Social Problems

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The poverty gap refers to the difference between the ___ and the offical poverty line.
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Actual income of the typical poor household
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Today, the age category at greatest risk of poverty is
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Children
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___ is an organized effort by government, private organizations, or individuals to assist those considered worthy of assistance
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A social welfare program
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The text points out that
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The 1996 welfare law limits families to 2 consecutive years of benefits with a 5 year lifetime cap.
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Which term refers to the trend by which women represent an increasing share of the poor
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Feminization of poverty
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Which of the following regions of the United States has the highest poverty rate
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Central cities
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In approaching the problem of homelessness, conservatives point to
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a personal problems, such as alcohol abuse and mental illness, amoung the homeless
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In approaching the problem of homelessness, liberals point to
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economic issues such as low-wage jobs and high rates of unemployment.
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In the United States, social welfare programs benefit
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Just about everyone
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In 1932, President Franklin D. Roosevelt described \”one-third\” of a nation ill-clothed, ill-housed, and ill-fed, and proposed the \”New Deal\” which included
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Social Security
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Finding the cause of a social problem in the behavior of people who suffer from the problem is referred to as
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blaming the victim
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Regarding income distribution in the United States, the overall pattern reveals
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that income inequality is currently greater than at any time during the last fifty years
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Stratification produces categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities. These categories are termed
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Social classes
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In the United States, a progressive tax rate means that
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rich people pay at a higher rat than lower-income people
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The Williams family lives in an inner-city community that is poor, cut off from the larger society, and without good schools and good-paying jobs. This family is experiencing
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hypersegregation
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Today, 51 percent of poor familes contain
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a woman head of the household with no man present.
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Sociologist Herbert Gans pointed out that inequality benefits
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rich people by ensuring there is a supply of poor people willing to do almost any job, no matter how unpleasant.
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In general, most conservatives express compassion for people who are poor
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due to disablilty or for some reason that is no fault of their own
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Overall, the result of the 1996 federal welfare reform has been
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a decrease in the number of people receiving welfare but little change in the number of poor people
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Most people living below the poverty line are
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white
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According to which of the following political positions does the solution to poverty lie in government reforms, such as changes in the minimum wage and tax rates
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liberal
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In 1945, sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore maintained that inequality is useful for the operation of society. This thesis reflects which type of analysis
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structual functional analysis
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Former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell speaks as a conservative when he argues that the most effective way to prevent social problems like poverty is to
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teach children personal responsibility and hard work
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Poverty involves not only a lact of money; it also can mean a lack of skills, values, attitudes, and schooling that increase a person’s chances of success, which together are called
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cultural capital
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The typical \”welfare family\” today receives about how much assistance each month
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$400
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An organized effort to encourage or discourage social change is called a
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Social movement
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Which of the following statements correctly expresses the sociological view of social problems
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Social problems result from the ways in which society operates
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Because social problems result from the ways in which society operates
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Solving them requires change to society itself
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Adopting a global perspective shows us which of the following patterns
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Poverty is more serious in much of the world than it is in United States
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Which theoretical approach sees a society as a system of many interrelated parts
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Structural functionalist approach
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Major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, that are organized to meet a basic human need are referred to as
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Social institutions
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Which general approach now dominates the sociological study of social problems
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The social conflict approach
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Which theroy claims that people develop troublesome attitudes and behaviors from those areound them
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Learning theory
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Which method has researchers investigate cause-and-effect relationships under highly controlled conditions
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The experiement
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The continuum representing a range of political attitudes is called
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The political spectrum
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According to a Marxist approach, social problems such as poverty result from
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the operation of a capitalist economy
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Which theory is based on the idea that problems arise when rapid change overwhelms society’s institutions
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social disorganiazation theory
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A social problem is defined as a condition that
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harms some or all members of society and is controversial
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Which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of a social pattern that are intended and widely recongnized
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manifest functions
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Which of the following concepts refers to the negative consequences of social patterns
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dysfunctions
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Which of the following would have the support os social liberals
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legal marriage for gay and lesbian people
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Issues are fefined as social problems if
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they are defined as undesirable and in need of change
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A formal stategy that shapes some dimension of social life is called
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social policy
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Although the sociological perspective gives us power to change society, it
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can also lead to the disturbing conclusion that people suffer through no fault of their own
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Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to a statement of how and why specifics facts are related
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theory
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The statement that \”reality is often less a matter of what people do than of how people define behavior\” reflects which approach
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symbolic interaction approach
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Which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of social patterns that are unintended and less well known
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latent functions
