Social Problems Final

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Sociology’s key insight is that the troubles many people face are rooted in
the operation of society
Mr. Izzard buys a MacBook Pro computer. He starts to notice MacBooks everywhere he goes. Since there probably was not a sudden flood of MacBooks being sold in the last few days, Mr. Izzard is experiencing _____.
Selective perception
In using the Sociological Imagination, sociologists are able to look beyond _____ as the cause for successes and failures and to understand how_____ influences those outcomes.
the individual; society
The two essential elements of a social problem are the _____, which can usually be measured, and the _____, which are personal feelings and opinions.
objective conditions; subjective concerns
As rainfall amounts increase in an area, flash floods increase. This is a
positive correlation.
Definitions of social problems change over time (T/F)
Social problems result from the way society operates (T/F)
Definitions of social problems involve both subjective and objective
Everyone sees social problems in the same way (T/F)
In research, sociologists tend to find _____, or an indication that factors may be related, rather than _____.
correlation; causation
A social problem is defined as a condition that
harms some or all members of a society and is controversial.
If social movements run out of money, suffer from poor leadership, or are repressed by the opposition, they may
Identifying problems involves values as well as facts (T/F)
What concept refers to a basic image of society that guides theory and research?
theoretical approach
What concept refers to the negative consequences of social patterns?
Karl Marx referred to industrial workers as
What theory states that the reality of any particular situation depends on how people define it?
labeling theory
A research focused on a single person, organization, or event is called
a case study.
Radical is derived from the Latin, meaning
“of the root.”
Class-conflict theory is an explanation of social problems guided by the thinking of
Karl Marx.
Marco earns $45,000 a year as a government employee and receives interest from several certificates of deposit. The economic proceeds from these sources represent Brad’s
The richest 20 percent of the U.S. population controls what share of all privately-owned wealth?
85 percent
The lowest paid 20 percent of U.S. families receive about what share all income in the country?
4 percent
Stratification produces categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities. These categories are termed
social classes.
An example of a tax that is regressive rather than progressive is
the tax on gasoline.
What concept refers to the difference between a poor family’s actual income and the poverty line?
poverty gap
In 2009, about how many people in the United States were counted among the poor?
44 million
Despite this nation’s wealth, about how many boys and girls under age eighteen live in poor households?
15.5 million
What type of society does social standing correspond to personal ability and effort?
In 1945, sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore maintained that inequality is useful for the operation of society. This thesis reflects which type of analysis?
structural-functional analysis
Finding the cause of a social problem in the behavior of people who suffer from the problem is referred to as
blaming the victim.
Poverty involves not only a lack of money; it also can mean a lack of skills, values, attitudes, and schooling, which together are called
cultural capital.
Karl Marx argued that in a capitalist society, poverty is
In general, most conservatives express compassion for people who are poor
due to disability or for some reason that is no fault of their own.
According to what political positions does the solution to poverty lie in government reforms, such as changes in the minimum wage and tax rates?
The typical “welfare family” today receives about how much assistance each month?
A radical left solution to the problem of poverty would be
replacing our nation’s economic system.
Sometimes aggression cannot be directed at the real source of frustration but is redirected toward a similar but safer and more convenient target. This involves _____.
a scapegoat
Minority groups always have _____ and majority (dominant) groups always have _____.
lesser power; greater power
What concept refers to a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that a society defines as important?
What concept refers to a shared cultural heritage?
What concept refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people?
What pattern refers to people of all racial and ethnic categories living with roughly equal social standing?
The overall social standing for Arab Americans is
slightly above the national average.
The assertion that all African Americans (or people in any other category) have some trait is an example of
a stereotype.
The commonly heard belief that all members of certain minority groups have reduced intelligence is an example of
The claim that people are biologically inferior is
often used to justify making them socially inferior.
_____ racism is at work in the operation of the economy, schools, hospitals, the military, and the criminal justice system.
What concept refers to treating various categories of people unequally?
What concept refers to unequal treatment that is built into the operation of social institutions, including the economy, schools, and the legal system?
institutional discrimination
The tendency to use our own group’s ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others is
_____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards.
cultural relativism
Social-conflict analysis argues that the unequal standing of various categories of people results from
the way our society is organized.
