Social Psychology Flashcard Answers

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Social Psychology
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is the systematic study of the nature and causes of human social action
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The definition has 3 parts of social psychology…
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This definition has 3 parts: Social Action, which includes: behaviors, thoughts, feelings Nature & Causes- What people do AND why they do it Systematic study- Employs the scientific method & formal research methodologies
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Theory What is the main concern of social psychology?
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Social psychologists investigate human behavior, of course, but their primary concern is human behavior in a social context. There are 5 core concerns, or major themes, within social psychology: 1. the impact of one individual on another’s behavior & beliefs; 2. the impact of a group on a member’s behavior & beliefs; 3. the impact of member on the groups’ activities & structure; 4. the impact of one group on another group’s activities & structure; 5. the impact of social context and social structure on groups & individuals
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What is the purpose of social psychological theories?
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The purpose is to obtain accurate knowledge about social behavior by applying the methods of science. That is, by making systematic observations of behavior & formulating theories that are subject to testing, we can attain a valid & comprehensive understanding of human social relations. Also, to create a framework for understanding human behavior, thought, and development; so that we can have an understanding on how and why we act a certain way.
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What are the main theoretical perspectives in social psychology?
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1. Behavioral perspectives 2. Cognitive perspectives 3. Evolutionary Perspective 4. Symbolic Interaction Perspective 5. Social Structural Perspective 6. Group Processes
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Explain the focus of each perspective with regard to human social action.
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1. Behavioral Perspectives= Basic Premise: explanation for human behavior should be based on observable, verifiable behaviors rather than what people are presumably thinking Example: getting a new car will motivate a teenager to graduate high school. Getting money will motivate an adult to go to work every day. 2. Cognitive Perspectives= Basic Premise: explanation for human behavior must include a consideration of their mental processes. The mental activities (cognitive processes) of the individual are important determinants of social behavior. Example: – This is the process of formulating logical arguments. It involves making deductions and inferences and why some people value certain deductions over others. This can be affected by educated intuitive guesses, fallacies or stereotypes. 3. Evolutionary Theory= Basic Premise: locates the roots of social behavior in our genes, linked to the biological. Example: Jill has been afraid of spiders since she was a toddler. After determining that she had never been bitten or seen someone bitten by a spider, her therapist explained that according to evolutionary psychology, Jill’s fear might be an instinctive reaction. 4. Symbolic Interaction= Basic Premise: people are active agents in determining their own actions & establishing social expectations through interactive negotiation. This perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction. Thus, society is thought to be socially constructed through human interpretation. Example:, why would young people smoke cigarettes even when all objective medical evidence points to the dangers of doing so? The answer is in the definition of the situation that people create. Studies find that teenagers are well informed about the risks of tobacco, but they also think that smoking is cool, that they themselves will be safe from harm, and that smoking projects a positive image to their peers. So, the symbolic meaning of smoking overrides that actual facts regarding smoking and risk. 5. Social Structure & Personality= Basic Premise: people’s actions can be understood in terms of the different expectations society imposes on member in patterned locations or social statuses & roles. The social structure & personality perspective asserts that we each occupy a unique position within the social structure, & that this position influences our personality. Example: Older women do not typically wear short skirts and dresses because it’s not “appropriate” for their age
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Discuss the similarities and differences between reinforcement, cognitive, and symbolic interaction theories.
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Reinforcement theory portrays that people are more likely to perform a behavior if it is followed by something pleasurable or by the removal of something aversive (Central concept=Stimulus-response; reinforcement). Reinforcement theory cannot easily explain altruism (the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others) & martyrdom (a display of feigned or exaggerated suffering to obtain sympathy or admiration). (People can act a way for many different reasons). Cognitive theory maintains that the link between external stimuli & behavioral response is indirect (thoughts/beliefs) → (Central concept=Cognitions; cognitive structure). Symbolic interaction theory is when people are active agents in determining their own actions & establishing social expectations through interactive negotiation → (Central concept= self; role taking)
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What are the six propositions that are central to the social structural/role theory perspective.
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1. spend most of life participating as members of groups/organizations 2. within group, people have positions 3. within position they have roles, where they are defined by expectations 4. groups formalize expectations as norms, specify how they should behave and reward/punishment for performance 5. people are conformists, they try to meet expectations of others 6. group members check each other’s performance to see if they meet the group’s norm, and will reward/punish according to it to set example for others
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Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of the five major theoretical perspectives.