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We tend to assume people are responsible for their own troubles because our way of life emphasizes
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individualism
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In evaluating any social policy, it is important to remeber that
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the public generally does not care if programs work or not
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Which of the following would have the support of social conservatives
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the death penalty
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Which of the following concepts refers to a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that society defines as important
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Race
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From a scientific standpoint, human physical variation is real. Sociologists point out that racial categories
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do not fit reality very well
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Which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage
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ethnicity
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The remarkable racila and ethnic diversity of the United States, is, most of all, a product of
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Immigration
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In 1994, California, the state with the largest immigrant population, passed Proposition 187 which
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cut off social service benefits, including schooling and health care to illegal immigrants
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In reference to total U.S. population, the share of minorities is
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rising
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Which of the following concepts refers to the physical and social seperation of categories of people
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Segregation
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The concept that refers to segregation that is supported by law is
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de jure segregation
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When minorities-especially new immigrants-enter a society, they change their styles of dress, language, cultural values, and even religion in a process called
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assimilation
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In the 1700’s the federal government used its superior military powers to force the Cherokee from their homelands in the southeastern United Sates and sent them to reservations farther west, causing thousands of deaths along the march that came to be know as the
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Trail of Tears
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What was the landmark 1954 decision of the United States Supreme Court that rejected the clain that black and white children could receive \”separate but equal schooling
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Brown V. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas)
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After the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which
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forcibly relocated all people of Japanese ancestry to military camps in remote inland areas
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According to the government, which of the following is this country’s largest racial or ethnic minority
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Hispanic Americans
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Arab Americans are people who trace their ancestry to nations in
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northern Africa or the Middle East
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The assertion that people of one race are less worthy than others or even biologically inferior to others is what we correctly call
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racism
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Which of the following is a clear example of institutional racism
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A patter of racial profiling by police
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Which theory claims that prejudice develops amoung people who are frustrated over a lack of control in their lives
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Scapegoat theory
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A landlord refuses to rent an apartment to an African American, even though there are vacancies. This action is an example of
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Discrimination
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The 1978 United States Supreme Court case of University of California Regents v. Bakke ruled that t
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affirmative action programs with rigid quotas are illegal
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Eurocentrism refers to
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using European (especially English) cultural standars to judge everyone.
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Which of the following statements is correct
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A cultural concern about beauty ends up encouraging women to allow men to control them
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What concept refers to the biological distrinction between females and males
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Sex
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Gender sterotypes divide humanity by constructing femininity and masculinity in
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opposing terms
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Any society’s unequal distribution of weath, power, and privledge between men and women is called
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gender stratification
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Consider this statment: \”Because men have more upper-body strength than women, the military should ban women barred from most military assignments\”, This assertion reflects
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sexism
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According to Jessie Bernard, traditional marriage benefits men more than women because
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it puts women under the control of men
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Which of the followin steer(s) women and men toward different college majors
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gender sterotyping
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In television advertising in the United States, you would NOT expect to see women
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who are talled than the men they are with
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In 1972, Congress passed Title IX, an Amendment to the Civil Rights Act which
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banned discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program receiving federal funding
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Statements in support of the traditional dominance of men over women can be found in the prayers and sacred texts for which religions
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Chrisianity, Judaism and Islam
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In which of the following U>S> jobs are 98% of workers women
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dental hygienist
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The major reason that men earn more that women on average is that
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men and women typically hold different types of jobs
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Which concept refers to subtle discrimination that effectively blocks the movement of women in the highest positions in organizations
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glass ceiling
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Because women do most of it, sociologists sometimes refer to housework as women’s
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second shift
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Suppose that a college professor solicits sexual favors from a student an dthreatens a poor grade if the student refuses. This patterns is referred to as
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quid pro quo sexual
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A male employee cracks inappropriate sexually suggestive jokes that embarrass female employees and prevent them from doing their work. This is an example of
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a hostile working environment
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Women, even relatively privledged women, have less income, wealth, and power than men. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that women
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are a minority
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Which milestone in the feminist movement occured in 1920
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Women gained the right to vote
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Complete gender equality has become a reality
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nowhere in the world
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A dimension of gender stratification, which occurs more than 2 million times each year is
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violence against women
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Which of the following concepts refer to the socially constructed stages people pass through as they live out their lives
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The life course
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David is a sociologist who specializes in aging and the elderly. With such a specialty, he may also be referred to as a
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gerontologist
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In comparison with the word elder, as used in preindustrial societies, the modern term elderly
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has a more negative meaning
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The major aim of the Social Security Act of 1935 was to
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provide a national pension plan for the elderly