Which theory states that crime and other deviance results not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions?
labeling theory
People who are sixty-five to seventy-four years of age are referred to by researchers as the
“younger old.”
During the Prohibition era, when the government outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, the “Mafia”, or La Cosa Nostra, gained both wealth and power by making and distributing liquor to an eager public. These activities reflect which category of crime?
Reforms to ensure that women have the same rights and opportunities as men is the goal of
liberal feminism.
Illegal actions by a business or others acting on its behalf is called
corporate crime.
The _____ perspective asserts gender is solely determined by biological processes.
How to dress properly, who is an acceptable sexual partner, and how to correctly footnote a college term paper are all examples of
Sociologists argue that stages of life are
socially constructed.
What would constitute a “hate crime?”
an assault motivated by anti-gay bias on a person known by the offender to be gay
What concept refers to the personal traits and life chances that a society links to being female or male?
The Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey by themselves do not give a complete picture of how much crime occurs. (T/F)
The Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey define crimes the same way. (T/F)
The Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey both depend on victims’ reporting crime. (T/F)
The Uniform Crime Report and the National Crime Victimization Survey report all the same crimes. (T/F)
Experts estimate that about what share of elderly people suffer serious abuse each year?
3 percent
Minority women earn less than white women, and they also earn less than minority men. This pattern is the focus of
intersection theory.
As discussed in class, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by
the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Norms that are formally created through a society’s political system are referred to as
What is a branch of the social sciences dealing with aging and the elderly?
With regard to biological theories of crime,
most people convicted of crimes are biologically just like the rest of us.
Which concept refers to biological differences that provide women and men with different roles in reproduction?
The _____ perspective asserts gender is solely determined through socialization.
Moving police officers from automobiles to bicycles and foot patrol is part of a policy called
community policing.
Which theory states that people enhance personal satisfaction in old age by keeping socially busy?
activity theory
Women, even relatively privileged women, have less income, wealth, and power than men. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that women
are a minority.
What is NOT a victimless crime?
illegal drug sales
What reasons were given as to why the median age of the U.S. is increasing?
Improved medical technology and procedures, baby-boomer generational cohort entering old age, reduced infant mortality
What is not a reason to why the median age of the U.S. is increasing?
Healthier lifestyles
What process involves a negotiation in which the state reduces a defendant’s charge in exchange for a guilty plea?
plea bargaining
In the video, Killing Us Softly, the narrator asserts that since she started analyzing advertisements in the 1970s, women’s portrayals _____.
have gotten a lot worse
According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, patterns of rule breaking reflect
whether or not people accept society’s goals and whether they have the opportunity to achieve them.
Which concept refers to a less serious offense punishable by less than one year in prison?
Embezzlement is an example of which type of crime?
white-collar crime
What concept refers to a social pattern by which females dominate males?
The case of David Reimer indicates that gender is not solely determined by _____.
Comparing survey responses to police reports shows that about what share of serious crime is known to police?
less than 50 percent
Which theoretical approach points out that society solves the problem of people’s physical decline by disengaging the elderly, transferring their roles and responsibilities to younger people?
structural-functional approach
Because women do most of it, sociologists sometimes refer to housework as women’s
second shift.
Prison alternatives include correctional programs that take place in society at large rather than behind prison walls. Taken together, such programs are called
community-based corrections.
_____ is the average number of years a person is expected to live; whereas, _____ is the theoretical maximum number of years a human can live.
Life expectancy; life span
In 1987, Congress passed legislation that
required employers to phase out mandatory retirement policies.
Gender stereotypes divide humanity by constructing femininity and masculinity in
opposing terms.
Molly and Arthur graduate high school together. They both attend college, eventually earn doctoral degrees in Engineering, and get professorial positions in the same department at a major university. The pay gap these two experienced when she and Arthur graduated high school will likely do what at the doctoral level?
It will widen.
In 1940, Edwin Sutherland developed the theory of differential association, which states that deviance results from
patterns of contact with others who encourage or discourage conventional behavior.
What is the term for doctors stopping the treatment of a terminally ill person by turning off respirators or other life-support machines?
passive euthanasia
By teaching everyone a lesson about what happens to those who break the law, punishment accomplishes the goal of
general deterrence.
