environment for effective growth. To add to that, the termination should actually set a major platform for the other child care programs to articulate and assimilate the ideals of the intervention effort.