Skeletal System Study Guide

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The three major regions of the Axial Skeleton
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-Skull -Vertebral column -Thoracic cage
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Skull consist of Two sets of bones
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-Cranial – Facial
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Function of Cranial bones :
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• Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity •Form cavity where brain is located •Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles •Form the sutures (joints) of the skull that articulate the cranial bones together
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Names of Cranial Bones:
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•Frontal bone (1) (forms forehead) connected to the parietal at the coronal suture •Parietal bones (2) (are behind frontal bone) •Occipital bone (1) (located at the back of the skull) •Temporal bones (2) (below the parietal bones) •Sphenoid bone (1) •Ethmoid bone (1) (not clearly visible from outside, form floor of skull)
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What are the Four sutures called that mark the articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones:
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1. Coronal suture—between parietal bones and frontal bone 2. Sagittal suture—between right and left parietal bones 3. Lambdoid suture—between parietal bones and occipital bone 4. Squamous (squamosal) sutures—between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull
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What are the names of the 14 Facial Bones?
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• Mandible (1) • Maxillary bones (maxillae) (2) • Zygomatic bones (2) • Nasal bones (2) • Lacrimal bones (2) • Palatine bones (2) • Vomer (1) • Inferior nasal conchae (2)
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Describe the Mandible
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• Forms lower jaw • Largest, strongest bone of face (skull) • Temporomandibular joint: only freely movable (bone) joint in skull • Attached to the temporal bone at the TMJ
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Describe the Maxillary Bones
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• Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton • Keystone bones • Articulate with all other facial bones except mandible
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Zygomatic Bones form:
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• Cheekbones (prominance of cheek) • Inferolateral margins of orbits
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Nasal bones
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• Form bridge of nose
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Lacrimal bones Form and Function:
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• In medial walls of orbits • Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac (has depression which holds membranous sac, which holds tear)
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Palantine Bones Form and Function:
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• Posterior one-third of hard palate • Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity • Small part of the orbits • Front part of the hard pallet is formed by maxilla • Posterior part of the hard pallet is the palatine bones ***the hard pallet is formed by the Palatine bone and the Palantine process of maxilla
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Vomer Form and Function:
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• Plow shaped • Lower part of nasal septum, {the septum is formed by two bones and cartilage. The lower part is the vomer, and the upper part is the perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid bone • Inferior nasal conchae
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Paranasal Sinuses Form and Function:
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• Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces • Lighten the skull • Enhance resonance of voice (sound) • Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary (largest sinus)bones • Boney wall has epithealial lining (mucosa) • Sinusitis -when sinus is filled with fluid and attracts bacteria (microorganisms)
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Hyoid Bone Form and Function:
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• Not a bone of the skull • Does not articulate directly with another bone • Site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech • Found in front of neck • Called lonely bone • Important for anterior neck muscles (speech and swallowing)
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Vertebral Column Function:
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• Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs • Surrounds and protects spinal cord • Flexible curved structure
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Intervertebral Discs – Function
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absorb, shock and cushion
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The Intervetebral disc is a cushionlike pad composed of what two parts
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-Nucleus pulposus -Anulus fibrosus
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Nucleus pulposus
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• (inner) soft like jelly • Inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility
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Anulus fibrosus
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• (outer) fibrocartilage tough • Outer collar composed of collagen and fibrocartilage *Anulus fibrosus is the tough fibrocartilage of the outer part of the intervetebral disc
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Herniated disc- Herniation-
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-slips backward and compresses on nerve. -Dislocation or displacement of any body part from normal to abnormal.
