Social Studies Review 5th Grade

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Brown v. Board of Education
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The 1954 Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation in Topeka, Kans., was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States.
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Montgomery Bus Boycott
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In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
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The March on Washington
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In 1963, Congress was discussing a bill to end segregation in the United States. To show support for the bill, Dr. King and other civil rights leaders organized a protest march in Washington, D.C. Over 200,000 people took part. Dr. King gave his most famous speech at the march. His speech became known as the \”I Have a Dream\” speech.
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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President Lyndon Johnson worked with Congress to pass this law. It banned segregation in schools, workplaces, and public places such as restaurants and theatres.
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Law passed by Congress making it illegal to prevent or hinder citizens from voting because of their racial or ethnic backgrounds
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Thurgood Marshall
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The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
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Rosa Parks
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United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
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America’s greatest civil rights leader. His nonviolent protests gained national attention and resulted in government protection of African American rights. He was assassinated in 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee
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UNITED NATIONS
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The international organization that was formed during WWII, led by the United States, and its allies, in order to keep peace in the world.
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COLD WAR
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A \”war of ideas between the communist Soviet Union and the democratic United States. .During this \”war\”, the United States and other countries tried to stop the spread of communism.
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IRON CURTAIN
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A figurative symbol of the differences between communist and noncommunist countries.
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BERLIN AIRLIFT
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Leaders of the United States and Britain broke through the Soviet blockade of the city of Berlin and flew food and supplies into the city. Supplies were dropped to the thousands of people trapped within West Berlin.
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KOREAN WAR
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June 1950, communist North Korea invaded the republic of South Korea, which was supported by the United States. The US convinced NATO to defend South Korea in the KOREAN WAR. Fighting was agreed to stop in 1953, with no true victors as North and South Korea remained divided.
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NATO (North Atlanta Treaty Organization)
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An alliance composed of the Leaders from the United States, Canad, Britain, and most of the noncommunist countries of Europe. The purpose was to protect eachother, and other countries, from being forced into communsion by the Soviet Union.
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JOSEPH McCARTHY
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American Senator and anti-communist who claimed that communists worked in the U.S. government.
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NIKITA KHRUSCHEV
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Leader of the Soviet Union during the second half of the Cold War and during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
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CUBAN MISSLE CRISIS
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October, 1962, the United States discovered that the Soviet Union was secretly putting powerful missles on the island of Cuba (90 miles south of Florida). President Kennedy orders a blockade of the island nation preventing Soviet ships from reaching Cuba. After several days of tense times, and the threat of nuclear war, Khrushchev decided to remove the missiles from Cuba. In return, Kennedy promised not to attack Cuba.
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VIETNAM WAR
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A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
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Babe Ruth
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The greatest baseball player of the 1920’s. He set a record for hitting 60 home runs in one season.
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Langston Hughes
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A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote \”The Negro Speaks of Rivers\” and \”My People\”
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Louis Armstrong
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Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
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Henry Ford
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1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
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Charles Lindbergh
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First to fly solo across the Atlantic in 1927
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Duke Ellington
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United States jazz composer and piano player and bandleader during the Harlem Renaissance
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Jesse Owens
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was an African American athlete won four gold medals in the 1936 Olympic games was not recognized by Adolph Hitler when he received his medals.
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Margaret Mitchell
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United States writer noted for her novel, Gone With the Wind, about the South during the Civil War.
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Herbert Hoover
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31st President of the United States, president of the U.S from 1929-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression.
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
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32nd US President – He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation’s leader during most of WWII
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the amount of something that people want to buy at certain prices
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demand
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the amount of something that people want to sell at certain prices
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supply
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People in the ______ and ________ United States wanted cattle products such as beef and leather.
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eastern and northern
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There were many cattle in ____________ but few people to buy them.
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Texas
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A town where railroad tracks begin or end.
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railhead
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What is a cattle drive?
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When cowhands led cattle to the railheads following trails where water and grass were available
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Cattle drives lasted only for about ____ years
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20
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What were the reasons the cattle trails ended?
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1) wire was put up by new settlers 2) growth or railroads 3) not enough grass to feed all the cattle
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The price of cattle was affected by ______ and _________
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supply and demand
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Name the cattle trails
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Shawnee, Chisholm, Western, Goodnight-Loving
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Cattle ranchers sent their cattle to the North and East because
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They could sell their cattle for more money
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How did barbed wire change the life of the cattle ranchers?
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Settlers blocked the trails with barbed wire fences.
