Soc. Final Asub 2

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Based on what you have read in this chapter, how would sociologists explain the fact that many young people in the United States experience adolescence as a time of confusion? Answers: There are cultural inconsistencies in this stage when people are no longer children but not yet adults. Hormones greatly affect adolescents as they mature. Growth always involves change and change is confusing. As children, they did not complete the stages of socialization in the proper order.
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Cultural inconsistencies
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Critics of Erikson’s theory of personality development point out that Answers: not everyone confronts the stages in the exact order given by Erikson. failing to meet the challenge of one stage of development may not mean failing at later challenges. this process may unfold differently in other cultures or at other times in history. All of these are correct.
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all of theses are correct
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Mead used the concept \”generalized other\” to refer to Answers: individuals who play a role in the child’s life during a relatively short period. a person who provides complete care for a child. any \”significant other.\” widespread cultural norms and values used in evaluating ourselves.
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widespread cultural norms
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he period of life called \”middle adulthood\” typically involves Answers: life circumstances becoming more or less set. an increased awareness of health issues. children growing up and requiring less attention. All of these are correct.
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All are correct
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The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg’s research was Answers: cognition. the importance of gender in socialization. moral reasoning. death and dying.
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moral reasoning
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George Herbert Mead considered the self to be Answers: the part of an individual’s personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image. the presence of culture within the individual. basic drives that are self-centered. present in infants at the time of their birth.
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the part of an individual personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image
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The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that Answers: households with children get rid of their TVs. children begin watching TV when they are 6 months old. children’s television time be limited to two hours a day. parents encourage children to play video games.
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children’s TV limited to two hours per day
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In the historical perspective, the importance of the mass media to the socialization process has Answers: increased over time. been about the same over the last century. decreased over time. never been very important.
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increased over time
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For Jean Piaget, at which stage of development do individuals first use language and other cultural symbols? Answers: sensorimotor stage preoperational stage concrete operational stage formal operational stage
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preoperational stage
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Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress _____, while well-to-do parents typically stress _____. Answers: independence; protecting children independence; dependence obedience; creativity creativity; obedience
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obedience, creativity
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Industrial societies typically define people in old age as Answers: the most wise. the most knowledgeable about current fashion and trends. more out of touch and less socially important than younger adults. having the highest social standing.
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more out of touch and less socially important than younger adults
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The Harlow experiments to discover the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys showed that Answers: monkeys isolated for six months were highly fearful when they were returned to their group. isolated monkeys able to cling to terry cloth, artificial mothers developed normally. even several days of social isolation permanently damaged infant monkeys. All of these are correct.
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monkeys isolated for 6 months were highly fearful when returned to their mothers
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Applying Freud’s thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would conclude that Answers: human behavior is basically random. humans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of society. societies encourage people to become self-centered. humans can never become cultural creatures.
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humans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of society
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According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is Answers: to help integrate a troubled patient into the outside world. to give a person greater choices about how to live. to radically alter a person’s personality or behavior. to encourage lifelong learning in a supervised context.
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to radically alter a person’s personality or behavior
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Mead placed the origin of the self on Answers: biological drives. genetics. social experience. the functioning of the brain.
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social experience
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Ken judges situations with an eye toward personal relationships and loyalties. Ken is Answers: cursed with low self-esteem. morally superior to all women. operating under the justice perspective. not a typical man.
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not a typical man
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Based on what you have read in this chapter, you would correctly conclude that Answers: society shapes how we think and act. human beings are spontaneous and creative with the power to change society. human beings have the capacity to change the world. All of these are correct.
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all
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The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl who was studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that Answers: humans have most of the same instincts found in other animal species. without social experience, a child is not able to act or communicate in a meaningful way. personality is present in humans at birth. early socialization is not critical to personality development.
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without social experience, a child is not able to act or communicate in a meaningful way
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If you were to summarize the lesson learned from the case of Anna, you would correctly conclude that Answers: social experience plays a crucial part in forming human personality. both social experience and the presence of the birth mother are crucial to early development. the effect of long-term social isolation can be overcome in a relatively short time. All of these are correct.
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social experience plays a crucial part in forming human personality
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An inmate who loses the capacity for independent living is described as Answers: unsocialized. integrated. institutionalized. dissociated.
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institutionalized
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Family is important to the socialization process because Answers: family members are often what Mead called \”significant others.\” families pass along social identity to children in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion. parents greatly affect a child’s sense of self. All of these are correct.
