SOC 101 Chap. 9-10 (Political/Economic Power & The Family)

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Economy
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A social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
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Market Economy
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Decisions about what will be produced, how much will be produced, and what products will cost are made in economic transactions between consumers and producers.
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Command Economy
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The state or central planning authority determines the ice,s that will be produced and their quantities.
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Tonnies (\”Societal Transition\”) – The central institutions in a \”Gesellschaft\” Society
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-State -Economic
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State
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An arrangement that consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory The state rests on force and consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory
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Hobbes and Rousseau’s views on the emergence of the state.
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-Thomas Hobbes – State is the result of a social contract that provides for a central authority to rid humans of rampant brutality, violence and chaos. -Rousseau – In \”state of nature,\” homo sapiens were noble savages; spontaneous, outgoing, loving, kind and peaceful. Benefits from cooperation.
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What a society needs before a state can emerge?
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A social surplus
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Social Surplus
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Goods and services over and above those necessary for survival
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Nation-States
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A larger social arrangement or system of states
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Welfare State
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A system whereby the government undertakes to protect the health and well-being of its citizens, especially those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits.
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Functionalist Perspective on the State
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Depict that state as an essential social institution that evolved as societies moved from traditional to modern ways; contend that there is good reason that the state arose and has assumed a dominant position in contemporary life. The state performs 4 functions 1) Enforcement of norms: Needs laws to replace the informal means of social control 2) Overall social planning and direction: Complex society cannot function on an informal decision making process. Now needs a formal decision making process that is deliberate and coordinates the various segments of the system. 3) Arbitration of conflicting interests: Provides a check on self-interests and keeps conflicts between societal members within \”tolerable\” limits. 4) Protection of society’s members and its interests against outside groups: Centralizes control to mobilize citizens against adversaries.
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Conflict Perspective on the State
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The state is a vehicle by which one or more groups impost their values and stratification system upon other groups; they depict it as an instrument of violence and oppression Instrumental Theorists: Have taken literally the Communist Manifesto’s dictum (p. 283); The state is an instrument of the capitalist class. Structural Theorists: Contend that the state apparatus exercises \”relative autonomy\” in its relationship with the capitalist class; the state is an entity with its own interests and capacities that affect society.
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Foundation of a sovereign state as seen by both Functional and Conflict Theorists:
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Functional and conflict theorists both see force as the foundation for the sovereignty of the state. Functionalists would see consensus, while conflict theorists would not.
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Legitimacy and Authority
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Sociologists distinguish between power that is legitimate and illegitimate. Legitimate power is authority. Power may be legitimized by traditional, legal-rational, and/or charismatic means.
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Politics
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The processes by which people and groups acquire and exercise power
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Political Power
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Power that is organized and wielded by the state.
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Government
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Those political processes that have to do with the authoritative formulating of rules and policies that are binding and pervasive throughout a society
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Types of Government
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1) Totalitarianism 2) Authoritarianism 3) Democracy
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Totalitarianism
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A \”total state\” in which the government undertakes to control all parts of society and all aspects of social life.
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Authoritarianism
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A political system in which the government tolerates little or no opposition to its rules but permits governmental centers of influence and allows debate on issues of public policy
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Democracy
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A political system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed and in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing governmental officials.
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Why did Plato despise a democratic form of government? Authority?
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Plato saw democracy as an imperfect form of government -Killed his teacher, Socrates. -He wrote the Republic in order to construct what he believed to be the perfect government.
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Political Power in the U.S.
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A constitutional system of government defines and prescribes the boundaries within which political power is pursued in the U.S. Central to American political processes are: 1) Political parties 2) Popular electoral participation 3) Interest-group lobbying (including political action committees) 4) Mass media
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Political Parties
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An organization designed to gain control of the government by putting its people in public office
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Interest
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Common concerns or points of views
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Interest-group
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Organizations of people who share common concerns or points of view
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Special-interest Group
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Interest groups that primarily seek benefits from which their members would derive more gains than the society as a whole
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Public-interest Groups
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Interest groups that pursue policies that presumably would be of no greater benefit to their members than to the larger society.
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Political Action Committees (PACs)
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Interest groups set up to elect or defeat candidates, but not through the organization of a political party
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Mass Media
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Those organizations – newspapers, magazines, television, radio, motion pictures, and the Internet – that undertake to convey information to a large segment of the public
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Models of Power in the U.S.