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According to the map showing life expectancy around the world, in the poorest nations of Africa, life expectancy is
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less than 40 years
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Of the levels of \”old\” which category is increasing the most rapidly in number
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The \”oldest old\”
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One of the following statement is correct, Which one is it
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More elderly men than elderly women live alone.
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In fact that the dealth of a spouse is very difficult helps explain the fact that
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the surviving parter is at high risk of death, sometimes by suicide
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The problem of social isolation and loneliness in old age is
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greater for women than men
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Some Americans now find it more financilly sound to give up work in steps, a process called
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staged retirement
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What term refers to informal and unpaid care provided to a dependent person by family members, other relatives, or freinds
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caregiving
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Most elders prefer to \”age in place\” meaning that they
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stay in the homes where they lived while working and raising their children.
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A policy that allows elderly people to borrow against the value of their homes is
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the reverse mortgage
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The govenment sponsered program that pays for hospital care and 80% of other medical care costs for people over the age of sixty-five is
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Medicare
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What is the term for doctors stopping the treatment of a terminally ill person by turning off the respirators and other life-support machines
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passive euthanasia
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What document allows people to state which medical treatments they do and do not want, should they be facing death and unable to speak for themselves?
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a living will
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What facility offers homelike care that provides physical and emotional comfort to dying people and their families?
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hospice
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Robert is 65 years old and works as an electrician. He is capable of continuing in this job, but has decided to retire. Which theory would characterize this choice as functional for society as a whole?
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disengagement theory
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Jennifer is a 68 year old university professor. After retirement from teaching, she continues conducting research and also expands her volunteer work as a source of personal satisfaction. This choice is an example of
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activity theory
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In a study of a declining neighborhood along the coast of Southern California, Barbara Myerhoff found that, above all, elderly residents wanted to
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remain independent
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How to dress properly, who is an acceptable sexual partner, and how to correctly footnote a college term paper are all examples of
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Norms
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People who violate which of the following face potential arrest and punishment?
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criminal law
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Rick has been charged with an offense that carries a 90-day jail sentence; he has been charged with a
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misdemeanor
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The crime data assembled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation are referred to as the
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Uniform Crime Report
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The statistics found in the Uniform Crime Report are based on
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only violent crime.
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According to official statistics describing murder,
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offenders and victims are generally of the same race.
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The first antistalking law in the United States was passed in
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1990 in the state of California
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Which serious crime is both a property crime and a violent crime?
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Robbery
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Which of the following is the most common of all serious crimes tracked by the FBI?
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larceny-theft
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For which of the following offenses do police arrest mostly women
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Prostitution
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In terms of absolute numbers, most crimes involve offenders who are
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white
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Which of the following concepts refers to the violation of the law by young people?
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juvenile delinquency
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Question 14. Question : Illegal actions by a business or others acting on its behalf is called
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corporate crime
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Which of the following would constitute a \”hate crime?\”
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an assault on a person known by the offender to be gay motivated by anti-gay bias
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Suppose that a police SWAT team kills the members of a terrorist group who are holding innocent citizens hostage. These actions illustrate which type of violence?
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Institutional
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The killing of thirteen people at Columbine High School in 1999 as an example of
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mass murder
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Whether we call a group a \”club\” or a \”gang\” has a lot to do with
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the social class standing of the members
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If you think guns are part of the solution to the problems of crime and violence rather than part of the problem, you are probably
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conservative
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Douglas Smith and Christy Visher noted six factors that guided police in deciding whether or not to make an arrest. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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Does the suspect want to be arrested?
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What process involves a negotiation in which the state reduces a defendant’s charge in exchange for a guilty plea?
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plea bargaining
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There are four major justifications for punishment. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
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guilt reduction
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By teaching everyone a lesson about what happens to those who break the law, punishment accomplishes the goal of
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general deterrence
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Prison alternatives include correctional programs that take place in society at large rather than behind prison walls. Taken together, such programs are called
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community based corrections
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From the liberal view, crime and violence are caused by
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a harmful environment such as poverty.
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Until the early 1900s, which popular new \”brain tonic\” included cocaine as one of its ingredients?
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Coca-Cola
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In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
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outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcohol across the country.
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Jorge has a beer or a glass of wine with dinner from time to time because these drinks make the food taste good and make him feel relaxed. His behavior illustrates which reason for using drugs?
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Recreational
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Which of the following concepts refers to a physical or psychological craving for a drug?
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addiction
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Jacob has adjusted to the regular use of pain killers and needs to continue using these drugs in order to feel comfortable. Jacob’s relationship with pain killers can best be described as
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dependency
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Which of the following substances is NOT a stimulant?
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Alcohol
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In the United States, which of the following is, by far, the single greatest preventable cause of death?
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cigarette smokining
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\”Crank,\” \”speed,\” \”crystal,\” \”go,\” \”meth,\” and \”ice\” are all street names for various types of
