Soc Ch 5 Aging & Inequality

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gerontology
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the study of aging and the elderly
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preindustrial
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This society saw elders as a social elite
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industrial
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This society saw the elderly as a social problem
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3 million
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By 1900, about how many people in the US were older than 65?
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midsection, from North Dakota and Minnesota down to Texas, much lower share in east & west coast
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The elderly live in which areas more? Much lower share where?
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younger, minorities don’t live as long as white people
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Is the older population or younger population more diverse? Why?
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women
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Do women or men live longer?
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56
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Women represent what percent of people over the age 65?
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100-98 135-100
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In 1900 there was over __ men for __ women In 2013 there is over __ women for __ men
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20
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The share of the US pop over age 65 is expected to reach what percent in 2030?
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4
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Life expectancy in African Americans is how many years less than whites?
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21
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What percent of minorities are over the age 65?
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advance care directive
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a legal document that tells your doctor what care you agree to in advance of this type of situation. With this document, you can tell your doctors what medical treatment you do not want to have and what treatment you want no matter how ill you are
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Ageism
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stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups on the basis of their age.
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Physician-assisted suicide
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the physician providing the means for death, most often with a prescription. The patient, not the physician, will ultimately administer the lethal medication. the patient is in complete control of the process that leads to death because he/she is the person who performs the act of suicide.
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Euthanasia
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assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease
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As time goes on, neighbors, families & friend & spouse dies and so does an old persons social life Women more because they outlive men
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Why is social isolation affecting the elderly? Which gender more?
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elder abuse
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A range of behavior from passive neglect to active verbal & emotional mistreatment to life threatening physical violence
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afraid to speak out
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Elder abuse is often undetected because?
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600 billion double
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In 2013, medicare spending for elderly people reached? What will happen to it in the future?
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medicare
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a program that pays for hospital care and other medical costs for people over the age of 65
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5
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experts estimate about __ % of elderly people suffer some type of abuse every year
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a good death
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Euthanasia means what in Greek?
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Radical-left view
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This view says that age stratification is one dimension of the striking social inequality caused by the capitalist U.S. Economy
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Liberal view
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This view says that elders face a higher risk of poverty; as well as prejudice and discrimination based on their age, sometimes in combination with disadvantages based on class, race and gender
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Conservative view
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This view says that although some seniors are poor, in general, older people do not face a host of social problems. In the US, elders are more prosperous and live longer than they did in the past
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Radical-left view
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This view says that replacing the capitalist economy with a socialist system would end the practice of devaluing less productive people. Government must provide for the well being of people of all ages
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Liberal view
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This view says that government programs (including social security and laws banning age discrimination) are crucial to meeting the needs of the rising elder population
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Conservative view
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This view says that a culture of self reliance will encourage most people to provide for their own old age; families should support elder members as necessary, and government programs should be a last resort
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Structural Functional Theory
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This theory supports disengagement theory, which claims that modern societies operate smoothly by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age. Aging, then, amounts to a loss of ability to perform important roles
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Symbolic Interaction Theory
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This theory supports activity theory, which links satisfaction in old age to keeping a high level of social activity. Aging is a time of transition during when people disengage from some activities and take on new ones
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Social Conflict theory
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This theory focuses on age stratification. Society gives most power and privileges to people in midlife. In spite of age discrimination laws, most employers favor younger workers whom they can pay less
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Feminist Theory
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This theory points to the importance of gender stratification in old age.
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Intersection Theory
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This theory reminds us that dimensions of inequality combine to put some categories of people at greater disadvantage
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Structural Functional Theory
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This theory believes aging is inevitable and causes people to loose their abilities sooner or later. Societies avoid the problem of older people not performing their responsibilities through disengagement of the elderly
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Symbolic Interaction Theory
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This theory believes the problems of aging can be minimized by remaining active, according to an individuals abilities, interests, and desires
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Social Conflict Theory
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This theory believes that many of the problems of aging are caused by our societies profit orientation, which devalues categories of people who are less economically productive
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Feminist Theory
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This theory believes problems of aging are greater for women and other disadvantaged categories of the population who contend with more social problems throughout the life course
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9.1% 3.9 million 30%
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In 2012, how many people over the age of 65 where below the poverty line? (include poverty). In 1965, what was it?