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1. Behavioral: Strengths= Everyone can learn by watching what happens to that person → Reward or punishment. Weaknesses= People can act a certain way for many different reasons. 2. Cognitive: Strengths= To make sense of complex information about people, groups, or situations, actors rely on cognitive structures & schemas → stereotypes Allows us to make rapid decisions regarding how to interact with people Weaknesses= Cognitive processes are not directly observable and cognitive perspectives simplify (& sometimes oversimplify) how people process information 3. Evolutionary: Strengths=Evolutionary social psychologists extend evolutionary ideas to explain social behavior Weaknesses= Based on circular reasoning- explanations constructed after-the-fact & difficulty in judging explanations against competing arguments. 4. Symbolic Interaction: Strengths= Symbols allow a unique consciousness of “Self” as a social object & its meaning is developed & negotiated in interaction. Weaknesses= overemphasizes rational, self-conscious thought and de-emphasizes unconscious or emotional states 5. Social Structural: Strengths= People’s action can be understood in terms of the different expectations society imposes on members in patterned locations or social statuses and roles Weaknesses= has difficulty explaining deviant behavior or any behavior that violates the norms defining a given role does not and cannot explain how role expectations originate or how they change
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Be able to apply each perspective to an example
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1. Behavioral= If an older sibling received a punishment for not doing homework, the younger sibling will not do the same thing so they won’t get punished as well. 2. Cognitive= Our schema for “law student” might be a set of traits thought to be characteristic of such persons: intelligent, analytic, logical, etc. New friend joins group → instant judgment, doesn’t like them already maybe because they remind you of someone you don’t like or because they are unfamiliar 3. Evolutionary= Social behavior, including altruism, aggression, mate selection, sexual behavior, etc. 4. Symbolic Interaction= Parents still treat their adult son like a child so it’s very difficult to portray what the identity is. 5. Social Structural= Girls are shy while boys are more outgoing.
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Methods: What are the objective and characteristics of scientific research?
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Key objectives of research: describing reality identifying correlations between variables testing causal hypotheses & theories Characteristics of Science: based on empirical objective observation (witness & verify) used an explicit, formal methodology involves the accumulation of facts & generalizations into a body of theory
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Discuss how each of the research methods covered in class might be used to gather information/data about a social issue
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-survey -observational study archival research laboratory experiment field experiment
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Contrast internal and external validity
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Internal validity= free of contamination by extraneous influences is a matter of degree; findings may have high or low internal validity Ex.- the effect of class size on cheating have low internal validity due to the possibly confounding effect of exam format very important; without it, a study cannot provide clear, interpretable results. External validity= extent to which causal relationships in a research setting/population can be generalized outside of the study in the real world. Important & desirable because the results of a study often have general importance only if they generalize beyond the particular setting in which they appeared.
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Describe the two forms of bias that can intrude into social psychological studies
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1. Demand characteristics subject/response effects Error associated with the person from whom information is being collected. 2. Experimenter/Interviewer Effects Error associated with the person collecting the information.
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How can harm to participants of social psychological studies be reduced or prevented?
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Institutional Safeguards Common Rule, 45 Code of Federal Regulations 46 A Investigators & institutions are responsible for minimizing the risks to participants in research Encourages no more than “minimal risk”- meaning risk ordinarily encountered in daily life or routine physical/psychological exams Requires federally funded institutions to establish an institutional review board (IRB) which conducts a risk-benefit analysis Weighs risks to participants against benefits, if any, as well as the importance of the knowledge that may result from the research. The IRB will not approve research involving risk to participants unless it is deemed ‘reasonable’ in relation to the benefits. The common rule requires that investigators obtain informed consent from all research participants (orgs, individuals, groups) 6 essential elements to informed consent: Potential respondents receive an explanation of the purpose of the research, & a description of the procedures. Acknowledgement of any foreseeable risks of participation Description of any benefits to the participants or others List of available medical or psychological resources available in the case of adverse effects. Researchers should offer to answer questions about the study when possible Disclosure of the participant’s rights to terminate their participation at any time
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Discuss the ethical issue in social psychological research
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Research participants have certain rights that must be respected. Protecting those rights may, at times, require investigators to limit or modify their research practices. Researchers must consider: Potential Sources of Harm Physical Harm Uncommon in social psychological research If physical harm is a risk, researchers may include preliminary screening to exclude participants with a relevant medical condition Psychological Harm More common risk Manipulations may include providing false negative feedback to participants (ex: participants might be told they did poorly on a test) → May cause stress or harm, at least temporarily Researchers may try to reduce long term harm by providing a thorough debrief immediately following participation Breach of Confidentiality Particularly important in surveys & observational research Precautions vary based on methodology Invasion of personal privacy Institutional Safeguards Risk-benefit analysis, informed consent Potential Benefits Usually, participants do not benefit directly from participation Some exceptions: Field trials of new forms of treatment for physical or psychological problems may directly benefit participants if the treatment proves effective. Participants in some studies may gain insight into themselves & others Ex.- A longitudinal study of couples in premarital relationships included measures of how men & women were affected. Many participants reported that they paid more attention to evaluating their relationship, & those who reported paying more attention reported more satisfaction with their relationship at the end of the yearlong study. Other Issues Inherent tension between informed consent & demand characteristics Respect for vulnerable populations Researchers also have ethical obligations toward their colleagues & the scientific community not to misrepresent their results.
