social problems midterm

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major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, are organized to meet a basic human need. sociologists call these subsystems
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social institutions
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claims and counterclaims about what should and should not be defined as a social problem is a good way of describing
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politics
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an organized effort to encourage or discourage social change is called a
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social movement
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which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of a social pattern that are intended and widely recognized
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manifest functions
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which of the following terms refers to a point of view that shows us how society affects the experiences and choices if individuals
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sociological imagination
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the study of how race, class, and gender often result in multiple dimensions of disadvantage is called
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intersection theory
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in the united states, social welfare programs that provide government assistance of one type or another benefit
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most people
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the richest 20 percent of the US population controls what percentage of all privately-owned wealth?
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89 percent
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the richest 20 percent of US families earn
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almost as much as the remaining 80 percent of families combined
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since about 1980, income inequality among US families has
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been increasing
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which term refers to the trend by which women represent an increasing share of the US poor
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feminization of poverty
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experts estimate that about how many people in the United States are homeless at some point during a year
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about 1.6 million
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if you wanted to add up the total economic assets owned by a person or family, you would be measuring
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wealth
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a _____ _____ is a condition that undermines the well-being of some or all members of society
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social problems
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______ ______ is the process of convincing the public that a particular issue or situation should be defined as a social problem
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claims making
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attempts to portray a movement as credible and compatible with existing beliefs of a movement’s target audience is called ____
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framing
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______ ______ are major spheres of social life organized to meet basic human needs
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social institutions
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in 2012, for the first time, most children born in the united states
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were minorities
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which of the following concepts refers to a shared cultural heritage
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ethnicity
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according to the government, which of the following is this country’s largest racial or ethnic minority
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hispanic americans
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which of the following concepts refers to a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that a society defines as important
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race
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which of the following patterns refers to a society in which people of all racial and ethnic categories live with roughly equal social standing
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pluralism
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on average, african american families earn what percentage of the amount that white families earn
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57 percent
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the remarkable racial and ethic diversity of the united states is, most of all, a product of
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immigration
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because women do most of it, sociologist sometimes refer to housework as working women’s
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second shift
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which term refers to subtle discrimination that effectively blocks the movement of women into the highest positions in organizations
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glass ceiling
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as of 2014, women in the united states earn what share of all bachelor’s degrees
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57 percent
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the symbolic-interaction approach provides what type of analysis of gender
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micro-level
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in 1972, congress passed title IX, an amendment to the civil rights act, which
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banned discrimination on the basis of sex in any educational program receiving federal funding
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social-conflict theories of gender
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focus on the gender inequalities by which men have had power over women
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Naomi Wolf links which element of our culture to men having power over women
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out cultural ideas about beauty
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who is deserving of help is a controversial question int he evaluation of _____ _____
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social policy
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stratification produces _____ _____, categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities
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social classes
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_____ is the best indicator of socio-economic status, but is hard to measure. instead, ______ is more often used in research
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wealth, income
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the costs of being poor block many of the paths to upward _____
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mobility
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maria and john each qualify for the same tax credits and deductions. after those deductions and credits, maria made $40,000 in taxable income and john made $75,000 in taxable income in 2016. under the united state’s progressive tax system, which of the following most accurately describes the taxes each of them will owe on the first $37,650 of taxable income
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maria and john will owe equal amounts on the first $37,650 of taxable income
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in \”why are people so unequal in society?,\” joel charon argued that the primary reason for the emergence of inequalities is
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social structure
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in \”why are people so unequal in society?,\” joel charon argued that inequalities are perpetuated
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through socialization, social institutions, and culture
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directly, or indirectly, ______ ______ _____ benefit almost everyone in the U.S.
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social welfare programs
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______ is a broad definition of a person’s social class based on components such as income, education, and occupation
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socio-economic status
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in the united states, if you track income by age, you find that income typically peaks at about what age
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50
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what percentage of the 62,000 centenarians in the united states (people aged 100 years or older) are women?
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82 percent
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our society began to define elder abuse as a social problem in the
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1980s
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in a study of declining neighborhood along the coast of southern California, Barbara Myerhoff found that, above all, elderly residents wanted to
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remain independent
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which theoretical approach highlights the social construction of problems and solutions and involves considering how views lead to particular understandings of who or what is responsible for poverty
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symbolic interaction
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education, tastes, cultural knowledge, and the ability to display sophistication (or lack thereof) in speech, manners, and other everyday acts which collectively confers status in eyes of others are elements of ______ ______
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cultural capital
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the ____ _____ ____ (can be two or three words) describes the tendency to ascribe the reason for behavior to a person’s disposition even when strong situational constraints can largely or entirely account for what they do
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fundamental attribution error
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treating one group as normal (normative) or the default to which all are compared creating a standard and an other is ____
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othering
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child abuse was defined as a social problem
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about 1960, largely based on the activism of Dr. C. Henry Kempe
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there are four major justifications for punishment. which of the following is NOT one of these
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guilt reduction
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groups acting to limit access to opportunities for other groups are practicing _____ _____
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social closure
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while ____ is about attitudes, ______ is a matter actions
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prejudice, discrimination
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in the replication of the \”doll test\” we watched videos about in class, which children in the sample seemed less likely to express negative perceptions of the drawing/dolls with darker skin?
