Soc. Final ASUb 4

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Social stratification is a concept that refers to Answers: specialization in productive work. ranking categories of people in a hierarchy. the idea that some people are more talented than others. All of these are correct.
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ranking catgeories of people in a heirarchy
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Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratification Answers: gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others. places everyone on a level playing field. ensures that hard work will lead people to become wealthy. means that what people get out of life is pretty much what they put into it.
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gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others
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Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that social stratification may be universal, but ______________ varies from one society to another. Answers: what is unequal how unequal people are why people are unequal All of these are correct.
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all of these
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A caste system is defined as Answers: social stratification based on ascription, or birth. social stratification based on personal achievement. a meritocracy. any social system in which categories of people are unequal.
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social stratification based on ascription, or birth
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Ravi was born into a caste system in a small village in Sri Lanka. He can expect to Answers: earn his social position through his own efforts. change his social position many times throughout his life. have the same social standing as his parents. choose his life’s work for himself after finishing college.
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have the same social standing as his parents
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If you lived in a society with a traditional caste system, you would expect your marriage to be Answers: polygamous. exogamous. based on romantic love. endogamous.
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endogamous
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If you were born into a traditional caste system, you would expect that, based on birth, you would be Answers: raised to do a certain type of job. required to marry someone of your own social category. encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category. All of these are correct.
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all
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The historical replacement of caste systems with class systems Selected Answer: Answers: brings an end to most social inequality. replaces one kind of inequality with another. means that individuals experience less social mobility. means that categories of people become more clearly unequal.
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replaces one kind of inequality with another
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The concept \”meritocracy\” refers to social stratification Answers: with no social mobility. in which people \”know their place.\” based entirely on personal merit. as found in the United States.
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based entirely on personal merit
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The degree of status consistency is Answers: higher in caste than class systems. the same in all types of social stratification. higher in class than caste systems. higher the more productive a society is.
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higher in caste than class
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A college professor with advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power to shape national events can be described as having Answers: high status consistency. horizontal social mobility. downward social mobility. low status consistency.
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low status consistency
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The point of the story about passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic is that Answers: advanced technology cannot prevent tragedy. all people have the same right to life. social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death. social stratification often has little to do with everyday life.
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social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death
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Which of the following concepts refers to the historical practice in England of passing on property to only the first-born male descendant? Answers: the law of the estates the law of meritocracy the law of status consistency the law of primogeniture
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the law of primogeniture
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One good indication that caste still operates in the United Kingdom is the importance people attach to Answers: graduating from college. social mobility. money. accent in speech.
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accent in speech
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In 1917, the Russian Revolution transformed the feudal aristocracy and placed productive property under the control of Selected Answer: the state. Answers: the capitalists. a meritocracy. the nobility. the state.
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the state
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The concept of structural social mobility refers to itself. Answers: cultural beliefs that justify social stratification. change in social position due to people’s own efforts. change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself. change in a family’s social position from one generation to the next.
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change in the social position of many people due to changes in society
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Which of the following statements accurately describes social stratification in the People’s Republic of China? Answers: A new set of social classes is gradually emerging. There is no longer any social inequality. Social standing reflects only a person’s position in the Communist Party. China has the same social stratification that is found in Japan.
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a new set of social classes is gradually emerging
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Ideology, or cultural beliefs that support social stratification, is found in Answers: caste systems. class systems. both class and caste systems. only U.S. society.
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both class and caste
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According to the Davis-Moore thesis Answers: complete equality is functional for every society. the more inequality a society has, the more productive it is. more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them. meritocracy is less productive than a caste system.
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more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them
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The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the Answers: structural-functional approach. social-conflict approach. symbolic-interaction approach. social-exchange approach.
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structural functional
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According to Davis and Moore, a system of unequal rewards increases productivity by Answers: encouraging people to want an important job. motivating people to work longer, harder, or better. encouraging people to gain the schooling and skills needed to perform more important jobs. All of these are correct.
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all
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Who coined the concept \”survival of the fittest\”? Answers: Charles Darwin Karl Marx Herbert Spencer Max Weber
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spencer
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According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involves Answers: class conflict. negotiation and compromise leading to stability. the abolition of work itself. All of these are correct.