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Socialization:
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Socialization= the interactive processes with others in society through which individuals learn the ways of behaving, thinking, & feeling that are essential for effective participation in society, & lead to the acquisition of the Self Socialization makes us like most other members of society in important ways. Socialization also produces our individuality Some theorists view socialization as largely dependent on processes of physical & psychological maturation, which are biologically determined Sense of self & the capacity to engage in self-oriented acts are a result of socialization
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identify the four basic perspectives of socialization
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1. The Developmental Perspective= Gesell & Ilg (1943) documented the sequence in which motor & social skills develop & the ages at which each new ability appears in the average child. They viewed the development of many social behaviors as primarily due to physical & neurological maturation, not social factors. Focuses on the unfolding of the child’s own abilities 2. The Social Learning Perspective= emphasizes the child’s acquisition of cognitive & behavioral skills in interaction with the environment. Socialization is primarily a process of children learning the shared meanings of the groups in which they are reared. 3. The Interpretive Perspective= focuses on the interaction itself. Socialization is social interaction. the process by which people act toward or respond to one another; requires the use of symbols which must be learned. Focus on how individuals learn to interpret, give symbolic meaning to social interactions. Society exists because socialized individuals internalize social norms, beliefs, & values, & the roles they lay with others, & make them part of the Self. The Self is the internalized, negotiated social order 4. The Impact of Social Structure= Socialization is learning the expectations associated with statuses & roles. Organized according to a sequence of age-related roles & statuses through which developing individuals transition In American society, these include familial roles, such as son or daughter, & roles in educational institutions, such as preschooler, elementary school student, & high school student. (These are age-linked roles; we expect transitions from one role to another to occur at certain ages).
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what are some of the similarities and difference between the perspective
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compare the development and social learning perspectives
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Developmental perspectives focuses on social forces that influence the development of cognitive abilities. Socialization is dependent on biologically determined physical/neurological & psychological maturation. Whereas the developmental perspective focuses on the unfolding of the child’s own abilities, the social learning perspective emphasizes the child’s acquisition of cognitive & behavioral skills in interaction with the environment.
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How does the interpretive perspective view deviation from norms?
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In daily interaction, children use the language & interpretative skills that they are learning or discovering. As they become more proficient in communicating & more knowledgeable about the meanings shared in the family & school, children attain a deeper understanding of the culture. Children, through interaction, acquire & reproduce the culture.
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Erkinson’s stage
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1. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (by 3 years)= parental care (is the world a bad place or no) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (3-5 years old)= kids experiment & develop encouragement → autonomy 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (Play stage→ 4-5 years old)= Develop their own agenda & independent if there is encouragement 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 or 16 years)= Feel they’re capable to do anything 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (16-25 years)= Coherent personality of self Adolescence to Adulthood What roles fit & what doesn’t can’t smoke til 18, can’t smoke til 21, etc. Develop an identity 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adulthood→ 18-25)= Thinking about getting married (Exposure to vulnerability→ risking rejection) 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Adulthood to Middle Age)= if you feel you contributed to society in any way. “At 40, I don’t feel like I did anything.” 8. Integrity vs. Despair (Old Age)= Looking back on your life & being satisfied
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What are some of the techniques used to socialize children in schools?
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School is a formal agency intentionally designed to socialize children in particular skills & values. Teachers determine what skills he/she teaches & relies heavily on instrumental learning techniques, with such reinforcers as praise, blame, & privileges to shape student behavior. Every child’s behavior & work is evaluated by the same standards & the judgments are made public to others in the class as well as to parents. Schools teach children which selves are desirable & which are not. Ex.- turning in homework, standing in line, speak only when called upon, etc.
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How do the three primary agents of socialization reinforce traditional gender roles?
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Family: Parents will paint a boy’s room blue and a girl’s room pink. Also dress them in blue and pink according to gender roles. Barbie dolls and teddy bears for girls, action figures and cars for boys. Peers: girls playing with dolls and playing jumprope together, boys playing sports together. Schools: Boys and girls restrooms. Girls are not picked on as often in class compared to boys. Mass Media: extremely powerful due to high levels of exposure. Shapes certain views for gender. TV shows that portray men as having to be super masculine and girls as pretty and not as smart as boys.
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Define the 3 levels of moral reasoning in kohl berg’s model of moral development
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1. Pre-conventional morality- moral judgment based on external consequences of acts. Rules are obeyed in order to avoid punishment. → based on external, physical consequences of acts 2. Conventional morality- moral judgment based on social consequences of acts. Rules are obeyed to show respect for authorities & maintain social order. → based on social consequences of acts 3. Postconventional morality- moral judgment based on universal moral & ethical principles. Rules are obeyed in order to adhere to one’s principles. → based on universal moral & ethical principles
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Using each level of the model, explain why some students would decide to cheat on an exam while others would not.
