soc chapter 1 (pg 11-25)

auguste comte
created the word sociology and beleived it could be studied scientifically. “the study of life”. using science to predict behavior and wanted to reconstruct society

emile durkheim
beleived sociologist must develop methodogical principles to guide their research

social facts
according to emile durkheim, aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals, such as the state of economy. Durkheim believed that social facts could be studied scientifically

organic solidarity
according to Durkheim, the social cohesion that results from the various parts of a society functioning as an integrated whole

social constraint
according to durkheim, the conditioning influence on our social behavior of the groups and societies of which we are all members. Social constraint was regarded by durkheim as one of the distinctive properties of social facts

social constraints..
constrains our activities in a parrallel way, limiting what we can do as individuals

division of labor
durkheims analysis of social change was based on the development of this, the specialization of work tasks by means of which different occupations are combined withing a production system. All societies have at least some rudimentary form of division of labor, especially between the tasks allocated to men and those performed by women. with the development of industrialism, the division of labor became vastly more complex than in any prior type of production system. In the modern world, the division of labor is international in scope

durkheim, the concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by durkheim to refer to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior; the change in the modern world was so rapid this it brought about stress “anomie” and created suicidal behaviors

Karl marx
1- the main dynamic of modern development is the expansions of capitalism. Rather than being cohesive, society is divided by class differences
2- marx believed that we must study the divisions within a society that are derived from the economic inequalities of capitalism

1- main dynamic of modern development is the division of labor as a basis for social cohesion and organic solidarity
2- durkheim beleived that sociology must study social facts as things, just as science would analyze the natural world, his study in suicide led him to stress the influence of social factors, qualities of a society external to the individual, on a persons actions. Durkheim argued that a society exerts social constraint over our actions

1- main dynamic of modern development is the rationalization of social and economic life
2- weber focused on why western societies developed so differently from other societies. he also emphasized the importance of cultural ideas and values on social change

materialist conception of history
marx, material or economic factors have a prime role in determining historical change

marx, an economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit, class divisions

durkheim and marx
durkheim- ideas or values human beings hold that cause social change
marx- economy causes social change

max weber
like karl marx agrees economic factors are important in social change but not as important as ideas and values. studied western society compared to other civilizations. sociology of religion. thought it couldnt be studied using science like durkheim and marx

a type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedure and staffed by full time salaried officials. WEBER STUDIED. ex- hospitals, government firms, industrial firms

harriet martineau
neglected founder, methodological insight: when studing a science you need to consider all aspects. insisted that analysis of society must include all its members. brought to attention ignored issues like marriage, children and religious life to the sociological eye. AGREED WITH COMTE SOCIOLOGISTS SHOULD DO MORE THAN OBSERSE, BUT ACT IN WAYS THAT BENEFIT SOCIETY

w.e.b du bois
neglected founder: “double consciousness,” talking about identity through the lens of the experiences of african americans, ones self is influenced by history like slavery. tries to sociologically explain color differences

capitalism is..
a restlessly expanding system pushing outward across the world. this is how marx explained the global spread of western industry. capatilist compete to sell stuff, so they need to be cheap and efficient and then theres constant technology innovations

according to weber…
noneconomic factors have played key roles in modern social development like religious values

a concept used by max weber to refer to the process by which modes of precise calculation and organization, involving abstract rules and procedures, increasingly come to dominate the social world

symbolic interactionism
george herbert mead, a theoretical approach in sociology that emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction

key element for symbolic interaction, one item used to stand for another. ex- flag symbolizes a nation

according to symbolic interactionalists..
every human interaction is an exchange of symbols

symbolic interactions have been found difficulty in dealing with
larger scale structures and process

a theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform, that is, the constributions they make to the continuity of a society. PIONEERED BY COMTE

to study the function of a social activity is to analyze its contribution to the..
continuation of the society as a whole. ex- knowing how the heart pumps contributes to a person living

regard order and balance as the normal state of society.. ex- religion reaffirms peoples adherance to core social values which mantains social cohesion

manifest functions
the functions of a type of social activity that are known to and intended by the individuals in the activity. MERTON

latent functions
functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur

manifest and latent functions, functions and dysfunctions. To look for the dysfunctional aspect of social behavior means to focus on features of social life that challenge the existing order.

a body of thought deriving its main elements from the ideas of karl marx

believe sociology is a combination of sociological analysis and political reform

the ability of inividuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold. power is a persuasive element in all human relationships. many conflicts in society are struggles over power, because of how much power one group or indivdual has governs how far they are able to put their own wished into practice. IMPORTANT IN MARXISM

shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interests of dominant groups. ideologies are found in all society’s in which there are systematic and ingrained inequalities among groups. The concept of ideology connects closely with that of power, since ideological systems serve to legitimize the power that group holds

feminist theory
a sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequality in society and to work to overcome it

feminism is links
between sociological theory and political reform. the feminism theory emphasizes that gendered patterns and gendered inequalities are socially constructued

rational choice approach
more broadly, the theory that an individuals behavior is purposive. within the field of criminology, rational choice analysis argues that deviant behavior is a rational responce to a specific social situation

max weber thought all behavior could be divided by
1- behavior oriented toward higher values like politics
2-behavior oriented towards habit
3-behavior oriented towards emotion
4- behavior oriented towards self interest

the rational choice approach posits that if you could have only a single variable to explain society..
self interest would be the best one. althought rational choice approach cant explain every human action

the beleif that society is no longer governed by history or progress. post modern society is highly pluralistic and diverse with no “grand narrative” guiding its development

the postmodern world is not destined, as marx hoped to be a..
socialist one, but one dominated by new media like movies and tv and has nothing to do with our history

everything is in a constant flux..
flexibility, diversity, differenciation, communication and in the process our own identities are being transformed

jean baudrillard
postmodernist, beleived that electronic media created a chaotic empty world

relative deprivation
how people evaluate themselves depends on whom they compare themselves too, example of middle range theory

middle range theory
people should work with these; they are specific enough to be tested by empirical research but suffiently general to cover a range of phenomena. bigger theories are harder to work with

the study of human behavior in the context of face to face interaction

the study of large scale groups, organizations, or social systems

how can sociology help us?
1- it allows us to see the social world from many perspectives and can better understand peoples problems
2- we are better able to assess the results of public policy initiatives (pg.24)
3- can provide us with self-enlightenment and increased self understanding