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Marxist theory holds that political processes are affected by class interests and conflict. 1) Elitist Model: Depicts major decisions as being made by a power elite. 2) Pluralist Perspective: Says that nobody really runs the government.
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Comparative Economic Systems:
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1) Capitalist Economies: Rely heavily on free markets and privately held property 2) Socialist Economies: Rely primarily on state planning and publicly help property. Most nations are characterized by mixed economies that include elements of both.
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What is the primary productive role in the U.S. economy?
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The government plays an important role, but the primary productive role is played by private businesses.
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Oligopolies
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A market dominated by a few firms
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Multinational Corporations
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Firms that have their central office in one country and subsidiaries in other countries
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Characteristics of Multinational corporations
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-Stateless entities that control production of goods or services in countries other than their home country -Very large corporations -Control the flow of resources from the periphery to the core
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World Systems Theory
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Division of Labor: -Core and periphery nations
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Core Regions
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Geographical areas that dominate the world economy and exploit the rest of the system
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Periphery Regions
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Geographical areas that provide raw materials to the core and that are exploited by it
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Corporate Interlocks
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Networks of individuals who serve on the boards of directors of multiple corporations.
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Authority
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Legitimate power
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Charismatic Authority
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Power that is legitimated by the extraordinary superhuman or supernatural qualities people attribute to a leader.
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Legal-rational Authority
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Power that is legitimated by explicit rules and rational procedures that define the rights and duties of the occupants of given positions.
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Traditional Authority
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Power that is legitimated by the sanctity of age-old customs
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Civil Society
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A social realm of mediating groups, networks, and institutions that sustains public life outside the worlds of the state and the economy.
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Force
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Power whose basis is the threat or application of punishment.
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Family
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Traditionally defined as one social group whose members are related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption and who will live together, cooperate economically, and care for the young.
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Lifestyle
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The overall pattern of living that people evolve to meet their biological, social, and emotional needs.
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Nuclear Family Arrangement
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A family arrangement in which the spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship; blood relatives are functionally marginal and peripheral.
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Extended Family Arrangement
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A family arrangement in which kin – individuals related by common ancestry – provide the core relationship; spouses are functionally marginal and peripheral.
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Family of Orientation
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A nuclear family that consists of oneself and one’s father, mother, and siblings
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Family of Procreation
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A nuclear family that consists of oneself and one’s spouse and children
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Patrilineal
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An arrangement based on reckoning descent and inheritance through the father’s side of the family.
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Matrilineal
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An arrangement based on reckoning descent and inheritance through the mother’s side of the family.
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Bilineal
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An arrangement based on reckoning descent and transmitting property through both the father and the mother.
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Patrilocal Residence
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The residence pattern in which a bride and groom live in the household or community of the husband’s family.
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Matrilocal Residence
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The residence pattern in which a bride and groom live in the household or community of the wife’s family.
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Neolocal Residence
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The residence pattern in which the newlyweds set up a new place of residence independent of either of their parents or other relatives.
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Patriarchal Authority
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A family arrangement in which power is vested in men. What most societies are
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Egalitarian Authority
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An arrangement in which power and authority are equally distributed between the husband and wife. What some industrialized nations are becoming more of
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Matriarchal Authority
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A family arrangement in which power is vested in women. No societies are known as truly matriarchal
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Marriage
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A social approved sexual union undertaken with some idea of permanence 2 types of marital regulations define the \”right\” spouse: 1) Endogamy 2) Exogamy American couples with better marital quality are those who share decision making, have non-traditional views on the division of labor, and have close friendships and activities in common.
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Today, are people marrying earlier or later than in the past?
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People in the U.S are marrying later today than in the past.
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Endogamy
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The requirement that marriage occur within a group
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Exogamy
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The requirement that marriage occur outside a group
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Incest Taboos
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Rules that prohibit sexual intercourse with close blood relatives
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Has incest ever been allowed in certain societies?
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-Use to be practiced in Egypt – brothers and sisters would marry to keep power and property consolidated within a family.
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Monogamy
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The marriage of one husband and one wife
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Polygyny
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The marriage of one husband and 2+ wives.
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Polyandry
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The marriage of 2+ husbands and one wife.
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Group Marriage
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The marriage of 2+ husbands and 2+ wives.
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Societies control \”Love\” by:
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1) Child and arranged marriages 2) Social isolation of young people 3) Close supervision of couples 4) Peer and parental pressures
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A variety of factors operate in the selection of a mate:
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1) Homogamy 2) Physical Attractiveness (the matching hypothesis) 3) Complementary needs
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Homogamy
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The tendency of like to marry like.