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All
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Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that Answers: childhood is a time of play and learning everywhere. rich societies extend childhood much longer than do poor societies. poor societies extend childhood much longer than do rich societies. biological immaturity is the main factor that defines childhood.
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rich societies extend childhood much longer than do poor societies
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Jean Piaget’s focus was on Answers: how children develop their motor skills. how children are stimulated by their environment. the role of heredity in shaping human behavior. cognition, or how people think and understand.
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cognition, or how people think and understand
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Which of the following concepts refers to a setting where a staff tries to radically change someone’s personality through carefully controlling the environment? Answers: anticipatory social center cohort community a total institution a degradation ceremony
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a total institution
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Carol Gilligan set out to compare the moral development of girls and boys. Her research showed that Answers: girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards. girls are more interested in right and wrong than boys are. boys show more care and empathy in judging a moral situation than girls do. the ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young people enter the teenage years.
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girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards
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According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact? Answers: sensorimotor stage preoperational stage concrete operational stage formal operational stage
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sensorimotor stage
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One contribution of schooling to the socialization process that teaches about rules and schedules is Answers: exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting. exposing the child to people of similar social backgrounds. teaching children to be highly flexible and to express their individuality. helping children break free of gender roles.
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exposing the child to a bureacratic setting
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According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as Answers: role models. looking-glass models. significant others. the generalized other.
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significant others
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When Cooley used the concept of the \”looking-glass self,\” he claimed that Answers: people are self-centered. people see themselves as they think others see them. people see things only from their own point of view. our actions are a reflection of our values.
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people see themselves as they think others see them
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What concept refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture? Answers: socialization personality human nature behaviorism
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socialization
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What is the term sociologists give to a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age? Answers: age subculture generation age group cohort
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cohort
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According to Mead, social experience involves Answers: understanding the world in terms of our senses. the exchange of symbols. a mix of biological instinct and learning. acting but not thinking.
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the exchange of symbols
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In Freud’s model of personality, the superego manages the opposing forces of the id and the ego. Answers: True False
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false
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Which of the following BEST sums up Goffman’s idea of the resocialization process? Answers: break down an old identity, then build up a new identity reward inmates for being creative help integrate inmates into the larger society All of these are correct.
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break down an old identity then build up a new one
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What concept refers to a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling? Answers: socialization behavior human nature personality
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personality
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The social sciences, including sociology, make the claim that Answers: humans have instincts that guide our lives. biological forces underlie human culture. as humans, to nurture is our nature. Darwin’s model of biological evolution explains the patterns of human culture.
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as humans, to nurture is our nature
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In Mead’s model, which sequence correctly orders stages of the developing self? Selected Answer: Answers: imitation, play, game, generalized other imitation, generalized other, play, game imitation, game, play, generalized other imitation, generalized other, game, play
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imitation, play, game, generalized other
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Based on the Harlows’ research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna, the isolated child, one might reasonably conclude that Answers: the two species react differently to social isolation. both monkeys and humans \”bounce back\” from long-term isolation. even a few days of social isolation permanently damages both monkeys and humans. long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.
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long term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans
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By \”taking the role of the other,\” Mead had in mind Answers: imagining a situation in terms of past experience. recognizing that people have different views of most situations. imagining a situation from another person’s point of view. trading self-centeredness for a focus on helping other people.
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imaganing a situation from another’s point of view
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Which theory, developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment? Answers: behaviorism biological psychology evolutionary psychology naturalism
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behaviorism
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Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization? Answers: Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages. Personality involves tensions between the forces of biology and forces of culture. We come to see ourselves as we think others see us. Most of our personality development takes place in childhood.
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personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages
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Which of the following is a lesson learned from the hidden curriculum? Answers: cooperation math reading biology
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cooperation
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On the basis of Melvin Kohn’s study of what parents expect of their children, high-income parents are likely to be MOST concerned when their child Answers: is given a \”tardy slip\” for being late to school. needs to be told what he should draw during free art time. is labeled a \”nonconformist.\” is said to have an \”active imagination.\”
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needs to be told what he should draw during free art time
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When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in a process that sociologists call Answers: group conformity. future directedness. anticipatory socialization. group rejection.
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anticipatory socialization
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In Freud’s model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person’s efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking drives? Answers: id ego superego generalized other
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ego
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In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that Answers: nature is far more important than nurture. nurture is far more important than nature. nature and nurture have equal importance. neither nature nor nurture creates the essence of our humanity.
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nurture is far more important than nature
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Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud’s concept of the Answers: superego. ego. id. me.
