Social Context of Aging module 2
The _________ generation family is becoming common in the current population.
The baby boomers will be the first cohort in history that has less offspring than siblings.
In elderly women’s friendship networks,
the essential elements of friendship—understanding, affection, trust, and acceptance—endure over time.
Religion is the fundamental motive for living of the intrinsically religious.
Bonds between ____________ tend to be second only to mother-child ties in intensity and complexity.
Marriages are likely to last 40 to 70 years.
The typical time for becoming a grandparent is old age.
Women are more likely than men to look forward to the role of grandparent.
Religiosity refers to
interaction with organized religion.
People age 65 or older are
most likely of any age group to belong to church-affiliated organizations.
A review of previous research on sibling contact reveals
siblings generally maintain contact with each other.
What are some of the factors that discourage remarriage in old age?
all of these choices
In terms of level of obligation within the family, sibling ties are more binding than that of marriage of parent to child.
Having more sisters in a family
increases the level of care to the parents.
Studies of convoys found
some people drop out and others join the convoy after it has begun.
Elders benefit from services of religious groups that minister to the needs of the sick, frail, disabled, and homebound.
Which statement is correct about senior centers?
There will soon be one in every community.
The femaleness principle refers to the
more central roles of women in the network of unmarried people.
Legal visitation rights between grandparents and grandchildren
are generally permitted if provisions for visiting the grandparents were made prior to the divorce.
Studies of grandparents whose children have divorced show
about half were friendly with their child’s former spouse.
At any age which health problems interfere with sexual function?
diabetes, alcoholism, and anxiety
Lopata identified 4 stages of widowhood. Which of the following is not one of them?
episodes of crying
Greater knowledge about sexuality and later life is associated with more permissive sexual attitudes.
A friend is an achieved relationship.
In _______ of all married-couple households, at least one spouse had a previous marriage that ended in divorce or widowhood.
Research on sexuality shows
sexuality is central to our lives even in chronic illness or death of a spouse.
Research indicates which of the following regarding widowhood?
Friends can offer useful support by not trying to speed recovery and a new identity for the recent widow.
Which of the following illustrates gender differences upon the loss of a spouse?
Males become more aware and appreciative of friends and relationships.
A study of homosexual households found that
same-sex couples have more effective conflict resolution skills
Studies cited in your text showed that post-divorce and despair was greater the longer the marriage.
A study of body attitudes and self-esteem found
Body image was unrelated to self-esteem.
Studies show no elderly live together without being married.
Gender comparisons of marriage and widowhood statuses reveal
two-thirds of women over age 75 are widows.
The concept of ____________ refers to the need to be close to, part of, and familiar with another person.
Which of the following widows are likely to suffer the most from the death of her spouse?
a woman in a traditional marriage
There has been a positive shift in attitude toward gay marriage since the 1950’s.
Which of the following is an aspect of the process, in contrast to the structure, of friendship relationships?
the activities conducted
From his classic and landmark studies of sexuality, Kinsey concluded that
rate of sexual activity gradually declines with age.
Studies of caregiving for a spouse found
caregiving of a spouse with cognitive impairment can demonstrate a gift of love that is deeply satisfying for both parties.
A longitudinal study of widowhood found that
both married elders and long term widowed men and women suffered more loneliness than married individuals.
Leisure pursuits in the U.S.
are becoming more accepted as worthwhile.
Sixty-five became the age for retirement when
the Social Security Act was passed in 1935.
Women are said to be mainly segregated in which occupations?
sales, service, and clerical
The age category that has suffered the most from corporate downsizing is ages
45 to 55.
Trends in labor force participation from 1970 to 1995 show ______________ in labor force participation of the elderly.
a precipitous drop
A nationwide study that examined work choices of those who retired found
retirees either return to work swiftly (within four years) or not at all.
Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act
all early retirements must be voluntary.
“Third-age retirement” is characterized by
are programs that offer assistance to laid-off employees.