Which concept refers to subtle discrimination that effectively blocks the movement of women into the highest positions in organizations?
glass ceiling
Generally, as societies modernize from traditional to industrial societies, the status of old people _____.
Which violent crime is most likely to involve young men as both offenders and victims?
aggravated assault
Portraying elderly people in categorical terms as senile, rigid, or old-fashioned is an example of
What concept refers to the assertion that one sex is innately superior to the other?
On average, U.S. elders spend what share of their annual income on health care?
15 percent
How many women have been nominated to run for the Executive Branch (President or Vice-President) by the major political parties (Democrat and Republican)?
What concept refers to subsequent offenses committed by people previously convicted of crimes?
criminal recidivism
Research analyzing the link between crime and social class shows that most arrests for street crime are of
people of lower social position.
What concept refers to social inequality among various age categories within a society?
age stratification
In television advertising in the United States, you would NOT expect to see women
who are taller than the men they are with.
What is considered a status crime?
Under the National Affordable Housing Act, qualified elders can borrow against home equity without making monthly repayments and use the money as they wish for repairs, medical care, or housekeeping services. This program is referred to as a
reverse mortgage.
What are three functions of crime according to Emile Durkheim?
Reacting to crime brings people together, crime affirms a society’s norms and values, crime often encourages social change
What is NOT one of Emile Durkheim’s functions of crime?
Crime helps the economy.
The killing of thirteen people at Columbine High School in 1999 as an example of
mass murder.
How many people died in the movie Reefer Madness?
Which drug, with the exception of nicotine, is the most addictive drug available legally without a prescription?
Gay and lesbian youth are at higher risk for what?
Poor health, depression, suicide
Which theoretical approach links patterns of health to inequality?
social conflict
Which theoretical approach highlights the ways people learn to use various legal and illegal drugs?
The number of years, on average, people in a society can expect to live is referred to as
life expectancy at birth
Bill feels that he identifies with being female more than he does male. After a long evaluation period, Bill undergoes operations to remove his male sex organs and to create female sex organs. Bill is known as _____.
a transexual
What is considered an acute disease?
Which term refers to sexual attraction to someone of the opposite sex?
Shawna takes drugs to control her seizure disorder. This illustrates which reason for using drugs?
Treating a person as a thing is known as _____.
What is NOT a reason for the rapid rise in U.S. health care costs?
greater government involvement in health care
Which concept refers to the absence of sexual attraction to people of either sex?
In general, which theoretical approach links drug problems to social inequality?
social-conflict approach
Roth v United States and Miller v California were court cases used to define _____.
Health is defined by the World Health Organization as
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
Sexual harassment legislation is concerned with not just with the offender’s intent but also the effects of the offender’s behavior. Laws also ban any behavior that
creates a hostile environment.
The structural-functional approach calls attention to
the ways in which drugs can be helpful and harmful to the orderly operation of society.
The _____ theory states that pornography stimulates sexual appetites and leads to more sexual offenses.
Becoming a teenage mother
increases the risk of poverty.
Of all prescription drugs, the most often abused are
pain killers.
Which program serves poor people who are pregnant, blind, or permanently disabled, elderly, or who live in families with dependent children?
Homophobia refers to
hostility to people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
In global perspective, prostitution is most common
in low-income nations where women’s economic opportunities are most limited.
Beginning in the nineteenth century, doctors considered people “addicted” if they suffered physical symptoms when they stopped using particular drugs. The symptoms involved are referred to as
According to Federal Minimum Sentencing guidelines, possessing 500 grams of cocaine, but only how many grams of crack, leads to a five-year jail term?
Which type of prostitute has the highest status?
Call girl
Most mental disorders have
many causes, both biological and social.
Unwanted comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature constitute
sexual harassment.
Which term is used to refer to using any illegal substance or to using a legal substance (such as a prescription drug) in a way that violates accepted medical practice?
drug abuse
What is NOT categorized as a chronic disease?
The notion of the “sick role,” a pattern of behavior expected of people defined as ill, is reflected in which of these theoretical approaches?
structural functional
Judy is a woman who is sexually attracted only to women; therefore, we can observe that she is
A drug is any chemical substance, other than food or water, that
affects the mind or body.