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12th Amendment
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The electoral college must have two separate elections for president & vice president
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13th Amendment
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All slaves are free
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14th Amendment
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Foreign born citizens can vote
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15th Amendment
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All men get the right to vote no matter what their race or skin color is
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17th Amendment
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The people elect their own U.S. Senators
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19th Amendment
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Women have the right to vote.
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23rd Amendment
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Residents of Washington D.C. can vote for the president
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24th Amendment
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You may not charge people money (a poll tax) to register to vote
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26th Amendment
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You can vote at the age of 18
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AMENDMENT PROCESS
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Congress proposes an Amendment OR state legislatures ask for a meeting to propose an Amendment. To be accepted, 3/4 (75%) of the state legistlatures must ratify (approve) the Amendment OR 3/4 (75%) of special state conventions ratify (approve) the Amendment.
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DUE PROCESS
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Due Process states that the people have the right to be treated fairly by the government. The content of a law must be fair & reasonable & government officials have to follow certain procedures when they enforce the laws.
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fascism
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A political belief system in which the government controls the economy, culture, and all parts of people’s lives.
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dictator
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A ruler who has total control of a country and its people.
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racism
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The idea that one race, or group of people, is better than other races.
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mobilize
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To get ready to fight, such as in war.
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newsreel
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A short film about current events.
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internment camp
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A place where prisoners are held during wartime.
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aircraft carrier
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A large ship that carries airplanes far from land.
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atomic bomb
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A powerful bomb that can destroy an entire city.
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concentration camp
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A place where large numbers of people are held prisoner and forced to work.
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Pearl Harbor
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United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. The attack occurred on December 7, 1941.
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Iwo Jima
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United States fought for and captured this Pacific Island; the battle produced some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II; major island in island hopping campaign
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D-Day
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June 6, 1944 – Led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, over a million troops stormed the beaches at Normandy (France) and began the process of re-taking France. This was the turning point of World War II.
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VE Day
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May 8, 1945; Victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
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VJ Day
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August 15, 1945 – the Victory in Japan Day when the Japanese surrendered
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Holocaust
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The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
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Hiroshima
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A city in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
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Nagaski
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August 9, 1945, a 2nd atomic bomb was dropped on this city in Japan three days after the first one, killing over 40,000 people. This caused Emperor Hirohito to force the Japanese government to surrender on August 10, 1945.
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Harry S. Truman
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President of the United States after FDR’s death; approved the use of the atomic bomb against Japan
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
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The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and WWII. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
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Josef Stalin
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The leader of Russia during WWII – wanted to spread communism throughout the world
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Winston Churchill
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Great Britain’s Prime Minister throughout most of World War II and along with FDR planned many allied campaigns.
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Emperor Hirohito
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Emperor of Japan during WWII
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Benito Mussolini
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Fascist leader of Italy during WWII
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Adolf Hitler
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Leader of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich in Germany during World War II.
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Rosie the Riveter
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Symbol of American women who went to work in factories during World War II
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Tuskegee Airmen
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An all-black unit of fighter pilots during WWII. They trained in Tuskegee, Alabama and won many awards for bravery. They never lost a single pilot during their campaigns.
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Navajo Code Talkers
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During WWII, Navajo soldiers who used their own language to radio vital messages during the island-hopping campaign
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nationalism
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he belief that your country deserves more success than others
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militarism
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the building of a strong military to frighten or defeat other countries
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alliance
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an agreement nations make to support and defend each other
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trench warfare
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when soldiers fight from long, narrow ditches
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rations
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limits on the amount of goods people could have
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propaganda
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information that is used to shape people’s thinking
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armistice
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an agreement to stop fighting
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isolationism
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staying out of world events
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Why did countries such as Germany compete for land and power?
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nationalism
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What happened in 1914 that led to WWI?
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Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia.
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What made the United States enter the war?
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Germany attacked American ships.
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What is rationing?
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Setting limits on goods civilians can have.
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Who were the new workers in factories when the men went overseas to fight in the war?
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African Americans and women
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Why did the Allied leaders meet in France in 1919?
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To write the Treaty of Versailles
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Some Allied leaders used the Treaty of Versailles to:
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punish Germany by taking land and money.
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Why didn’t the United States join the League of Nations?
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The didn’t want to be pulled into more wars
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Who was the president during WWI
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Woodrow Wilson
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What was the purpose of the League of Nations?
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To solve problems peacefully and avoid war
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How did trench warfare change the way war was fought?
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Soldiers fought and lived on the battlefield
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How did the Treaty of Versailles impact Germany?
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They had to accept full responsibility for causing the war They had to give up land They had to pay compensation to the Allies for the war They were not allowed to make or export weapons Germany became isolated and distrusted by other countries

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