Social Psychology 9th Edition Aronson/Wilson/Sommers/Akert Chapter 9

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Group
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Two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other. (two people are sometimes referred to as a dyad instead)
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Social Roles
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Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
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Group Cohesiveness
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Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between them
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Social Facilitation
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When people are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated, the tendency to perform better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks.
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Evaluation Apprehension
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The concern about being judged
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Social Loafing
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When people are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated, the tendency to perform worse on simple or unimportant tasks but better on complex or important tasks.
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Relational Interdependence
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The tendency to focus on and care about personal relationships with other individuals (more prominent in women — who therefore are less affected by social loafing).
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Deindividuation
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The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified (such as when they are in a crowd).
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Process Loss
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Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
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Transactive Memory
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The combined memory of a group that is more efficient than the memory of the individual members
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Groupthink
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A kind of decision making process in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic matter
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Defeating Groupthink (4 steps)
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1) Remain Impartial 2) Seek outside opinions 3) Create Subgroups 4) Seek anonymous opinions
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Group Polarization
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The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members
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Great Person Theory
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The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
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Transactional Leaders
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Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
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Transformational Leaders
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Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
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Contingency Theory of Leadership
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The idea that the effectiveness of a leader depends on both how task oriented or relationship oriented the leader is and on the amount of control the leader has over the group
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Task-Oriented Leaders
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Leaders who are concerned more with getting the job done than working with workers’ feelings and relationships
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Relationship-Oriented Leaders
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Leaders whoa re concerned more with workers’ feelings and relationships
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\”Glass Cliff\”
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The idea that women are put into more \”crises\” situations when being hired for leadership positions (assumably because they are perceived to be more communal during disputes), thus setting them up to fail more often than men.
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Social Dilemma
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A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
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Tit-for-tat strategy (PD)
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A means of encouraging cooperations by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or competitively) on the previous trial.
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Negotiation
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A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
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Integrative Solution
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A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues, with each side conceding the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side.

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