The _____ theory states that pornography reduces sexual violence by providing a private release of sexual fantasies.
safety valve
Gender affects the health of men and women in what way?
American culture’s definition of masculinity places men at higher risk for accidents, violence, and suicide.
Sexual activity may involve human biology, but sociologists focus on the fact that it is also guided by
human culture.
Vincent is a Native American who uses peyote in religious rituals. Vincent’s behavior illustrates which reason for using drugs?
spiritual or psychological
Pornography _____ when it portrays sex acts with men and women in impossible, uncomfortable positions; where men are well endowed and can perform on cue; and where men and women are always sexually satisfied.
distorts reality
What concept refers to private insurance organizations that provide medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee?
health-maintenance organizations (HMOs)
Pornography refers to
words or images intended to cause sexual arousal.
What concept refers to a physical or psychological craving for a drug?
Mary is John’s supervisor at work. Mary makes a sexual advance toward John, requesting sexual favors from him as a condition of his employment. John is the victim of
quid pro quo sexual harassment.
What concept refers to a state in which a person’s body has adjusted to regular use of a drug?
Eddie Izzard, a comedian/actor, dresses in women’s clothes and identifies himself as heterosexual. Eddie is a _____.
Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz charges that people apply the label of “insanity” to behavior that they find disturbing. According to Szasz, much behavior defined as “crazy” is
really only “different.”
Determining the extent of homosexuality in our population
depends on exactly how we define the term “homosexuality.”
The most widely used drug in the United States is probably
In terms of mental health and gender,
men are more likely to develop disorders involving aggression and substance abuse.
What policy would remove the current criminal penalties that punish the manufacturing, sale, and personal use of drugs?
The concept of prostitution is defined as
the selling of sexual services.
Which type of depressants dull pain?
Which concept refers to a medical care system in which patients or their insurers pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals?
How many different sexually transmitted diseases are reported in the United States?
more than fifty
Prostitution, as well as soliciting the services of a prostitute, is illegal everywhere in the United States except in parts of
“Crank,” “speed,” “crystal,” “go,” “meth,” and “ice” are all street names for various types of
Among the teenage girls who become pregnant each year, a majority
keep their babies.
What is NOT problem with pornography?
It is expensive.
What are problems with pornography?
It is not always consensual, it distorts reality, it is immoral, it objectifies men and women
In the movie, Reefer Madness, the message or lesson being given is that marijuana use will eventually lead to
The United States and Japan are within which category of the “capitalist world economy?”
In the Modern Family “Pilot” episode we watched in class, what type of family does the Dunphy (Claire, Phil, Haley, Alex, and Luke) family represent?
nuclear family
Sir Ken Robinson stated in the video we watched in class, modern educational systems arose to meet the needs of _____.
Which theoretical approach tends to view the family as the most important unit of social organization?
The parenting style that is characterized by low levels of emotional support and low levels of social control is _____.
hands-off/uninvolved style
In 1969, which state became the first to implement a policy of “no-fault” divorce?
During Stage 2 (the onset of industrialization) of the demographic transition, birth rates are _____ and death rates are _____.
high; falling
What is one of the latent function of schooling?
the provision of child care for working parents
Which is NOT one of the stages families go through as discussed in class?
Beginning career
The population pyramid of the United States had ______ shape in the 1960s and _____ shape in the 1990s.
a pyramidal; a rectangular
One of the tests in the 1970s that demonstrated the cultural biases found in I.Q. tests was called the
Black Intelligence Test for Cultural Homogeneity
Families form around a lawful relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing. What is this tie called?
The world’s three richest people, each with at least $35 billion in 2009, have the same wealth as all the people in the world’s
34 poorest countries.
The 2002 “No Child Left Behind” program
called for the testing of all public school students in grades 3 through 8 in language arts, mathematics, and science.
Compared to a century ago, the divorce rate today is
four times higher.
Some absolute poverty exists in the United States; but in low-income nations, absolute poverty may affect
one-third of all people.
What are reasons people give for cohabitation?
a substitute marriage, a trial marriage, a precursor to marriage, co-residential marriage
David and Janet are brother and sister. They live with their two parents and all four of these people are joined by
The dropout rate of 1.5% reported by the Houston Independent School District was achieved by
listing students as “Moved” or “Transferred” instead of “Dropped Out.”
