SOC 101- Chapter 18

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Societal Change
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changes that occur throughout social structure of entire society
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Societies
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entities comprised of those people who share common culture -can range from changes in small, isolated communities to the global sphere
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Differentiation
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development of increasing complexity through specialized social roles and insitutions -seeking equilibrium or status quo -can also lead to greater independence—de-differentiation
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Evolitionary Theory
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assume societies develop linearly from \”simple\” and \”primitive\” into more \”complicated\” and \”civilized\” forms -social change=progress -modern european societies believed \”more evolved\” than earlier \”primitive\” ones
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Conflict Perspective
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Societal change is inevitable
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Conflict Perspective (Marx)
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conscious working class will rise and overthrow capitalism
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Conflict Perspective (Gramsci)
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people consent to own domination by accepting ruling class hegemonies
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Conflict Perspective (Dahrendorf)
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Distribution of authority determines probability of conflict -conflict is lower where authority is more dispersed, rather than concentrated in an elite
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Outsourcing
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jobs that are overseas and everything made overseas because it is cheaper(thats why its capitalism)
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Rise and Fall Theory
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-Change reflects cycle of growth and decline, rather than forward direction -shift between different mentalities: primacy to the senses; religiosity; logic and reason -as nations grow in economic power, seek world military power, leads to collapse -increasingly governed by rationality, rules, regulations, which can also result in irrationality *2 steps forward and 1 step back
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Collective Behavior
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Voluntary, goal-oriented action, relatively disorganized situations, predominant social norms and values cease to governs -also occurs in highly regimented social contexts when order breaks down
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Structural Conductivenes
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involves social conditions that allow the behavior to occur (ex. riots) -Macro-Level
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Structural Strain
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occurs when an important aspect of a social system is seen as causing problems -Macro-level
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Growth and Spread of generalized belief
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occurs when people begin to see an event as a widespread problem -Macro-level
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Precipitating Factors
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includes an incident or dramatic experience that triggers an event
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Mobilizing
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people for action occurs when leaders emerge
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Social Control
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happens when opposing groups try to prevent the action
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Crowds
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temporary gatherings of closely interacting people with common focus -pront to \”group mind,\” lose ability to make rational decisions as individuals
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Contagion Theory
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people revert to herdlike behavior in large crowds -Individual acts become contagious -EX. U.S. gun violence
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Emergent Norms
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norms created to support collective action, crowd adheres to norms ex. Tea Party
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Value-added approach
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micro and macro level factors contribute and converge -structural conduciveness -structural strain -generalized beliefs -mobilzation for action -failure of social control
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Riot
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illegal, prolonged outbreak of violent behavior by large group against individuals or property ex. prison riot, urban street riot
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Panic
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massive flight from something feared -Y2K
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Fads
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temporary, highly imitated outbreaks of mildly unconventional behavior ex. hipster, crocs
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Fashion
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somwhat long-lasting style of imitative behavior or appearance -chic or classic style
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Craze
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intense attraction to an to an object, person, or activity -ex. justin bieber, twlight fandom
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Rumors
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unverified information transmitted informally, usually originating from unknown source
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Social Movements
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a large number of people come together in continued, organized effort to bring about or resist social change -non-instutionalized action: marches, boycotts, demonstrations, civil disobedience -oriented more towards long-term goals with supporting set of beliefs and opinions
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Reformist
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seek change within existing economic and political system -address legal institutions -ex. women’s suffrage
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Communitarian
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withdraw from dominant society and create own ideal communities
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Revolutionary
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seek to fundamentally alter existing economic, political, social system, vision of a new social order ex. Arab Spring, South African Apartheid
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Rebellion
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seek to overthrow existing system but lack plan for new social order -effective mobilization difficult
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Reactionary
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seek to restore earlier social system along with traditional norms, valuse that accompanied it -ex. KKK, Tea Party
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Micro-Sociological Explanations
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Come to identify with others similarly afflicted -Activism likely if: -had prior contact with movements -social networks support movements -personal or family history of activism -lack of practical constraints -sense of moral rightness
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Free rider problem
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people avoid costs of activism (time, energy, resources) and still benefit from its success
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Social Movement Organization
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formal organizations that seek social change through non-instutionalized forms of action -rational action, defined goals, bureaucratic organizational structure -range from volunteer to professionally paid
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Resource Mobilization Theory
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ability of SMOs to generate money, membership, political support
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Grassroots Organizing
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mobilize support among ordinary members in community
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Conscience constituents
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not directly affected by the cause, but provide resources
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New Social Movement
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Fundamentally concerned with quality of private life, advocate large-scale change -relationship between personal experiences and larger social forces
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Four distinct characterisitcs of New Social Movements
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-Address control of symbols and information -Value participation for its own sake -Day-to-day networks of people -Interconnectedness: think globally, act locally
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Collective identity Theory
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process by which unified group influences and reacts to other structural forces such as government, opposing groups, popular opinion -impossible to predict social change

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