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amphetamines
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Shawna takes drugs to control her seizure disorder. This illustrates which reason for using drugs?
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Therapeutic
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Which type of depressants dull pain?
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Analgesics
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Drugs like Lithium and Haldol are
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antipsychotics.
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The full name for the class of drugs known as steroids is __________ steroids.
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androgenic anabolic
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Of all prescription drugs, the most often abused are
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Pain killers
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When family members try to earn extra money, help keep house, or directly provide drugs to an abuser in an effort to \”keep the peace,\” they are engaged in
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codependency
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Which country has seen a marked increase in violence related to drug dealing in the past several years?
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Mexico
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Which concept refers to efforts to stop drugs from moving across this country’s borders?
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Interdiction
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According to Federal Minimum Sentencing guidelines, possessing 500 grams of cocaine, but only how many grams of crack, leads to a five-year jail term?
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5
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Methadone is
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a synthetic form of heroin used to treat heroin addicts.
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What policy would remove the current criminal penalties that punish the manufacturing, sale, and personal use of drugs?
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Decriminalization
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Which theoretical approach focuses on the changing ways we define any particular drug over time?
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symbolic interaction approach
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One general measure of a society’s health is the share of babies who die in their first year of life for each thousand live births. What is this concept called
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Infant mortality rate
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Which of the following is NOT categorized as a chronic disease?
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typhoid
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Social epidemiology is the study of
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how health and disease are distributed throughout a society’s population
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Where in the world is the AIDS epidemic most serious?
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Africa
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Why has China escaped the AIDS epidemic that has ravaged other Asian nations to the South?
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due to China’s traditional sexual norms
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Societies with mostly capitalist economies distribute health care through
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a market system
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Canada has what type of health care system?
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The government operates like a large insurance company, paying physicians and hospitals from tax revenues.
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When it comes to the health of the overall population, in comparison with most other high-income nations, the United States ranks
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lower
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Which concept refers to a medical care system in which patients or their insurers pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals?
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direct-fee
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Which of the following is NOT a reason for the rapid rise in U.S. health care costs?
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greater government involvement in health care
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The fear of lawsuits may prompt doctors to order additional tests and procedures just to protect themselves—a strategy called
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defensive medicine
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Medicare
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is part of the Social Security system
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In the United States, African Americans are three times as likely to be poor as white people,
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and die an average of five years earlier than whites.
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Because people may look at someone and see only a disability rather than a person’s abilities, a disability can operate as a
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master status
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More people in the United States are ending up with a chronic and disabling condition, ranging from arthritis (inflammation of the joints) to Alzheimer’s disease (loss of brain function) because
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people are living longer
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In 1990, which act of Congress outlawed discrimination against people with disabilities in employment and public accommodations, including hotels, theaters, restaurants, and stores?
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the Americans with Disabilities Act
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The United States is facing a nursing shortage that is projected to increase. Which of the following is a major reason for the shortage?
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Because women’s work choices are expanding, fewer women are drawn to this traditionally female occupation.
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Which well known person played an important part in the rise of psychotherapy, such that practitioners have built on this person’s theories and treatment strategies ever since?
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Sigmund Freud
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Which of the following was the most important medical advance in terms of treating mental disorders?
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the development of psychoactive drugs
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Deinstitutionalization refers to
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the release of people from mental hospitals into local communities.
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The formal organization that directs the political life of a society is
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government
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Capitalism is an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are
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privately owned
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In a capitalist system
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a market system is based on competition in which people by and sell goods and services according to economic forces of supply and demand
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The French term laissez-faire, sometimes used to describe a free-market environment of capitalism, literally means
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\” leave it alone\”
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According to Scottish economist Adam Smith
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the pursuit of self-interest has widespread benefits by producing the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
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Which type of economic system places natural resources and the means of producing goods and services under collective ownership
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Socialism
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Which type of system has extensive government social programs, paid for by high taxes, that provide child care, housing, and medical care for the entire population?
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Welfare Capitalizism
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You probably approve of the operation of Wal-Mart if you support
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Pure capitalism
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In the United States
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the economic activity of coroporations is far greater than that of government
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In the United States, the manufacture of breakfast cereal is dominated by Kellogg’s, General Mill and Genergal Foods which together control 90 percent of all sales. This is an illustration of
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oligopoly
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Pepsi Co makes Pepsi soft-drink products and also owns Taco Bell, KFC, Pizza Hut, Frito-Lay, and other snack and fast food companies. PepsiCo is
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a conglomerate
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The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and the National Rifle Associant (NRA) are both examples of
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special interest groups
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Critics say that our system of campaing financing
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put the U.S. Political system up for sale.
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In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution extended the vote to
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women
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Which concept refers to the efforts of special-interest groups and their representatives to influence to influence government officials
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loggying