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id
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The special importance of the peer group is the fact that it Answers: has a greater effect than parents on children’s long-term goals. lets children escape the direct supervision of parents. gives children experience in an impersonal setting. All of these are correct.
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lets children escape the direct supervision of parents
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Based on the text’s survey of the life course, you might conclude that Answers: life-course stages are shaped by society and have nothing to do with biology. life-course stages are similar throughout the world. while life-course stages are linked to biology, they are largely a social construction. life-course stages have changed little over recent centuries.
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while life-course stages are linked to biology, they are largely a social construction
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In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death Answers: is defined similarly in every society. is an orderly transition involving specific stages. is a topic that people in the United States have always been comfortable discussing. All of these are correct.
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is an orderly transition involving specific stages
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The Thomas theorem states that Answers: a role is as a role does. people rise to their level of incompetence. situations defined as real are real in their consequences. people know the world only through their language.
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situations defined as real are real in their consequences
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Research suggests that Answers: men \”read\” women better than women \”read\” men. women \”read\” men better than men \”read\” women. neither sex is any better at \”reading\” the other. both sexes can \”read\” behavior of own sex better than the other sex.
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women ‘read’ men better than men ‘read’ women
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What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life? Answers: passive role master status ascribed status achieved status
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ascribed
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Cultures differ in terms of Answers: what triggers emotions. the rules for how people display emotions. how people value emotions. All of these are correct.
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all
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Rebuilding relationships with people who knew you in an earlier period of life is a common experience for those who are undergoing which of the following? Answers: role conflict role strain role ambiguity ]role exit
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role exit
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Which concept refers to the tension among roles connected to a single status? Answers: role conflict role strain role ambiguity role exit
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role strain
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Which of the following might be part of the classroom performance of a professor? Answers: books and notes lectern or desk acting in charge of the situation All of these are correct.
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all
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The power relationship between a physician and patient is immediately evident when the patient enters the doctor’s office because Answers: it is up to patients to decide when they will see the doctor. the physician is there to greet the patient. patients must wait until a \”gatekeeper\” admits them to see the doctor in the office’s \”back region.\” All of these are correct.
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patients must wait until a gatekeeper admits them to see the doctor
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Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician? Answers: role conflict role strain role ambiguity role exit
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role conflict
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The process by which people act and react in relation to others is called Answers: social connectedness. social construction. social dynamics. social interaction.
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social interaction
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Ekman claims that a major function of emotions is to Answers: let us be \”ourselves.\” support group life by building connections with others. limit the power of society over us. give people a feeling of independence from others.
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support group life by building connections with others
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In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to \”save face,\” or avoid embarrassment, is Answers: role exit. tact. idealization. creating personal space.
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tact
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Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds? Answers: role status role set presentation of self
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status
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At any given time you hold a number of statuses. These statuses make up your Answers: master status. role set. achieved statuses. status set.
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status set
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Flirting is a playful way of seeing if someone is interested in you without risking outright rejection. From this point of view, flirting illustrates Answers: the Thomas theorem. the process of role exit. the social construction of reality. All of these are correct.
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the social construction of reality
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Tact is a common response in potentially embarrassing situations because Answers: we like most people with whom we interact. our cultural norms demand looking out for others. everyone feels discomfort when a constructed reality breaks down. most people are unsure how to act in most situations.
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everyone feels discomfort when constructed reality breaks down
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According to Erving Goffman, people usually make efforts to _____ their intentions. Answers: idealize reveal hide contradict
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idealize
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A role set refers to Answers: all the roles found in a society. a number of roles attached to a single status. all the roles that are similar in function. a number of roles within any particular organization.
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number of roles attached to a single status
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Which of the following is involved when a plant supervisor wants to be a good friend and confidante to the workers, but must remain distant in order to rate the workers’ performances? Answers: role conflict role strain role ambiguity role exit
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role strain
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In the United States, people stand farther away from one another when they are talking than two people would in a Middle Eastern nation. This pattern reveals differences in meaning attached to Answers: personal hygiene. personal space. facial gestures. the rights of women compared to men.
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personal space
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Which concept refers to a social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort? Answers: active role master status ascribed status achieved status
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achieved status
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Which concept is used to designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact? Answers: status interaction social construction of reality interactive reality role reality
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social construction of reality
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The English language often treats whatever has greater value, force, or significance as Answers: gender-free. feminine. masculine. humorous.