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1. Pre-conventional morality- Some students wouldn’t cheat because they think about the consequences if they were to get caught to see if it’s even worth it (Get kicked out of school) while others would cheat because they don’t really care about the punishment & that they believe they won’t get caught. 2. Conventional morality- Some students wouldn’t cheat because they respect the professor while others don’t see them that way. 3. Postconventional morality- Some students wouldn’t cheat because they know it’s not the right thing to do while others don’t share the same principle.
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Contrast the structural and interactionist concepts of “roles”
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Structural Role Theory= Socialization is the process of molding individual activities to pre-existing social expectations =Role-Taking Individuals take on pre-defined roles & are socialized to perform those roles Role performance based on conformity to role expectations associated with a particular status Interactionist Role Theory= Socialization is the process of negotiation between objects & agents of socialization =Role-Making Roles are not nonspecific guidelines within which an individual has room for personal preferences & styles Role performance based on the process of making a role from broadly defined cultural role expectations & negotiation of the Self
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What do first impressions and stereotypes have in common?
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They both have in common because we often use stereotypes to base off our first impressions when introduced to someone new
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How does the ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ reinforce our ‘confirmatory bias’ in social cognitive processing?
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Impressions become self-fulling prophecies when we behave toward others according to our impressions & evoke corresponding reactions from them (Ch.6) Comparing yourself to people worst than you to make you feel better about yourself..
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what is the social about the fundamental and ultimate attribution errors ?
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The tendency to overestimate the importance of personal (dispositional) factors & to underestimate situational influences is called the fundamental attribution error. This bias toward dispositional factors was labeled “fundamental” because it was documented in study after study over the years & assumed to be universal. Ultimate attribution error is a perceptual bias occurring in intergroup relations. Negative behaviors by out-group members are attributed to stable, internal factors such as undesirable personal traits or dispositions, but positive behavior by out-groups members are attributed to unstable, external factors such as situational pressures or luck. ?? (Ch 6 & 13)
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Describe dispositional, role, and social identities.
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1. Dispositional Identities= our beliefs, concepts about ourselves in reference to our dispositions, personality characteristics, behavioral tendencies. 2. Role Identities= social structural identities: our beliefs, concepts about ourselves in relation to our social roles We construct identities by observing our own actions & the responses of others to us as we enact roles. Social Identities= our beliefs, concepts, definitions about in terms of the defining characteristics of a social group or social category Each of us associates certain characteristics with members of specific groups. If you define yourself as a member of the group, these characteristics become standards for your thoughts, feelings, & actions.
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Contrast cognitive dissonance and self-perception theories
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LOOK at notes
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Contrast the self-perepection processes of self reflection and social comparison
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Self-Reflection is the meditation or serious though about one’s character, actions, & motives while Social Comparison is to interpret whether performance represent success or failure, we must often compare them with our own goals & self-expectations or with the performances of others. Social comparison is crucial to self-esteem, because the feelings of competence or worth we derive from a performance depend in large part on with whom we are compared, both by ourselves & by others.
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What is the norm of reciprocity in self-diclosure ?
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Self-Disclosure= When we speak as sharing our identity(s) with another we are speaking about self-disclosure revealing personal information to others. The norm of reciprocity is a social norm stating that people should (1) help those who have previously helped them & (2) not help those who have denied them help for no legitimate reason.
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Describe tactical self-presentation
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Tactical self-presentation is a public image that is positive/favorable regardless of whether it is authentic or ideal
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What is the tactic of ingratiation?
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Use of deception to increase the other’s liking for us because they control a desired resource. Ex- flirting with your boss to be more likeable
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What is the manipulation game in self-presentation?
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…..Distinguishes: Expressions Given-verbal “” Off inadvertent
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How do aligning actions helps us to save face?
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Aligning Actions= attempt to define apparently questionable behavior as actually in line. Ex.- You know someone is lying to you but you let it go. When people repeatedly or glaringly fail to meet performance standards or to present appropriate identities, others cease to help them save face → maintain an identity. Instead, they may act deliberately to modify the offenders’ identities or to remove them from their positions in interaction. Mutual commitment to supporting each other’s social identities is a basic rule of social interaction. 1. Disclaimers- preventive facework a verbal assertion intended to ward off any negative implications of impending actions by defining these actions as irrelevant to one’s established identity. 2. Accounts- corrective facework explanations we offer to make to mitigate responsibility after having performed acts that threaten their social identities (excuses, justifications, concessions, refusals)
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Impression Management
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High and Low Monitors
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