Social Welfare Policy making. 18 Essay

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Social Welfare Policies
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policies that provide benefits, cash or in kind, to individuals based on either entitlement or means testing
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Entitlement Programs
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government programs providing benefits to qualified individuals regardless of need (social insurance)
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Means-Tested Programs
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government programs providing benefits only to individuals who qualify based on specific needs (food stamps and medicaid)
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Income Distrobution
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the way the national income is divided into ‘Shares’ ranging from the poor to the rich
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Relative Deprevation
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a perception by an individual that he or she is not doing well economically in comparison to others
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Income
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the amount of money collect between any two points in time
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Wealth
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the value of assets owned
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Poverty Line
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the income threshold below which people are considered poor, based on what a family must spend for an ‘austere’ standard of living, traditionally set at three times the cost of a subsistence diet
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Feminization of Poverty
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the increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
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Progressive Tax
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a tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich than of the poor
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Proportional Tax
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a tax by which the government takes the same share of income from everyone, rich and poor alike
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Regressive Tax
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a tax in which burden falls relatively more heavily on low-income groups than on wealthy taxpayers
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Earned Income Tax Credit
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the EITC, is a refundable federal income tax credit for low- to moderate- income working individuals and families, even if the did not earn enough money to be required to file a tax return
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Transfer Payments
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benefits given by the government directly to individuals- either cash transfers, such as social security payments, or in kind transfers, such as food stamps and low- interest college loans
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Social Security Act of 1935
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created both the social security program and a national assistance program for poor families, usually called Aid to Families with Dependent Children
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Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
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a welfare reform law of 1996, which implemented the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program
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Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
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replacing Aid to Families with Dependent Children as the program for public assistance to the needy families, TANF requires people on welfare to find work within two years and sets a lifetime maximum of five years
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Social Security Trust Fund
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the ‘account’ into which social security employee and employer contributions are ‘deposited’ and used to pay out eligible recipients

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