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General Structure of Vertebrae
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• Body or centrum – Anterior weight-bearing region
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Cervical Vertebrae
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• C1 to C7: smallest, lightest vertebrae • C3 to C7 share the following features (typical) -Oval body -Spinous processes are bifid (except C7) -Large, triangular vertebral foramen -Transverse foramen in each transverse process -Small body -Spinous process are split, divided or bifid -Transverse foramen is large
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C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) are
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they are atypical
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C1 (atlas) unique features
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– No body or spinous process – Consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses – Superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles – Body missing – Posterior arch is larger – Anterior arch is smaller
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C2 (axis) unique features
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– Dens projects superiorly into the anterior arch of the atlas – Dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas – In body there is a fingerlike structure pointing upward called Dens
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The dens attaches to
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back of anterior arch of C1 (respiratory center)
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Scoliosis
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– sideway bending
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Appendicular Skeleton Consists of:
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• 2 Girdles 1. Pectoral girdle: Formed by Clavicles (front) and scapulae (back) -Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton (trunk) -Secure the upper limbs -Supports upper limbs 2. Pelvic girdle: hip bones -Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton -Secures the lower limbs
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Clavicles (Collarbones) and Scapula Form and Function:
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***Clavical is the only long bone that places horizontally • Lateral- acromial end 1/3 concave • Medial- sternal end 2/3 convex Scapula – Glenoid cavity holds the head of the humerous • Posterior -Spine becomes the acromion -Supraspinous fossa is above the spine – Infraspinous fossa is below the spine
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The Upper Limb
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• 30 bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm (upper) • Humerus – 2 necks -Surgical – Atomical Forearm • Radius-lateral • Ulna- medial Hand • 8 carpal bones in the wrist (2 rows of short bones) • 5 metacarpal bones in the palm • 14 phalanges in the fingers (each finger has 3 phalanges except thumb, it has 2
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Humerus (features)
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Round head (anatomical neck) • Largest, longest bone of upper limb • Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula • Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna Features: • upper end- head, anatomical neck, surgical neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intertubercular sulcus. • Lower end: Trochlea, capitulum, olecrenon fossa, coronoid fossa, radial fossa • Capitulum (lateral) articulates with radius. Trochlea (medial) looks like triangle, articulates with ulna. Together they form a joint
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Common descriptive terms (humerus)
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⃰ Condyle-rounded prominence at the end of a bone, most often for articulation of another bone ⃰ Tubercule- Almost round boney structure ⃰ Fossa- round or almost round depression Ex. Coronoid fossa, Radial fossa ⃰ Sulcus- long narrow depression on bone to hold blood vessels and nerves
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Dropped shoulder, dislocated shoulder
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• Dropped shoulder- Acromionclavicular joint seperates • Shoulder dislocation- ead of humerous is displaced from glenoid cavity • Fracture- surgical neck
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Ulna:
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-Medial bone in forearm -Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus -Features: Upper part looks like open mouth of a snake • Upper jaw (olecranon process) • Lower jaw (coronoid process) • The trochlear notch is in between the olecranon process and coronoid process • Coronoid process will go inside coronoid fossa when forearm is flexed • Olecranon process articulates with the olecranon fossa in extension
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Radius:
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– Lateral bone in forearm – Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna – Features: (Upper end)- head is disc flat, below head is neck
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Interosseous membrane connects the
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radius and ulna along their entire length
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Hand: Carpus:
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• Eight bones in two rows – Proximal row • Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform proximally – Distal row • Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally ⃰ Only scaphoid and lunate articulate with radius to form wrist joint ⃰ Proximal- scaphoid and lunate articulate with lower end of radius and forms the wrist joint
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Hand: Metacarpus and Phalanges
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• Metacarpus – Five metacarpal bones (#1 to #5) form the palm • Phalanges – Each finger (digit), except the thumb, has three phalanges— distal, middle, and proximal – Fingers are numbered 1-5, beginning with the thumb (pollex) – Thumb has no middle phalanx
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Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
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• Two hip bones (each also called coxal) – Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton – Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs – Support pelvic organs • Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: -ilium (upper) -ischium ( posterior lower) -pubis (anterior lower) • Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis Ó¿ The pubic symphysis is the only place where the hip bones are joined together (by fibrocartilage)
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Hip Bone
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Meet anteriorly at the pubic symphysis. Together with the sacrum, they form a ring termed the bony pelvis. Each hip bone consists of an ilium, an ischium, and a pubis, all three of which in the adult are fused at the acetabulum to form a single bone.