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class conflict
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The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the Answers: structural-functional approach. social-conflict approach. symbolic-interaction approach. social-exchange approach.
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social conflict approach
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Work involving mostly mental activity is called Answers: blue-collar work. white-collar work. pink-collar work. agrarian work.
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white collar work
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Read the four statements below. Which is NOT a reason given in the text for why a socialist revolution never took place in capitalist societies as Marx predicted? Answers: Stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people. Living standards for the majority have gone up. Wealth is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few. The law affords workers far more legal protections.
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wealth is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few
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Olga works as a district sales manager for a small corporation. Which of the following categories correctly describes her work? Answers: blue-collar white-collar capitalist agrarian
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white collar
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Which of the statements below is FALSE? Answers: Living standards in the United States have risen since Marx’s lifetime. More workers have unions to represent them than in Marx’s lifetime. Today, laws enhance workplace safety and set minimum wages, which was not the case during Marx’s lifetime. Today, ordinary working people no longer experience the effects of social inequality.
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today, ordinary working people no longer experience the effects of social inequality
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Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of Answers: a socioeconomic ranking. three main classes. everyone gradually sinking into poverty. society as one large middle class.
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socioeconomic ranking
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Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to which dimension of social inequality? Answers: economic class social prestige or honor power control of information
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social prestige or honor
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A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that Answers: social stratification is not usually evident in everyday life. most people live and work in socially diverse settings in terms of social stratification. people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position. social position has little to do with the friends people have.
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people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position
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The concept \”conspicuous consumption\” refers to Answers: buying things that are popular with the most people. buying more than what you need for the moment. the practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position. acting as if one had a lower social position than is really the case.
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the practice of buying things to make a statements about ones social position
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Looking around the world today, income inequality is greatest in which of the following regions? Answers: North America Latin America Europe China
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latin america
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In 2010, the median income for U.S. families was Answers: $16,099. $36,077. $60,395. $76,055.
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60395
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Which of the following concepts refers to earnings from work or any investments? Answers: income personal property wealth power
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income
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The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as Answers: income. personal property. wealth. power.
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wealth
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The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the \”super-rich\”) controls about _____ of the nation’s privately held wealth. Answers: 25 percent 35 percent 65 percent 85 percent
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35
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Based on what you know about occupational prestige, which of the following statements is correct? Answers: Most of the highest-ranked occupations in the United States are dominated by women. Occupational rankings are similar in all high-income nations. White-collar work and blue-collar work have about the same social prestige. In the United States, occupation has little to do with social standing.
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occupational rankings are similar in all high incomes nations
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About _____ of the richest people in the United States gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance. Answers: one-eighth one-fourth one-third two-thirds
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one third
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If you followed the lead of Max Weber, you would think of social stratification in terms of Answers: a multidimensional status hierarchy. two major social classes. a middle-class society. six different social classes.
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multidimensional status heirarchy
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Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of _____; being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of _____. Answers: birth; achievement business success; birth gender; birth high-income; low-income
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birth, acheivement
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The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jada Pinkett Smith would be BEST described as Answers: working class. middle class. \”old money.\” lower-upper class.
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lower upper
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Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the Answers: upper class. middle class. lower class. poor.
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middle
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Working class people might also be described as Answers: lower-middle class. lower-upper class. lower-class. upper-middle class.
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lower middle
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According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat? Answers: the upper-middle class the middle class the upper class the working class
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working class
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People of low social position are more liberal on _____ issues and more conservative on _____ issues. Answers: social; economic economic; social very few; almost all almost all; almost no
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economic, social
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Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime? Answers: intragenerational social mobility intergenerational social mobility structural social mobility horizontal social mobility
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intragenerational social mobility
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According to Lisa Keister’s research, which of the following statements is correct? Answers: Social mobility has never existed in the United States. Social mobility is the same for people at all levels of the wealth hierarchy. Social mobility is lowest for people in the middle of the wealth hierarchy. Social mobility is lowest for people at the top and the bottom of the wealth hierarchy.
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social mobility is lowest for people at the top and the bottom of the wealth
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Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing? Answers: divorce leave school to get a job marry and stay married All of these are correct.