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Conservatives claim that the failure to vote is a sign of
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indifference of the part of many people who are fairly satisfied with the way things are
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Which of the following categories of people face legal barriers to voting
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convicted felons
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Which concept refers to the close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries
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military-industrial comples
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Which political position calls for reforms based on the claim that our political and economic system benefits some more than others
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liberal
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Generally speaking, the farther left one moves on economic issues, the more one
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favors government control of the economy
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Two major, structural changes to the U.S. economy include
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The Industrial Revolution and the Infomation Revolution.
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At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when most people in this country lived in rural areas and small towns, most workers had jobs in which sector of the economy
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primary sector
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During the 1950s and 1960s the U.S. economy
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boomed
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In the tertiary sector of the economy, most people in the labor force do what type of work
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service work
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Around 1950, many former assembly-line workers and machine operators saw their plants closing down, forcing them to take clerical, delivery, maintenance, and fast-food jobs, generally at lower pay and with fewer benefits. The trend is referred to as
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deindustrialization
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When people speak of the largest corporations operating in many countries, with more and more products moving from country to country, they are talking about
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globalization
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In 1970, the federal government created OSHA to oversee and regulate
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workplace health and safety
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Which of the following has long been one of the most deadly types of work
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mining
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For Max Weber, alientation is the
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depersonalization of the workplace and society, due to modern society’s rational focus on efficiency.
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Which concept refers to defining work in terms of efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and automation
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McDonaldization
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Which concept, refers a barrier-often involving institutional discrimination-that prevents women and other minorities from moving up in the workpace?
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glass ceiling
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The Railway Labor Act, Norris-LaGuardia Act, and National Labor Relations Act all guaranteed
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the right of workers to organize and form labor unions.
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A centruy ago, workers needed to develop the industrial skills required for making things; today, workers in the postindustrial econmy must develop the
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literary skills required to manipulate symbols
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Which concept refers to linking employees located anywhere to an office using information technology, including telephones, computers, and the Internet
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telecommuting
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The structural functional approach highlights how technological change
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elminates old jobs and creates new ones
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If you claim that the recent housing crisis was caused by government intervention in the marketplace, you are speaking as a
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conservative
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If you claim that people, especially the disadvantaged, look to the government to meet their needs, you are speaking as a
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liberal
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Perhaps the most important reason that U.S. companies have moved industrial production abroad is
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lower wages in other nations
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Jobs in the primary labor market
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are challenging and rearding
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In 1976, in repsonse to ever-increasing use of chemicals in the workplace, Congress
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passed the Toxic Substances Control Act
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Which concept refers ot parents and children, plus grandparents, auts, uncles, and cousins, who often live close to one another and operate as a family unit
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extended family
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The sharing of a household by an unmarried couple is referred to as
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cohabitation
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The biggest problem facing one-parent families, especially when the parent is a woman is
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poverty
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In 1965, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan said the African American family was in crisis because of
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a growing number of absent fathers who leave single mothers to raise children on their own
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A majority of U.S. families, including those with young children
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have both parents working for income
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Latchkey kids is a term that refers to children who
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fend for themselves after shcool until a parent gets home from work
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Under \”no-fault\” divorce laws
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couples declare that their marriage is over due to irreconcilable differences
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Which nation has the highest divorce rate in the world
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the United States
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From which political point of view do people claim that divorce is harmful because it encourages a \”me first\” attitude that places individual needs and desires over obligations to others
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conservative
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What type of marriage laws, found in only a few states, allow couples when they marry to agree to certain conditions that make the marriage harder to dissolve
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convenant marriage
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In 1998, Congress passed what law making is a serious crime to refuse to provide support payments to a child residing in another state or to move to another state to avoid making payments
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Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act
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Scott andConnie are married and have a 6-month old son. Also in the home is Scott’s son from a previous marriage and Connie’s daughter from a previous marriage. This household can be correcly described as
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a blended family
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Prenuptial agreements are often suggested because
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the odds are high that the marriage will eventually end in divorce
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In 1996, congressional opponents of gay marriage passed which act, which states that marriage must involve one man and one woman, and that no state or other jurisdicton has to recognize a same sex marriage law enacted by any other state or jurisdiction
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Defense of Marriage Act
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Research shows that children raised by same-sex parents
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receive the same supportive and effective parenting as those raised in other families
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Which concept refers to an arrangement by which one woman carries and bears a child for another
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surrogate motherhood
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Sociologists use what concept to refer to cases of scientific discoveries that occur faster than our ideas develop about the acceptable ways to use them
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cultural lag
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Which political pointof view considers \”family values\” to mean getting and staying-married with parents, displaying strong commitment to children?
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conservative
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In the case of John and Luanne Buzznca, who engaged a woman to serve as a surrogate mother using, donated eggs and sperm, and who then divorced before the child was born, the court ruled that
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both parental parties who engage a surrogate mother are responsible for the child
question

