Social Psychology: Group processes

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group cohesiveness
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the extent to which forces push group members close together, such as through feelings of intimacy, unity and commitment to group goals.
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social facilitation
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the process in which the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
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mere presence theory
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the proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation.
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evaluation apprehension theory
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a theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
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distraction-conflict theory
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a theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
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social loafing
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a group-produced reduction in individual output on tasks where contributions are pooled.
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collective effort model
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the theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
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deindiviation
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the loss of a person’s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behaviour.
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social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE)
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a model group behaviour that explains deindividuation effects as the result of a shift from personal identity to social identity.
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process loss
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the reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
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process gain
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the increase of group performance so that the group outperforms the individuals who comprise the group.
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group polarization
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the exaggeration of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members through group discussion.
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groupthink
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group decision making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
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escalation effect
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the condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
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biased sampling
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the tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information than unshared information.
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group support systems
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specialized interactive computer programs that are used to guide group meetings, collaborative work, and decision making processes.
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social dilemma
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a situation in which a self=interested choice by everyone will create the worst outcome for everyone.
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prisoner’s dilemma
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one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one’s self-interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than if they had both cooperated.
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resource dilemmas
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social dilemmas involving how two or more people will share a limited resource
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graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)
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a strategy for unilateral persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties
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integrative agreement
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a negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of contested resources.

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