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marry and stay married
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In the United States, people of _____ are MOST likely to vote. Answers: low social position high social position average social position None of these is correct.
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high social position
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The concept of gender refers to Answers: the degree of inequality between men and women in a society. the secondary sex characteristics of individuals. the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male. patterns of sexual orientation.
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personal traits and social positions that memebers of a society attach to being female or male
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The chapter argues that gender is not just a matter of difference in behavior, but also of differences in Answers: power. wealth. privileges. All of these are correct.
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all
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Which one of the following statements is correct? Answers: Men and women differ physically in some limited ways. Overall, men are physically superior to women. Overall, women are physically superior to men. There are no physical differences between men and women.
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men and women differ physically in limited ways
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On average, do women or men live longer? Answers: On average, men outlive women by about one year. On average, women outlive men by about one year. On average, men outlive women by about five years. On average, women outlive men by about five years.
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on average, women outlive men by about 5 years
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On average, young men show greater ____ ability than young women; young women show greater _____ ability than young men. Answers: intellectual; sensory mathematical; verbal verbal; mathematical sensory; intellectual
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mathematical and verbal
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Comparing the performances of female and male athletes over time shows Answers: little or no change in female-male differences in performance. male performances are improving faster than female performances. women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances. women now outperform men in most athletic events.
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women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances
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The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is to show that Answers: gender is rooted in biology. women can dominate men. cultures define gender in different ways. boys and girls must be raised by biological parents.
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cultures define gender in different ways
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Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that Answers: all societies define masculinity in much the same way. all societies define femininity in much the same way. patterns involving gender are rooted in biology. traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another.
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traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another
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In his global study of how societies view gender, George Murdock found Answers: some agreement as to feminine and masculine tasks. men and women were equally likely to be engaged in farming. many tasks were considered masculine by some societies and feminine by others. All of these are correct.
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all
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Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females? Answers: patriarchy matriarchy monarchy oligarchy
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patriarchy
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What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males? Answers: patriarchy matriarchy monarchy oligarchy
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matriarchy
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Based on the map and discussion in the text, in which of the following do women have the lowest social standing? Answers: Europe North America Africa South America
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africa
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Throughout the life course, gender shapes Answers: human feelings. human thoughts. human actions. All of these are correct.
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all
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Which concept refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex? Answers: primary sex characteristics sexual orientation gender roles secondary sex characteristics
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gender roles
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Drawing on Janet Lever’s observations of children at play, which of the following would you conclude to be true? Answers: Gender has little effect on young children. Girls spend much more time at play than boys do. Boys favor games with clear winners and losers. Boys favor games that encourage communication and cooperation
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boys favor games with clear winners and losers
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Approximately what percentage of U.S. women are working for income today? Answers: 20 percent 30 percent 40 percent 60 percent
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60
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Which of the following factors has helped increase the share of women in the paid labor force over the course of the last century? Answers: the increase in the number of people working on farms a high divorce rate the increasing size of U.S. families the fact that working women earn more than working men
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high divorce rate
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A majority of U.S. women in which of the following categories enter the labor force? Answers: married women with children single women with children divorced women with children All of these are correct.
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all
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In today’s U.S. workforce, Answers: men and women have the same types of jobs. women and men receive the same pay. women are concentrated in several categories of jobs. a majority of working women hold \”pink collar\” jobs.
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women are concentrated in several categories of jobs
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The concept of \”glass ceiling\” refers to Answers: the barrier that prevents women from being promoted. the fact that women’s dreams are easily broken. the fact that cleaning the home is all most women do. the barrier that keeps women in service work.
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the barrier that prevents women from being promoted
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The \”beauty myth\” refers to the idea that Answers: women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance. beauty is in the eye of the beholder. women prefer men who are physically attractive. women today are as physically attractive as today’s men are.
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women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
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In which of the following job categories are the workers mostly women? Answers: physicians corporate managers college professors elementary school teachers
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elementary school teachers
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Which of the following is an important exception to male domination of the U.S. workplace? Answers: Women now own more than 10 million entrepreneurial businesses. Women hold 80 percent of pink-collar jobs. Most college and university faculty are women. A majority of corporate executives are women.