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Female Pelvis
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– Adapted for childbearing (wider) – True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal -Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity – Pelvic brim is wider – Coccyx is straighter, more moveable – Pubic angle/arch is broader more rounded 80o-90o
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Femur
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• Bone of the thigh • The only bone of the thigh • Largest and strongest bone in the body • (Upper end) Articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the hip and distally with the tibia and patella (lower end) • Round head fits into acetabulum to form hip joint • Anterior- in between the condyles is the patellar surface • Posterior- in between the condyles is the intercondylar fossa • Linea aspera – line on bone , the nutrients and blood vessels flow through this • Supracondylerlines- these two lines meet to form the linea aspera
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Bones of the Leg
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• Tibia • Fibula
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Tibia:
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– Larger and stronger than the fibula – Transmits weight from femur – Medial leg bone – Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot – Medial malleolus (in upper limb is called styloid process) – Below kneecap, patellar ligament attaches to tibial tuberosity – Upper end of tibia there are two condyles (medial and lateral)
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Fibula:
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-Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur -Does not transfer body weight -Site of muscle attachment (provides attachment and support to leg muscles) -Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane -Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints
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Tibia and fibula attach at two points
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• Proximal tibiofibular joint • Distal tibiofibular joint
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Tarsals
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• 7 bones form the posterior half of the foot • Talus transfers most of the weight from the tibia to the calcaneus (talas articulates with lower end of tibia , most weight bearing) • Other bones: cuboid, navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms • Large bone (calcaneous)
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Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges:
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Metatarsals: • Five metatarsal bones (#1 to #5) • Enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot”
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Skeletal Tissue 3 types
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• Bones (vascular) • Cartilages (avascular) • Ligaments (avascular) ӿ Bones have their own blood vessels, however, ligaments and cartilages have no blood vessels or nerves. They are avascular.
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Hyaline cartilages
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– Provide support, flexibility, and resilience – Most abundant type – In fetal skeleton, costal cartilage, respiratory tract, joint caartilage (articular)
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Elastic cartilages
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– Ear – epiglotis – Similar to hyaline cartilages, but contain elastic fibers. Provides elasticity
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Fibrocartilages
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-Pubic symphysis -Invertebral discs -Collagen fibers—have great tensile strength
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Joints are locations where we move our body parts and they are formed by:
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bones
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Functions of Bones:
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– form skeleton • Support: For the body and soft organs • Protection: For brain, spinal cord, and vital organs • Movement: Levers for muscle action • Storage: Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and growth factors • Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow cavities [red marrow is replaced by yellow as we age] • Fat & triglyceride (energy) storage in bone cavities (adipose tissue) When blood calcium goes down, bone releases calcium
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4 types of bone shapes
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1. Long 2. Short 3. Flat 4.Irregular
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Long bones
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– Longer than they are wide ex. humerous
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Short bones
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– Cube-shaped bones small (in wrist {carpal} and ankle {tarsal}) – Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)
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Flat bones
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-sternum, cranial bones -Thin, flat, slightly curved
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Irregular bones
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– no particular shape, vertebra – Complicated shapes
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Classification of Bones by texture/structure (2 types)
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1. Compact Bone 2. Spongy Bone
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Compact bone
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– Dense outer layer – Shaft of long bone formed by compact bone
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Spongy (cancellous) bone
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-Honeycomb of trabeculae (spikes of bones in different directions) -Spaces are present in spongy bone because red bone marrow is present -The inside of the head of the long bone is composed of spongy bone surrounded by compact bone
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Bone Markings: Projections •Sites of muscle and ligament attachment
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-Tuberosity -Crest -Trochanter -Line -Tubercle -Epicondyle -Spine -Process
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Tuberosity
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rounded projection, large structure
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Crest
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narrow, prominent ridge , ex. Iliac crest
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Trochanter
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large, blunt, irregular surface/structure
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Line
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narrow ridge of bone ex. Linea aspera
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Tubercle
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small rounded projection/structue
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Epicondyle
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raised area above a condyle, extra large round articular structures
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Spine
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sharp, slender projection
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Process
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any bony prominence, bony extension from main part of bone, a process is broader than a spine
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Bone Markings: Projections Structures that help to form joints
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-Head- Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck -Facet- Smooth, nearly flat articular surface (vertebra connecting) -Condyle – Rounded articular projection -Ramus – Armlike bar
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Bone Markings: Depressions
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•Meatus – Canal-like passageway ex. Internal acoustic meatus •Sinus- Cavity within a bone, air cavities •Fossa – Shallow, basinlike depression. bones, glands, pituitary, can be round •Groove- Furrow, narrow long depression, elongated (salcus)
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Bone Markings: Openings
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•Fissure- Narrow, slitlike opening, elongated •Foramen- Round or oval opening through a bone ex. Foramen magnum
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Diaphysis (shaft)
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-Compact (formed) bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity – (inside) Medullary cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow) early in life marrow is red
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Epiphyses (ends)
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– Expanded ends – Spongy bone interior – Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate) – Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces
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Bones are covered by:
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tough connective tissue
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Periosteum
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Coverings of Bone (Outer) 2 layers -Outer fibrous layer -Inner osteogenic layer (osteo-bone, genic-forming). It contains 3 types of cells: •Osteoblasts ( young bone-forming cells) •Osteoclasts (mature bone-destroying cells) •Osteogenic cells (stem cells) produce new cells (bone producing) -Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foramina
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Endosteum
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•Coverings of Bone (Inner) -Delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone -Also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts -NO osteogenic cells
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Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow)
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•Locations of red marrow (primary site) •Adults -Heads of the femur and humerus (head of long bones) -Trabecular cavities of the diploë of flat bones •Newborn infants (found everywhere) -Medullary (in shaft) cavities and all spaces in spongy bone
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Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells
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Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells • Stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Compact Bone
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• Haversian system, or osteon—structural unit – Lamellae • Weight-bearing • Column-like matrix tubes — Central (Haversian) canal • Contains blood vessels and nerves • Lacunae—small cavities (chambers) that contain osteocytes • Canaliculi—hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone: Spongy Bone
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•Trabeculae -Align along lines of stress -No osteons -Contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi -Capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients
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Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic
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•Osteoid •organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts -Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins)-chemicals -Collagen fibers •Provide tensile strength and flexibility •Mineral salts -65% of bone by mass -Mainly calcium phosphate crystals (magnesium) -Responsible for hardness and resistance to compression
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Osteogenesis (ossification)
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•bone tissue formation.