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older children
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______ is related to anatomical characteristics whereas ____ is more about behavior
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sex, gender
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the global region with the highest number of cases of HIV is
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sub-Saharan Africa
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today, a new chapter in the sexual revolution is evident among
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older people who want to remain sexually active as long as possible
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sexual harassment legislation is concerned with not just with the offender’s intent but also the effects of the offender’s behavior. laws also ban any behavior that
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creates a hostile environment
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sexual activity may involve human biology, sociologists focus on the fact that it is also guided by
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human culture
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determining the extent of homosexuality in our population
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depends on exactly how we define the term \”homosexuality\”
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the most clear evidence that gender is socially constructed is that
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gender differences vary across social settings or cultures, and times
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in households headed by a man and a woman working equal numbers of hours outside the home for pay, the disproportionate amount of work that women tend to do at home after a full day of work is most commonly referred to as
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the second shift
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the concept of \”resting bitch face\” can be connected most directly to
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the different social norms and expectations for appearance, personality traits, and interaction based on gender
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_____ helped increase gender equality in education and the labor market as well as changing norms of sexual behavior
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birth control
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____ is the idea that women are people
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feminism
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people tend to ____ later during difficult or uncertain economic times
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retire
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_____ are more likely to be caregivers to older people
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women
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older americans have a high level of political clout due to high _____ participation
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voter
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about what share of inmates in federal prisons are there for drug offenses
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half
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of all prescription drugs, the most often abused are
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painkillers
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which theoretical analysis points out that the social standing of drug users is related to how severely our society punishes illegal drug use
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social-conflict analysis
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what policy would remove the current criminal penalties that punish the manufacturing, sale, and personal use of drugs
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decriminalization
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in the united states, which of the following is, by far, the single greatest preventable cause of death
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cigarette smoking
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_____ is the ability or right to have special access to opportunities or claims on rewards
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privilege
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in the article \”white privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack,\” Peggy McIntosh notes that she was not taught to see white privilege specifically the way she had been taught to recognize
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the disadvantages to those who face racism
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in the portions of the documentary 13th that we watched in class, it was pointed out that ____ of criminal cases are settled through plea-bargaining
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97%
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which is the least likely of all violent crimes to result in an arrest
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robbery
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most mental disorders have
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many causes, both biological and social
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in what category of disorders does the mind appear to affect the body
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psychosomatic
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an illness that has a long-term development is called
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a chronic disease
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about what percentage of adult population in the united states suffers from a mental illness at some point in their lives
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one-half
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in societies with which type of economy does the government control most economic activity, including providing medical services and operating hospitals and clinics
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socialist economies
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about what percentage of the U.S. population has no medical coverage
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15 percent
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males account for 80% of arrests for ____ crime
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violent
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one controversial part of hate crimes legislation is the emphasis placed on _____
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motivation
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sanctions for both _____ (two words) crime and _____ (one word) crime are often light compared to property crime
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white collar, corporate
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in comparison to other countries, the united states ranks number ____ in terms of larges share of the country’s population imprisoned
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one
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perceptions of specific drugs vary over time and from place to place based in part on views of perceived ____ and ______
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users, suppliers
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reducing or removing criminal penalties that punish drug offenses is part of the process of _____
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decriminalization
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which of the following terms refers to a physical or psychological craving for a drug
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addiction
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which of the following reflects on of the ways that drugs relate to crime
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60% of those in prison for violent crime said they were \”under the influence\” when they committed the crime they were imprisoned for. 1/6 of inmates in state/local prisons and half of those in federal prisons are there for drug offenses more than 47,000 people in mexico have died from drug-related violence between 2006 and 2011
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____ is a strong negative social level affects a person’s self-concept and social identity
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a stigma
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the killing of 26 people at sandy hook elementary school in 2012 is an example of
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mass murder
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cultural norms define
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at what age sexual activity is acceptable, the importance of marital status to sexual activity, what is viewed as normative sexual activity
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which of the following statements is most accurate regarding sexual orientation
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since definitions of homosexuality are inconsistent, the portion of the population considered homosexual is also inconsistent

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