SOC Test 1 Essay

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________ is something scientists strive for and is defined as “personal neutrality in conducting research.” Objectivity Reliability Accuracy Validity
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Objectivity
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What is positivism? an approach to knowledge that is based on science the belief that society is a reflection of God’s will the belief in the supernatural the belief that society is a reflection of human nature
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an approach to knowledge that is based on science
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If Rosa is using the sociological approach that takes the micro-level of analysis, then she is using the ________ approach to sociology. racial-conflict structural-functional symbolic-interaction social-conflict
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Symbolic-interaction
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A sociologist who takes the critical approach sees society as __________. a representation of objective reality an orderly system unequal and in need of social change ongoing interaction
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unequal and in need of social change
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Sociologists look for __________. biological causes of our behavior how each person is unique evidence of human free-will general social patterns in the behavior of particular people
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general social patterns in the behavior of particular people
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Caroline and several of her coworkers were let go as a result of outsourcing their work to India. Now, Caroline is unemployed for the first time in 15 years. C. Wright Mills would see Caroline’s situation as a result of __________. her lack of dedication to the job personal failing a positive consequence of outsourcing the operation of society
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The operation of society
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One criticism made of the social-conflict approach is its __________. ignoring the large picture and focusing on individuals ignoring of how shared values unify members of society its inability to clearly identify cause-and-effect relationships between conflict and social change its focus on how people are joined by society
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ignoring of how shared values unify members of society
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Positivist researchers claim that only by controlling ________ can researchers study the world as it is rather than tell us how they think it should be. all dependent variables personal values and biases all independent variables peer response to work
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personal values and biases
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To determine the value of a variable in a specific case, a procedure called _______ is used. positivism validation pre-testing measurement
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measurement
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The race-conflict approach takes a point of view that focuses on __________. how race helps organize society and keeps it operating in a stable and orderly way inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories the everyday interaction of individuals and the resulting society that is established inequality and conflict between women and men of the same race
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inequality of conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
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Applying the sociological perspective can help people __________. assess the truth of “common sense” explain how we all are unaffected by the operation of society turn public issues into private concerns in the United States see our way of life as better than those of other nations
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assess the truth of ‘common sense’
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A social-conflict analysis of sports points out __________. how sports promote physical fitness and provide a stress release how different people interpret the rules of games slightly differently that the games people play reflect their social standing that sports provide a social setting and create thousands of jobs
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that the games people play reflect their social standing
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Which are the three major sociological research orientations? positivist, interpretive, and critical reliable, valid, and spurious structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction conceptual, variable, and statistical
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positivist, interpretive, and critical
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For which category of people have researchers found a rising rate of extramarital sex over the course of recent decades? older men younger women older women younger men
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younger women
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When a sociologist specifies exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable, he or she is said to ________ the variable. operationalize conceptualize validate test
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operationalize
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Winnie is a sociological researcher who participates and interacts with her research subjects. She looks deeper than outward behavior, analyzing why people behave the way they do. Winnie embraces the _______ orientation of sociological research. critical interpretive structural-functional positivist
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interpretive
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Kareem writes an essay in which he quotes Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer. Kareem is most likely writing about the ________ theoretical approach. gender-conflict structural-functional social-conflict symbolic-interaction
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structural-functional
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Seeing the general in the particular is one way to describe __________. the sociological perspective the future how people look at their marriage partners the global perspective
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the sociological perspective
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Generating an idea for social research begins with __________. correlation and causation experimenting and collecting data being curious and using the sociological perspective theory and its application
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being curious and using the sociological perspective
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Because Claudia’s interview subjects believed it was improper for an unmarried woman to speak privately with a man, the information she gathered was skewed by her gender. This is an example of the research error of __________. androcentricity interference double standards overgeneralization
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interference
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To establish ________, scientists examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable and conclude that the first causes the second. spurious correlation validity cause and effect correlation
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cause and effect
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Joyce is a clinical sociologist. She would most likely work to improve the lives of her troubled clients by focusing on __________. personality disorders difficulties in social relationships poor physical health people’s personal issues
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difficulties in social relationships
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The concept of a distinct category of people called “homosexuals” ______. was first introduced by the Kinsey studies in the 1940s did not exist until about a century ago originated during the sexual revolution of the 1960s dates back to ancient Greece
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did not exist until about a century ago
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How would the structural-functional approach explain the presence of the incest taboo in all societies? The regulation of sexual patterns is one of the ways in which men control and dominate women. The meanings people attach to sexuality are socially constructed and not subject to change. Sexuality is linked to social inequality; since incest is more common among the poor, society has deemed it taboo. Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order.
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Society regulates sexual behavior in order to maintain social order
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According to the social-conflict approach, sexuality __________. is both a cause and an effect of inequality has become less socially controlled over time has a different meaning in every culture is tied to the concept of reproduction
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is both a cause and an effect of inequality
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Marty believes that, by defining heterosexuality as “correct” and homosexuality as “incorrect,” society effectively devalues and controls gays and lesbians. Which of sociology’s theoretical approaches is Marty taking? social-conflict structural-functional feminist symbolic-interaction
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Social-conflict
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Sexual attraction is not the same thing as sexual behavior. True False
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True
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What is the difference between sex and gender? Gender refers to a person’s biological traits, while sex refers to a person’s sexual orientation. Sex is cultural, while gender is biological. Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits. Gender refers to a person’s sexual orientation, while sex refers to a person’s biological traits.
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Gender is cultural, while sex refers to biological traits
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The theoretical approach that explores ways in which sexuality is important for the operation of society is the __________ approach. structural-functional social-conflict feminist symbolic-interaction
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structural-functional

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