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Begins in the 2nd month of development
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Bone formation
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2 types of bone formation
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1.Intramembranous ossification 2.Endochondral ossification
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Intramembranous ossification
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(inside membrane) •Bone develops from membrane •Forms flat bones, e.g. clavicles and cranial bones
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Endochondral ossification
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(inside cartilage) •Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage •Forms most of the rest of the skeleton
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Most of our bones come from
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hyaline cartilage
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Bones that come from membranes
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flat bones, clavical
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All connective tissue comes from
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mesenchymal tissue
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Intramembranous ossification
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1. Ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. • Selected centrally located mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate into osteoblasts, forming an ossification center.
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Intrachondral ossification
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1. Bone collar forms around hyaline cartilage model. (osteoblast grows) 2 Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities. 3. The periosteal bud inavades the internal cavities and spongy bone begins to form. (blood vessels branch) 4. The diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms as ossification continues. Secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses in preparation for stage 5. 5. The epiphyses ossify. When completed, hyaline cartilage remains only in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages. (articularcartilage never changes to bone, protects joint)
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•Blood Supply of Mature Bones -Three major sets of blood vessels develop
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1. Nutrient artery and vein: (nutrient foramen shaft) 2. Metaphyseal vessels: (upper and outer ends) 3. Periosteal vessels provide: ( outer surface)
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Nutrient artery and vein:
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(nutrient foramen shaft) -a single pair of large blood vessels -enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen -femur has more than one pair
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Metaphyseal vessels:
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(upper and outer ends) -supply the epiphyseal cartilage -where bone growth occurs
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Periosteal vessels provide:
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( outer surface) -blood to superficial osteons -secondary ossification centers
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Bone Remodeling (destruction and formation)
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•Involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts -Bone continually remodels, recycles, and replaces -Turnover rate varies •If deposition is greater than removal, bones get stronger •If removal is faster than replacement, bones get weaker
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are weak
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Bone Remodeling (destruction and formation) If Destruction is more-bones
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are strong
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Bone Remodeling (destruction and formation) If formation is more- bones
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Hormones: •Helps in bone growth:
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•Growth hormone -comes from pituitary gland works on all the tissue in our body -In Bones and skeletal muscle these hormones work more and faster •Thyroid hormone- modulates activity of growth hormone Works through growth hormone •Testosterone and estrogens (at puberty)-Promote adolescent growth. Works on bones
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Hormones: •Helps in calcium homeostasis:
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(regulates calcium in blood) •Thyroid hormone: Calcitonin (decreases blood calcium)-secreted from C cells/parafollicular cells •Parathyroid glans: Parathyroid hormones (PTH) or Parathromone (increases blood calcium) •Vitamin D: (calcium regulation) Vitamin because it enters into the body with food. It is also a proenzyme, synthesized within the body.