In France, “third age” refers to the third stage of life in which the body begins to degenerate.
From 1950 to 1990, the median retirement age dropped from 67 to 63.
“The mommy track” refers to
women entering the labor force and then leaving it upon the birth of a child.
The Pew Research results showed that American workers were inclined to delay retirement
the retirement income lost based on the recent recession.
The most important factor in adjustment to retirement is
financial condition and physical being.
A study of beliefs about older workers found
younger supervisors may have lower expectations of older workers.
According to your text, labor force growth is due to
more minority participation, middle aged workers, and older women in the workforce.
A Gallop Poll in 1936 showed that there was a belief that wives of employed husbands shouldn’t work.
Most baby boomers say they would like to retire at age
Layoffs are illegal when they are used to
eliminate employees who are highly compensated.
The following is true of income distribution in late life
Hispanic women are less likely to live in poverty
Many working women receive none of the money they paid into Social Security.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
provides a minimum income for elders, the blind, and the disabled.
It has been projected that by the year 2030, there will be _______ million individuals 65 and older in the United States.
In the early 1900s , elders tended to invest in saving accounts, bonds, and stocks, which were profitable until the recession hit and lowered the interest rates.
Which of the following is a factor that contributes to inadequate pension benefits?
leaving a job before 30 years of service and job changes
The major source of income of older adults include:
Social Security, private pension, assets, and investments
The United States was the first nation to introduce a major public system of social insurance against old-age dependence.
Medigap policies are
policies sold by private companies to provide health care protection that Medicare does not provide.
Compared to 401(k)s and Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs), traditional company pensions
guarantee retirees a specific income based on salary and length of employment.
All of the following are changes that have been made to help restore the fiscal health of the Social Security system EXCEPT
The earliest eligibility age (for early retirees) has been increased.
In a reverse mortgage, the borrower
increases indebtness while drawing down the equity in the home.
Subjective feelings have allowed some individuals to be satisfied with low income, while others are dissatisfied with higher incomes.
Problems of unequal access of people in worsening health have been found in the _________ model of medical service.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
______ of elderly blacks and elderly Hispanics were poor in 1996 compared to one of every 11 elderly whites.
Which statement is correct regarding older Americans in the 1900s?
They were poor or near poor.
Which of the following categories of elderly are LEAST likely to be in poverty?
Which of the following are covered by Medicare?
acute hospital care
Congress established Medicare to pay for
a portion of medical expenses due to the most serious illnesses.
The culture of poverty refers to
the hopelessness and despair in poverty subcultures
The proportion of men in the nation’s homeless population is increasing.
In an AARP study, the most common reason older people gave for relocating was
wanting to be closer to family.
In 2006, over half of the people over age 65 in the US lived in
Migration studies of elders show that
Florida is the state with the highest percentage of elders
A study of homeless in the Bowery skid-row area of New York found
about half had been living on the streets for 3 years
The majority of nursing home residents have disabling mental health conditions.
An SRO hotel is a
cheap, single-room occupancy hotel, apartment or rooming house
When being forcibly relocated, the elderly must reinterpret feelings of
All of these choices
An adult day care center
provides medical and social services.
Older homeowners spend a larger percentage of their income on house maintenance.
Most nursing home residents come to the facility from
a medical hospital
Profits in nursing homes through padding the bills is possible on the reimbursement plan called
Among older Americans, single men have the poorest housing.
Compared with other industrialized nations, the United States has been quicker to acknowledge the housing needs of its older citizens and offer the needed housing options.
The National Older Adults Housing Survey (2005) found
safety, convenience, and proximity to medical facilities were important in selecting housing
“Gang visits” by doctors are most common in flat rate reimbursement plans for nursing homes.
A naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) refers to
buildings or neighborhoods where the residents have aged over the years.
The typical nursing home patient is
a white, widowed female over age 80
Generally speaking, the more dependent a new lifestyle for the elderly, the more difficult the adjustment.
A first move for the elderly typically occurs
around retirement for the young-old