New reproductive technology, including in vitro fertilization
answer

is a very expensive and thus out of reach for most people.
question

A major reason that shcooling is limited in poor societies of the world is that
answer

parents need their children to work to provide food and income
question

The ability to read and write is referred to as
answer

Literacy
question

During the early decades of our nation’s history
answer

few people defined a lack of schooling for women
question

Every state had enacted a law requiring children to attend shool by
answer

1918
question

On the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), for all categories of people a higher rate of poverty is linked to
answer

lower performance on the test
question

Research shows that the quality of shools matters to student performance, but what matters even more
answer

the home environment
question

Not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic well enough to carry out daily responsibilities is referred to as
answer

functional illiteracy
question

Prior to the civil rights movement, shools in the North were segregated
answer

because most African Americans were forced to live in all-black neighborhoods
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During the 1960s, many white families moved from the central cities to the suburbs, therby escaping shcool busing programs. This movement was comonly called
answer

white flight
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If 1998, the state of Vermont enacted a law (Act 60) that
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pools school taxes, across the state and redistributes funding on an equal, per-student basis
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Which concept refers to lifetime experiences and opportunities that enhance a student’s ability to learn and succeed
answer

cultural capital
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Margaret is a chool counselor. On the basis of aptitude scores and previous academic grades, she assigns a student to a \”vocational\” prgram rather than to another program that is designed for college preparation. Margaret has just engaged in a policy called
answer

tracking
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In 1998, Californians passed Proposition 22 which
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banned bilingual programs in favor of the English-immersion approach.
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A school that integrates students with disabilities into regular shcool programs is following a policy of
answer

mainstreaming
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Which policy requires school officials to severly punish or expel any student who brings a weapon, alcohol, or some other drug to school
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zero tolerance policy
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Which of the following is a latent function of schooling
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the provision of child care for working parents
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The fact that our school system socialized all students to be docile, obedient workers and patriotic citizens is one example of schooling’s
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hidden curriculum
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The 2002 \”No Child Left Behind\” program
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grades 3-8 in language arts, mathematics, and science.
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Which program says, in effect, \”You are entitled to use your tax money to school your children wherever you want
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voucher programs
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Critics of tracking argue that
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tracking transforms the social advantage of well-off children into an educational advantage.
question

finished with 04/08/14 test
answer

test
question

After World War II, the search for new housing, economic prosperity, and the greater physical mobility brought on by cars combined to push more and more people outward from the cities into
answer

suburbs
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French geographer Jean Gottman used which concept to refer to a vast urban region containing a number of cities and their surroung suburbs
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megalopolis
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New homes, shcools, and shopping areas built at the edge of an expanding urban area represent
answer

urban sprawl
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According to William Julius, the inner-cities
answer

can be rescued by creating jobs, starting with the government hiring people to do needed work.
question

In 1949, in response to the decline of many central-city neighborhoods, the federal government passed the Urban Housing Act, which created the policy of
answer

urban renewal
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When low-income families move in to Section 8 housing
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they pay 30-40 percent of their adjusted gross income for rent, and the government pays the rest.
question