The biggest problem facing one-parent families, especially when that parent is a woman is
During Stage 3 (a mature industrial economy) of the demographic transition,
the birth rate drops into line with the death rate, and population growth slows down.
Compared to 1960, today we find school segregation
is about the same.
Research shows that children raised by same-sex parents
receive the same supportive and effective parenting as those raised in other families.
In the Modern Family “Pilot” episode we watched in class, before she and Jay were married, what type of family does the Gloria and Manny’s family represent?
Nuclear family and single-parent family
In which stage of Rostow’s theory of modernization does industrial technology and a rapidly-growing economy steadily raise living standards?
the high mass consumption stage
What school policy assigns students to different educational programs?
What are effects of divorce?
responsibility overload, task overload, emotional overload
Malthus predicted that the future of humanity would be
defined by famine and chaos, because increasing population would soon consume food resources.
Which program says, in effect, “You are entitled to use your tax money to school your children wherever you want?”
school vouchers
Ken Robinson stated in his video that one of the challenges every educational system in the world faces is educating children _____.
for an unknown future
Which rate results from dividing the number of deaths of children under one year of age by the number of live births during the same year and multiply the result by 1,000?
infant mortality rate
Which age group of children are the most likely to be fatalities due to child abuse?
3 years old and below
In the Rist Research, students in Kindergarten began being tracked based on their perceived abilities after only a short time in class. It was discovered that, rather than ability, the tracking was based on
social class.
In order to achieve Zero Population Growth, a Total Fertility Rate of _____ needs to be achieved.
What are the reasons people most likely give as to why they get divorced?
cheating, domestic violence, finances, do not get along anymore
On the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), for all categories of people, a higher rate of poverty is linked to
lower performance on the test.
Marital satisfaction is affected by _____.
personalities, the economy, children
Worldwide, what share of global population increase is taking place in the low-income nations of the Southern Hemisphere?
Almost all
What factors that were discussed in class decreases the odds of getting a divorce?
similar educational/religious backgrounds, waiting until mid-20s or later to have children, no family history of divorce
In the Rosenthal-Jacobson Experiment, the _____ was demonstrated after students, who were given I.Q. tests and 20% were randomly selected and labeled “sputters,” performed as predicted as according to this label.
Teacher Expectancy Effect
According to the “7 Billion” video we watched in class, the world’s population, standing shoulder-to-shoulder, would fit in an area the size of
Los Angeles
Critics claimed that, in evaluating the African American family in his 1965 report, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan
rejected anything other than the traditional two-parent family as dysfunctional.
According to census data discussed in class, which demographic group experienced the largest increase in their percentage of high-school diplomas earned from 2000 to 2010?
Hispanic Americans
High-income nations such as the United States grow
as much from immigration as from natural increase.
Students are getting better grades in college because _____.
they are experiencing grade inflation
Of the children who are awarded court-ordered child support, about what share receive partial payments or no payments at all?
54 percent
To calculate the doubling time for any nation, divide its rate of annual growth by the number
Which concept refers to formal instruction carried out by specially trained teachers?
A school that integrates students with disabilities into regular school programs is following a policy of
According to Ken Robinson, the subjects that get the lowest status in educational systems all around the world are _____.
drama and dance.
Sociologists use what concept to refer to cases of scientific discoveries that occur faster than our ideas develop about the acceptable ways to use them?
cultural lag
_____is the best indicator of the health of a nation.
Infant mortality rate
On an I.Q. test administered to children in a poor area of San Antonio, there is a question which states, “What is the best kind of snow to ski on?” This demonstrates how I.Q. tests can be
culturally biased.
Rather than learning to think critically and creatively, especially about social justice, most students learn only to follow directions, to respect authority figures, and to fit in to the system as it exists. This is part of what social-conflict theory calls
the hidden curriculum.
As discussed in class, the world’s population would fit in an area the size of _____ and each person would still have about 1,000 square feet of space.
About 30 million men and women in the U.S. do not read and write or do basic arithmetic well enough to carry out daily responsibilities. These people are referred to as
functionally illiterate.
The number of births per thousand women of certain age groups is known as
Age-specific Birth Rate

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