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7.9%
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The rate of poverty among people aged 65-74?
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10.6%
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Poverty rate for people 75+?
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high deductibles & co-pay requirements doesn’t include dental or long term care Rising cost
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Disadvantages of Medicare? (5)
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56
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To help cover the cost of health care not covered by by Medicare, what percent of elders purchase private health insurance?
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Many cant pay the bills & they have a lot of health issues
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What are some problems with government assisted care? (2)
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Those in nursing facilities
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Cost of medical care especially high for which elders?
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Medicare & private insurance only cover some of the bills, seniors have trouble covering all costs
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What is the problem with nursing facilities?
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4, half
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What percent of elders live in a nursing facility in any given time? How many will live in such a facility at one point in their lives?
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-Efforts to cut costs & have less staff lead to neglecting patients -Underpaid, little trained workers -Understaffed
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Why might abuse occur in nursing facilities? (3)
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Caregivers have themselves & other family members to think about, and 3/4ths have jobs
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What factors contribute to elderly abuse in families? (3)
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-They were once victims themselves, own psychological problems, economic uncertainty, stress
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What are some causes of elder abuse? (4)
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Age stratification
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Social inequality among various age categories within a society
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$46,982 $36,648 $26,606
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What is the average income for those who are 65-69? 70-74? 75+?
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High income: Retirement homes Low income:Rental subsidies based on individuals needs
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What are the main founding sources for long-term care for elderly?
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50- 90% of income = 32% 90-100% of income = 33%
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What percentage of the elderly rely on Soc. Security for at least 50 % of their income?
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1950 = 16 workers for each person 2000 = 3.2 workers for each person
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dependency ratios for each person on social security 1950 and 2000
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18%
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what percentage of the health care costs of the elderly is covered by Medicare?
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women: 62.3% men: 81%
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In 2012, the ratio of women’s to men’s earnings among full-time, year-round workers was what?
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Life expectancy, Feritility/mortality rates, Baby boom generation
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What are the reasons for aging population in the U.S.? (3)
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raising social security taxes, cutting benefits, raising age of eligibility, privatizing the social security, raising the cap on taxable income, increasing immigration.
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solutions to the Social Security crisis (6)
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not all workers are covered, benefits depend on wages and time of employment, bias against women, regressive form of taxation.
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problems facing the elderly (Social Security, health care, elderly abuse) [4]
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Life expectancy: 79-47years White females: 80 white males: 73 black females: 74 black males: 65
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What is the average life expectancy in 2013 & 1900? White females, white males, black females & black males?
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Whites- California, New York, Florida
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Who are the elderly (race/ethnicity) and where do they live?
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Age 65 to 74:
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Most “younger old” live independently and enjoy good health. (age range)
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Age 75 to 84
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The “older old” are more likely to require support. (age range)
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85+
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The population share of the “oldest old” has increased twenty-fold since 1900. This group needs the most assistance. (age range)
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15
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On average, elders spend ___% of their household budget on health care.
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59, 47, 49.4
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In 2015, Social Security provided benefits to __ million Americans (__ million in 2003 and ____ million in 2007)
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Medicaid
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The biggest funding source for long term care?
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48%
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what percentage of the health care costs of the elderly is covered by Medicaid?
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870 billiion
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In 2015 Social Security benefits totaled how much money?
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118,500
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Maximum Taxable Earning in 2015?
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Dependency Ratio
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The proportion of the population who are workers compared to the proportion not working.
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its skewed, Social Security collects more in taxes than it pays out, but as people live longer and the baby boomers reach retirement, this system will no longer support itself.
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How does the dependency ratio affect Social Security program?
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cumulative disadvantage
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The accumulation of increasing disadvantage as early disadvantage positions an individual for later disadvantage
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Cumulative advantage
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The accumulation of increasing advantage as early advantage positions an individual for later advantage
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$1,335
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In 2015, the average monthly retirement benefits was $___ or about $16,000 per year.

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