What patter involves entire districs of cities (commonly referred to as \”ghettos\”) that house only poor African Americans who are cut off from the larger society
answer

hypersegregation
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What is the term for settlements, common in poor nations, where people have constructed makeshift homes from whatever materials they can find, and where most people do not have even clean water and sewer
answer

shantytowns
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Within which of the following types of social organization did Tonnies claim that the typical person pays only passing attention to the welfare of the community, but mostly \”looks out for number one
answer

Gesellschaft
question

According to Durkhelm, the rise of industrial cities created new connections between people, which he termed
answer

Organic solidarity
question

According to George Simmel, the sights, sounds, and smells of the city, along with the vast number of people, all combine to overwhelm the senses. The result, claimed Simmel, is that urbanities
answer

develop a blase attitude
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What policy created high-density apartment buildings that housed the poor
answer

public housing
question

Critics claimed that urban renewal failed because it
answer

pushed out low-income people who needed housing the most
question

Public housing is commonly known as
answer

the projects
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Which of the following policies refer to government efforts to attract new buisness with the promise of tax relief
answer

enterprise zones
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Population shifts in the last fifty years have
answer

hurt cities in the Snowbelt but helped cities in the Sunbelt
question

A HUD study of poor and homeless people showed that the cost of supporting one person with afforable housing and social servies was ___ compared to supporting a prison inmate
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considerably less expensive
question

The 1974 federal Section 8 Program directed subsidies to developers who
answer

rehabilitated existing rental housing or built new apartments
question

David Harvey’s study of Baltimore show that the growth and decline of an urban area has much to do with the process of
answer

capital investment
question

The political-economy approach to urban studies considers which of the following to be the major factor in defining cities and urban life
answer

the capitalist drive to make profits
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Finished test 4/14/2014
answer

finished
question

A sharp increase inpoipulation began about the time of
answer

Industirial Revolution
question

Demographers measure a society’s fertility using which concept to refer to the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population
answer

crude birth rate
question

For any country, as the share of women using contraception goes up, a woman’s average number of children
answer

goes down
question

High-income nations such as the United States grow
answer

as much from immigration as from natural increase
question

The birth rate in Europe, as well as in the United States and Canada, is
answer

below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman
question

There are many reasons that population increase has slowed in high-income nations. Which of the following is NOT one of them
answer

increase mortality rates
question

Dr. Nafis Sadeik, who heads the United Nations efforts at population control, explains: Give a woman more choices about how to live and she will
answer

have fewer children
question

Malthus predicted that the future of humanity would be
answer

defined by famine and chaos, because population would soon outpace food resorces
question

Demographic transition theory links demographic changes to a society’s
answer

level of technological development
question

During Stage 2 (the onset of industrialization) of the demographic transition, birth rates are ____and death rates are___
answer

high falling
question

In the United States, a home that lack a telephone or television set is unusual. Not being able to afford a television set in a wealthy country illistrates
answer

relative poverty
question

Which concept refers to a form of bondage in which desperately poor families send their children out to hustle on the streets to bring in needed income
answer

child slavery
question

Which concept refers to a situation in which one person owns another, which is illegal around the world, though documented in many countries
answer

chattel slavery
question

Which of the following theories is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences
answer

modernization theory
question

Which concept refers to a new oform of economic expolitation that involves the operation of multinational corporations, rather than direct control by foreign governments
answer

neocolonialism
question

The United States and Japan are within which category of the \”capitalist worl economy?
answer

core
question

According to Immanuel Wallerstein, the world economy not only exploits poor nations, it also places them in what position with respect to rich nations?
answer

a position of dependency
question

In his study of the emergence of industrial capitalism, Peter Berger concludes: \”Industrial capitalism has generated the greatest productive power in human history.\” This statement provides a strong foundation for which political view of global inequality?
answer

conservative
question

According to which theory did colonialism create inequality and, to this day, a world capitalist system continues to enrich some nations at the expense of others?
answer

world system theory
question

In which stage of Rostow’s theory of modernization does industrial technology and a rapidly-growing economy steadily raise living standards?
answer

the high mass consumption stage
question

Sociology’s most important lesson about enviornmental issues is that
answer

the state of our planet reflects how societies operate.
question

Professor Jones studies how living organisms interact with the natural environment. She is
answer

an ecologist
question

Which concept refers to Earth’s surface and atmosphere, including air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain living organisms
answer

natural environment
question

Which of the following is composed of interactions of all living organisms and their natural environment?
answer

the ecosystem
question

For years, which harmful chemical was widely used in aerosol spray cans, refrigerators, and air conditioners?
answer

chloroflorocarbons
question

Which of the following had the largest impact on humanity’s ability to modify the natural environment?
answer

the Industrial Revolution
question

The text points out that recognition of an environmental deficit is important for three reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
answer