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Hormones regulate blood calcium
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Calcitonin: decreases blood calcium levels (works on 2 structures) •Effects: 1.Bone: Calcitonin inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, a cell type that “digests” bone matrix, releasing calcium and phosphorus into blood. –If matrix is not broken calcium will not leave into blood –Matrix has lots of calcium 2.Kidney:Calcitonin inhibits tubular reabsorption of these two ions, leading to increased rates of their loss in urine. –Tubes are filled with nephrons filled with urine –Blood level reduced by blocking or reabsorbing
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Hormones regulate blood calcium
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Parathormone: – does opposite of calcitonin -Increase in serum calcium concentration: •Activates large bone-dissolving cells called osteoclasts •Stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb calcium from the urine. •Parathormone also stimulates the kidney tubules to produce calcitriol, the most active form of vitamin D, from calcidiol a less active form of vitamin D. – Skin produces cholicaliferol (inactive vitamin D) , it goes to kidney where it is converted by parathormone in kidney to calcitrol (active vitamin D) – Blood level increase level of calcium
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Why calcium ion is important?
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Calcium is most important mineral 9-11 gram/DL •Calcium is necessary for -Transmission of nerve impulses -Muscle contraction -Blood coagulation (blood clotting) -Secretion by glands and nerve cells -Cell division
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(vertebrae) Body or centrum
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– Anterior weight-bearing region • Seven processes per vertebra: – Spinous process—projects posteriorly – Transverse processes (2)—project laterally – Superior articular processes (2)—protrude superiorly inferiorly – Inferior articular processes (2)—protrude inferiorly *pedicle connects arch and body
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Vertebral arch
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– Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen
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Vertebral foramina
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– Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord
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Intervertebral foramina
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– Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves
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Seven processes per vertebra:
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– Spinous process—projects posteriorly – Transverse processes (2)—project laterally – Superior articular processes (2)—protrude superiorly inferiorly – Inferior articular processes (2)—protrude inferiorly *pedicle connects arch and body
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Appendicular Skeleton Consists of 2 Girdles:
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Pectoral girdle: Pelvic girdle:
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Pectoral girdle:
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Formed by Clavicles (front) and scapulae (back) -Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton (trunk) -Secure the upper limbs -Supports upper limbs
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Pelvic girdle:
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hip bones -Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton -Secures the lower limbs
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Male pelvis
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– Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep – Pelvic brim is narrower – Coccyx -more inverted (inward) less moveable – Pubic arch is more acute 50-60 degree
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Osteoclasts
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• Cells that break down (resorb) bone matrix (destroy matrix) bone-resorbing cell -More powerful – More nuclei -More mitochondria
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Osteoblasts
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• Bone-forming cells (form matrix) responsible for bone growth
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Osteocytes
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Mature bone cells (just sit) maintains matrix
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Vertebral column contains
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26 irregular bones (vertebrae) – Cervical vertebrae (7)—vertebrae of the neck – Thoracic vertebrae (12)—vertebrae of the thoracic cage – Lumbar vertebrae (5)—vertebra of the lower back – Sacrum—bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae (large triangle) [five separate pieces as fetus that fuse] – Coccyx—terminus of vertebral column (tiny)
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Kyphosis
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forward bending of the upper neck
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Lordosis
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lower part bends forward
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Spina bifida
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when the two pieces do not fuse • Meningmylocele- when covering (meninges) and spinal cord comeout • Meningocele- when just the covering comes out
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The Upper Limb
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• 30 bones form the skeletal framework
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lVertebral arch
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Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with centrum, enclose vertebral foramen
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Vertebral foramina
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Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord
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Intervertebral foramina
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Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves
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Seven processes per vertebra:
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– Spinous process—projects posteriorly – Transverse processes (2)—project laterally – Superior articular processes (2)—protrude superiorly inferiorly Inferior articular processes (2)—protrude inferiorly
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pedicle
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connects arch and body
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Phalanges (foot)
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Phalanges • The 14 bones of the toes • Each digit (except the hallux) has three phalanges • Hallux has no middle phalanx ӿ Weight should go from talas to calcaneous then down to the ground
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Ilium
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• Superior region of the coxal bone • Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint • Illiac crest – the top part of the illium
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Ischium
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• Posteroinferior part of hip bone
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Pubis
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• Anterior portion of hip bone • Midline pubic symphysis joint
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Arm (upper)
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• Humerus – 2 necks -Surgical – Atomical
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Forearm
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• Radius-lateral • Ulna- medial
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carpals
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• 8 bones in the wrist (2 rows of short bones)
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metacarpal (hand)
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5 bones in the palm
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14
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number of phalanges in the hand (each finger has 3 phalanges except thumb, it has 2
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Lacunae
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small cavities (chambers) that contain osteocytes
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Canaliculi
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hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal

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