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masculine
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Sociologists use what concept to refer to behavior that people expect from someone who holds a particular status? Answers: role master status status set role set
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role
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Which sociologist developed the approach called dramaturgical analysis? Answers: George Herbert Mead Harold Garfinkel Erving Goffman W. I. Thomas
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goffman
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Which item in the following list might serve as a master status? Answers: occupation physical or mental disability gender All of these are correct.
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all
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Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life? Answers: social status master status ascribed status achieved status
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master status
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Most women take the family name of a man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey Answers: power over others. personal knowledge of others. the importance of others. All of these are correct.
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power over others
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According to Erving Goffman, we engage in a _____ when we use costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey information to others. Answers: role performance status self
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performance
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Which of the following is an important element of nonverbal communication? Answers: hand gestures eye contact body language All of these are correct.
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all
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Arlie Russell Hochschild explains that companies typically Answers: try to control the emotions of workers. focus on behavior rather than emotions. encourage the free expression of emotions. All of these are correct.
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try to control the emotions of workers
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Humor is created when people Selected Answer: Answers: create and contrast two different realities. say things that have no meaning at all. contradict cultural patterns. say things that offend others.
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create and contrast two different realities
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What does the term \”presentation of self\” mean? Answers: efforts to create impressions in the minds of others being very self-conscious interaction that is highly formal trying to take attention away from others
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efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
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Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing Answers: role conflict. role strain. role ambiguity. role exit.
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role conflict
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Garfinkel’s research, an approach called ethnomethodology, involves Answers: studying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings. tracking people’s roles over the life course. the study of interaction in terms of theatrical performance. studying unfamiliar cultural systems.
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studying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
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What term does the text use for the process by which people disengage from important social roles? Answers: role rejection role reversal role loss role exit
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role exit
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Julie is a police officer who finds that wherever she goes in her small town, people seem to think of her as a \”cop.\” Julie is experiencing the effects of which of the following? Answers: role exit master status ascribed status status conflict
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master status
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Which of the following best describes a \”well-told\” joke? Answers: The unconventional and conventional definitions of reality are given so quickly that people will not understand the difference. There is a very sharp contrast between the conventional and unconventional definitions of reality. The conventional and unconventional definitions of reality are virtually the same. All of these are correct.
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there is a vey sharp contrast between the conventional and unconventional definitions of reality
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In her study of women’s abortion experiences, Jennifer Keys discovered that feelings are guided by Answers: biological processes over which people have no control. the inner self. emotional scripts. All of these are correct.
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emotional scripts
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Akbar is an honor student. In sociological terms, being an honor student is an example of which of the following? Answers: role conflict master status ascribed status achieved status
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achieved status
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Nonverbal communication refers to Answers: body movements, gestures, and facial expressions. instant messaging and other e-communication. written language. beliefs assumed to be true by everyone.
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body movements, gestures, facial expressions
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The careful observer can notice clues indicating that someone is telling a lie. People give off these clues because Answers: our culture defines specific gestures to convey dishonesty. nonverbal communication is hard for most people to control. few people ever intend to lie. research shows that most criminals really want to be caught.
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nonverbal communications is hard for most people to control
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Which of the following phrases was used by Erving Goffman to refer to being embarrassed in a social situation? Answers: \”breaking\” a role \”idealizing\” a performance \”exiting\” a role \”losing face\”
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‘losing face’
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Based on research around the world, Paul Ekman concludes that people everywhere express how many basic emotions? Answers: six three one None of these is correct; emotions vary from culture to culture.
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six
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Smiling and making polite remarks to people we do not like is an example of Answers: making another feel embarrassment. exercising power over another. idealizing a personal performance. losing face.
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idealizing a personal performance
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The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as Answers: ethnomethodology. dramaturgical analysis. the Thomas theorem. the social construction of reality.
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dramaturgical analysis
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What is the concept that refers to the conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses? Answers: role conflict role strain role set role exit
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role conflict
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The idea of \”getting\” a joke, according to the text, depends on Answers: knowing the joke teller well. having a different social background than the joke teller. understanding the two realities involved and appreciating their difference. understanding exactly why someone is telling a joke.
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understanding the two realities involved and appreciating their difference
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\”Personal space\” refers to Selected Answer: Answers: owned property, such as a house or land. unowned space in a public place. the surrounding area over which an individual makes some claim to privacy. a feeling of needing isolation from others.
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surrounding area over which an individual makes some claim to privacy
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Which of the following likely plays a part in the reality we construct through social interaction? Answers: social class background the country we live in our ethnicity All of these are correct.
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all

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