It reminds us of the importance of our financial resources.
question

The text notes that if people around the world lived at the level of material abundance that people in the United States take for granted, the natural environment would
answer

soon collapse
question

The logic of growth approach
answer

believes that human ingenuity will probably solve any problems of scarcity.
question

According to which of these are humans (especially those using industrial technology) quickly consuming Earth’s finite resources?
answer

limits to growth
question

Half of this country’s solid waste is burned or recycled; the other half
answer

never goes away
question

Environmentalists argue that we should address the problem of solid waste by turning a \”waste\” into a resource, which is the idea behind
answer

recycling
question

The Ogallala aquifer, which runs below ground across seven states from South Dakota to Texas,
answer

is being pumped so rapidly some experts fear it could run dry within several decades.
question

The land, rivers, and streams across the United States absorb about 500 million pounds of toxic chemicals each year from
answer

fertilizer, lawn treatments, and intentional dumping
question

Precipitation, made toxic by air pollution, that destroys plant and animal life, is referred to as
answer

acid rain
question

The carbon dioxide (CO2) released by factories and automobiles has soared, while the amount of plant life on earth has gone down, result in a rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, which in turn has led to
answer

global warming
question

As carbon dioxide builds up in the atmosphere, it allows heat from the sun to pass in to the earth, while preventing much of it from radiating back into outer space. This process is referred to as 1
answer

the greenhouse effect
question

If the planet’s average temperature elevates several more degrees during the twenty-first century,
answer

a large portion of the polar icecaps will melt flooding much of the coastal United States.
question

Unlike pollution and other environmental problems, the extinction of species is
answer

irreversable and final
question

Our cultural tendency to purchase and display things not because they really need them, but simply as a way of indicating our social position, is referred to as
answer

conspicuous consumption
question

In 2009, the United States was engaged in two wars. They were in
answer

Iraq and Afghanistan.
question

Chemical weapons are one example of
answer

weapons of mass destruction
question

Which of the following was the United States’ bloodiest conflict (in terms of U.S. death toll)?
answer

the Civil War
question

Which of these is among the seven factors sociologists identify as promoting the outbreak of war?
answer

the quest for greater wealth and power
question

During the Balkan conflict, the Serbs deported, imprisoned, or killed hundreds of thousands Croats, Muslims, and ethnic Albanians in a process referred to as
answer

ethnic cleansing
question

The text notes that United States leaders justified the Korean War and the war in Vietnam as efforts to keep the world safe from communism, illustrating which factor identified as promoting war?
answer

moral objectives
question

The People’s Republic of China supporting military conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet at least partly in order to
answer

divert attention from domestic social problems
question

After World War II, the United States maintained tense relations with the Soviet Union in a
answer

cold war.
question

After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union each boosted military spending to try to prevent the other from gaining a military edge. This pattern is called
answer

an arms race.
question

What concept refers to a political alliance involving the federal government, the military, and the defense industries that dominate our nation’s politics?
answer

the military-industrial complex
question

What agreements, reached between 1864 and 1949, provide rules for conducting war?
answer

Geneva Conventions
question

Following World War II, the Geneva Conventions recognized three categories of war crimes. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
answer

economic offenses
question

Which concept refers to the murder, rape, torture, deportation, or other ill treatment of a population in any occupied territory
answer

conventional war crimes
question

Soldiers have long talked about \”battle fatigue\” or \”shell shock.\” After the Vietnam War, what disorder was widely recognized as a war-related disability that results from trauma or stress in battle?
answer

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
question

Through which government agency is health care provided free of charge to ex-prisoners of war, those with service-related injuries or disabilities, and veterans with income below the poverty line?
answer

the Department of Veterans Affairs
question

In 1945, the United States atomic bombs were dropped on two cities
answer

Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
question

In today’s all-volunteer military, the armed forces are made up mostly of
answer

working-class people.
question

Some scientists claim that exploding even a few nuclear bombs at one time would draw enough debris and dust into the atmosphere to block the sun’s rays from reaching the planet’s surface for months or even years, triggering a
answer

nuclear winter.
question

The strategy of deterrence is also known as
answer

mutual assured destruction
question

Which concept refers to situations in which one government provides money, weapons, and training for terrorists who engage in violence in another nation?
answer

state-sponsored terrorism

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