SOC 1110

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What are some of the functions of religion?
Provides meaning, socialization, source of morals/values/beliefs, source of social support and community.
According to Durkheim what are the three elements needed in religion?
1) Beliefs 2) Social Practice 3) Moral Communities
How does religion create moral community?
Religions function to promote social unity to create moral and intellectual consensus
How does the idea of sacred (vs. profane) fit in?
Profane is mundane/ordinary, sacred inspires awe and reverence
What are the three types of religious institutions?
Religious Institution
Small/exclusive fellowship
A religious group that has no prior ties to any established body
What are some of the ways used to measure religiosity
1) Attitudes/Beliefs 2) Actions/Behaviors 3) Knowledge 4) Spirituality 5) Legislation
What is the secularization hypothesis?
As society modernizes, it will become more secular
Marx – Religon
Religion is an ideology and promotes false consciousness
Weber – Religion
Protestant ethic that is necessary for capitalism is fading
Durkheim – Religion
Religion fosters conformity to norms and the formation of moral communities
What does Chaves (“Abiding Faith”) argue about secularization in the American case?
Americans believe much but practice/participate less
What are the four views of God? (Froese and Bader)
1) Authoritative God 2) Benevolent God 3) Critical God 4) Distant God
Authoritative God
A God who is both engaged in the world and judgmental
Benevolent God
A God who is engaged, yet non-judgmental
Critical God
A God who is judgmental, but disengaged
Distant God
A God who is disengaged and non-judgmental
What are some of the current trends in the US religious landscape?
Erosion of denominationalism, rising number of unaffiliated Christians, rise of spirituality
What are some demographic shifts in levels of religiosity and the unaffiliated in the last 50 years?
Change in cultural norms in 1960’s lead to crisis for American religion
Rise of Conservatism in 1970-1980’s lead to rise in non-denominational evangelicals
What are some of the reasons why women are more religious than men?
Mothers are primarily responsible for religious socialization of children, women are joiners and risk-averse, fewer secular opportunities for women
What is the relationship between conservative religion and gender norms and practice about equality according to Wilcox (“Religion and the Domestication of Men”)?
Depends on men being religiously active, Evangelical households are more egalitarian, data on marital status is mixed
What is the new paradigm?
New paradigm is economic, consumer demand for religion
According to Stark’s model based on the idea of a religious economy what is the relationship between religious pluralism, religious regulation, religious competition and levels of religiosity?
As religious pluralism increases and religious regulation decreases, religious competition leads to increased religiosity
Religious Economy
Marketplace of faiths in society
Religious Pluralism
Existence of several religions in society
Religious Regulation
Regulation by the state or religious monopolies
Religious Competition
Different religious groups competing for members
How is religion shaping some American workplaces (Shorto)?
Intentional de-secularization (Christian banks)
What role is religion playing in prison life at Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola (Documentary film “In the Shadow of Faith”)? What social function(s) does religion provide in a prison context? How does religion assist prisoners in overcoming their master status?
Religion becomes master status, prison encourages Christianity, provides moral community
What are the three major revolutions that have underscored the changes in American society in the last 200 years?
Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Information Revolution
What is the process of urbanization?
The concentration of highly specialized workers in one area as a result of the economy
Primary Sector of the Economy
Generates raw materials directly from raw environment
Secondary Sector of the Economy
Transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
Tertiary Sector of the Economy
Generates service rather than goods
Quaternary Sector of the Economy
Consists of intellectual activities and services
What was Marx and Engels argument in the Communist Manifesto?
Economics shape other realms and institutions and class conflict is the source of social change
How are workers alienated?
1) the product 2) the process of production 3) from oneself 4) from other people
What is meant by the term deindustrialization?
Decentralization of work away from factories
What are the consequences of economic restructuring especially for inner-cities?
Rising prison population, high drop-out rates, decline in real wages
According to Wilson (The Economic Plight of Inner-City Black Males”) what are the cultural and structural explanations for the poor life chances of young black men?
Disconnected from the culture of work, lack of cultural capital for public service sector job, prioritize values from popular culture.
We can understand the labor market in terms of what two distinct sectors
Primary Labor Market: paid well, benefits, high level of job security
Secondary: low-wage, poor benefits, no job security, opportunity to advance
What kinds of jobs and occupations characterize the modern economy?