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Heterogamous Marriages
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Marriages in which spouses have different characteristics, including race or ethnicity, age, or religion.
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The Matching Hypothesis
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The notion that we typically experience the greatest payoff and the least cost when we select partners who have a degree of physical attractiveness similar to our own.
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Romantic Love
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The strong physical and emotional attraction between a man and a woman.
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Ancient Greek View of Romantic Love
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Diseased Hysteria
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Complementary Needs
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Two different personality traits that are counterparts of each other and that provide a sense of completeness when they are joined
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Exchange Theory
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The view proposing that people involved in a mutually satisfying relationship will exchange behaviors that have low cost and high reward
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Family Life Course
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Changes and realignments related to altered expectations and requirements imposed on a husband and wife as children are born and grow ip.
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Mothers in the Labor Force
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More than 60% of all mothers with children under the age of six are in the paid workforce. Such women also do more of the housework and child care than men.
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Stepfamilies
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Becoming the norm in American society, with stepchildren no longer likely to cause marital conflict or divorce
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Singlehood
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More than 1/4 of America’s children live with just 1 parent, the vast majority with their mothers. Single-parent families are more likely than 2 parent families to be living in poverty.
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Cohabitation
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An intimate relationship that involves sharing living quarters with an unrelated adult of the opposite sex. Becoming institutionalized as a step between dating and marriage, although it is not always associated with higher marital satisfaction
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Gay & Lesbian Couples
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Gay marriage is now legal in all 50 states. In 2010, 1 percent of all \”couple households\” in the U.S. were same-sex households. About 1/5 of those include children.
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Homosexuality
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A preference for an individual of the same sex as a sexual partner
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Family Violence, Child Abuse, & Incest
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Can all have lasting affects. Sexual abuse of a child often leads to behavioral problems, learning difficulties, sexual promiscuity, runaway behavior, drug and alcohol abuse, and suicidal behavior.
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Child Care
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The U.S. is one of the few industrialized nations that have no comprehensive day care program, and the quality of child care available is often poor.
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Divorce
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Children raised by single parents are often likely to drop out of high school, to use drugs, to have teen births, to have illegitimate children, and to e poorer than children raised in 2 parent homes. More than 1/2 of adults who remarry undergo a second divorce.
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The Elderly
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The U.S. will soon have a population structure with more over-60s than under-15s. These elderly will be characterized by better health, fewer disabilities, and will continue to lead productive lives well past the traditional retirement age.
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The Functionalist Perspective on Family
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If a society is to survive and operate with some measure of effectiveness, it must guarantee that certain essential tasks are performed – these tasks must not be left to chance. To do so would mean that some activities may not be carried out and society would disintegrate. Functions that Families typically perform: 1) Reproduction 2) Socialization 3) Care 4) Protection 5) Emotional support 6) Assignment of status 7) Regulation of Sexual Behavior Serve the interests of society as a whole
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Norm of Legitimacy
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The rule that children not be born out of wedlock
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The Conflict Perspective on Family
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Seen family as a social arrangement benefiting men more than women. Intimate relationships inevitably involve antagonism as well as love.
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The Interactionist Perspective on Family
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Symbolic interactionists emphasize that families reinforce and rejuvenate their bonds through the symbolic mechanisms of rituals such as family meals and holidays. Families that preserve these rituals often have children that do better in life later down the line. Loss of critical family roles caused by divorce has vast implications for family functioning.
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According to the text, the high proportion of couples who live together, prior to becoming married, suggests that _______.
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Cohabitation may become institutionalized as a new step between dating and marriage
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_______ is a family structure in which there is one wife and two or more husbands.
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Polyandry
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According to the text, an arrangement that consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion in a given geographical area is known as _______.
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The state
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Multinational corporations _______.
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No longer need a geographical center
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From the functionalist perspective, the primary functions of the state includes:
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Enforcing norms, protecting against other societies, planning and directing change; All of the above
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According to the text, legitimate power is ____.
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Authority
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________________ refers to a socially approved sexual union between two or more individuals that is undertaken with some idea of permanence.
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Marriage
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According to C. Wright Mills, the \”Power Elite\” in America are ________.
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Corporate executives, the military and high-ranking politicians.
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In the ____________ family, spouses (husband and wife) and their offspring constitute the core relationship.
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Nuclear
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In order for a state to emerge, a society must have a social surplus.
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True
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Marx’s ideas about the \”Iron Law of Wages\”
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The iron law of wages is a proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.

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