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women now own more than 10 million entrepreneurial businesses
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In the United States in 2009, women in the labor force working full time earned ______ to every dollar men earned. Answers: 97 cents 87 cents 77 cents 57 cents
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77
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The concept of \”comparable worth\” means that Answers: women should hold political offices in proportion to their numbers in the population. people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work. the market system should determine the pay for any job. all jobs should be rewarded equally.
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people should be paid according to their level of skill
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Which factor accounts for the GREATEST share of the difference in the earnings of working women and men in the United States? Answers: differences in education difference in family responsibilities gender discrimination in the workplace the type of work men and women do
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the type of work men and women do
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For which of the following categories of the U.S. population is it true that women do most of the housework? Answers: employed people married people people with children All of these are correct.
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all
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Today, women represent ______ of all students on college campuses across the United States. Answers: 37 percent 57 percent 77 percent 97 percent
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57
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Which of the following statements about gender and schooling is correct? Answers: Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with a learning disability. More boys than girls are placed in special education classes. Most disciplinary problems in schools involve boys. All of these are correct.
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all
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In 2011, Forbes magazine reported that approximately ___________ of our country’s richest people were women. Answers: 70 percent 50 percent 30 percent 10 percent
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10
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Women earn what share of all associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in the United States? Answers: 39 percent 49 percent 59 percent 69 percent
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59
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As of 2011, women held about what share of seats in Congress? Answers: 17 percent 37 percent 57 percent 77 percent
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17
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In which of the following nations does the political power of women come closest to that of men? Answers: United States Norway China Cuba
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norway
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Women have served in the U.S. armed forces Answers: since World War II. since the Vietnam War. since the Persian Gulf War. since colonial times.
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since colonial times
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What is at the heart of the controversy over women’s participation in the military? Answers: Women score lower than men on military intelligence (IQ) tests. Women cannot operate high-tech equipment as well as men. Women have only recently joined the U.S. armed forces. Women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill.
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women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill
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What is a reason to see women as a minority in the United States? Answers: At every class level, women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do. Almost all women see themselves as a minority. In the United States, men outnumber women. All of these are correct.
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at every class level
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If you could end violence against women in one setting, doing so in which of the following settings would reduce this type of violence the MOST? Answers: the workplace the home public places college campuses
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the home
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In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker? Answers: 5-10 percent 25-30 percent 65-70 percent 85-90 percent
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85-90
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Sexual harassment became an issue of national importance in the United States in Answers: the 1990s. the 1960s. the 1890s. the 1780s.
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1990s
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Sexual harassment is an important social issue because Answers: it actually targets men more often than women. half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention. it almost always involves blatant threats. All of these are correct.
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half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention
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Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in Answers: Latin America. the United States. Africa. Asia.
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africa
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Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages Answers: men to take control of the workplace. growing gender equality. women to have more children. All of these are correct.
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growing gender equality
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Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of Answers: power differences. complementarity. violence. the sexual objectification of women.
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complementarity
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Talcott Parsons explained that males tend to exhibit _____ behavior, while females are more _____. Answers: instrumental; expressive expressive; instrumental egalitarian; hierarchical rational; emotional
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instrumental expressicve
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Engels claimed that men’s desire to control both women’s sexuality and private property brought about Answers: educational reform. widespread use of birth control. monogamous marriage. the rise of industry.
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monogamous marriage
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According to intersection theory, which of the following is a source of social disadvantage? Answers: gender race class All of these are correct.
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all
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When did feminism begin as a social movement in the United States? Answers: during the colonial era in the 1840s in the 1940s in the 1980s
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in the 1840s
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Feminists support all but one of the following. Which is the one statement that feminists do not support? Answers: ending gender stratification ending sexual violence weakening the importance of gender in people’s lives limiting sexual freedom
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limiting sexual freedom
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Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men? Answers: liberal feminism socialist feminism radical feminism All of these are correct.
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liberal feminism
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Friedrich Engels claimed that capitalism Answers: reduced all forms of inequality. reduced patriarchy. had little or no affect on patriarchy. increased patriarchy.
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increased patriarchy

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