Service-related jobs and technical occupations (professions)
What are some of the features of the US economy and labor market?
Mainly tertiary and quaternary sectors and primary labor market
How can we explain the increasing segment of the working class living in poverty? What insights does Ehrenreich offer in Nickel-and-Dimed about the working poor? What are the general characteristics of the poor? What social groups and areas are most affected?
Working poor have jobs, but are below the poverty line
Skills/abilities have declining value
Low-pay/wages declining
How does sex/gender and race impact mobility in professional occupations? Think about the case of nursing (Wingfield)? What do the terms glass ceiling, glass escalator and glass barrier mean?
Women in male-dominated field hit glass ceiling
Men in women-dominated field get glass escalator
Black men hit glass barrier in women-dominated field
What are the sources of social stratification in the article “At a Slaughter House, Some Things Never Die” (LeDuff )?
Race and racial hierarchy; blacks/Mexicans get the worst jobs
Think about racial and ethnic divisions and inequality. What kinds of conflict does this create in this workplace?
Racial tension between immigrants and management.
What are some of the safety concerns in the American workplace? What are some of the challenges in regulating the industrial workplace? Think about the documentary film: “A Dangerous Business Revisited.”
Culture of safety violations
Capitalistic society places productivity over safety
No social engagement with the issue
What are some features of the national state?
Body of citizens who have both rights and obligations to the state
What are some of the tensions in a capitalist state?
Tension between capitalism and welfare over how the government provides public goods
What are the main functions of the government?
Securing against harm from (internal/external) threats, providing certain resources/services (public goods)
What is a features of a democratic government?
Democratic governments are run by its citizens
What are public goods?
Public goods are things necessary for group life that require cooperative action
What is the free-rider problem?
Free-riders benefit from a collective activity without contributing to its creation
What is the relationship between politics and power?
Politics is the process by which people gain, use, and lose power
What are the three types of power?
Shaping the will of others (exerting control) – Weber
Power of non-decisions – Lukes
Altering social space and shaping the field of action – Wartenberg
What makes power legitimate?
The recognition of power as valid and justified makes it legitimate
What are the different views on how power is distributed? (Mills)
Triangle of power: Economic, political, and military
How can “Power Elites” be understood on a global scale (Freeland)?
“Rise of global elites”
What are the implications of power elites in politics and the economy (locally and globally)?
Elitist: Decisions are made by a small group of elite people, power is concentrated at the top
Pluralistic: Variety of competing elites and interest groups, power is shifting and dispersed
Decisions are made by a small group of elite people, power is concentrated at the top
Variety of competing elites and interest groups, power is shifting and dispersed
What is civil society?
Realm of free activity, not organized, buffer between citizens and government
What is evidence of civic disengagement? What effects does it have?
Low-voter turnout, distrust of politics, decrease of civility, apathetic about social inequality, social isolation
What are some of the reasons for the decline in civic engagement?
Decline in face-to-face social interaction, changes in family patterns, privatization and isolation of normal life, technological changes
What are the trends in terms of trust, partisanship, and voter participation?
Trust and voter participation are at a dismal level; partisanship is commonplace and politics is very polarized
What is a representative democracy?
Elected public officials represent the people
How representative is our democratic government?
Fairly representative; voting, political parties, interest groups, Political Action Committees (PACs)
What does Anderson mean by the term cosmopolitan canopy? What type of interactions is he referring to?
Quasi-public places with cross-racial/cross-class interactions where exposure to diversity is likely
How is the cosmopolitan canopy linked to civil society and social inequality?
Reduces mistrust –> familiarity, challenge stereotypes, increases civility
Why do social movements occur?
1) People share grievances
2) People are hopeful
3) A key event stimulates
4) Persons are drawn to a movement through network ties
What factors explain the success or failure of a social movement?
1) Ability to mobilize resources
2) Withstanding countermovement
3) External support in relation to the movement
4) Need to overcome free-rider problem
What is meant by a resource mobilization perspective?
Ability to mobilize resources in support of a social movement
What does the term cultural lag mean?
Period of delay following a change in one part of a society when other parts have not yet readjusted

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