Server 2012 Installing and Configuring Servers
2. Reduced disk space: Requires less disk space for the installed OS elements and less swap space, which maximizes the utilization of the server’s storage resources.
3. Reduced patch frequency: The graphical elements of Server 2012 are among the most frequently updated, so running Server Core reduces the number of updates that administrator must apply. Fewer updates also mean fewer server restarts and less downtime.
4. Reduced attack surface: The less software there is running on the computer, the fewer entrances there are for attackers to exploit. Server Core reduces the potential opening presented by the OS, increasing its overall security.
1. Active Directory Federation Services
2. Application Server
3. Fax Server
4. Network Policy and Access Services
5. Remote Desktop Services, Gateway, Session Host, Web Access
6. Volume Activation Services
7. Windows Deployment Services
1. IE and components of the Windows shell, including the desktop, File Explorer, and the Windows 8 desktop apps.
2. Control Panel Items implemented as shell extensions, such as: Programs and Features, Network and Sharing Center, Devices and Printers Center, Display, Firewall, Windows Update, Fonts, and Storage Spaces.
With the increasing use of VM’s, this is resulting in even more wasted disk space. This coupled with disk space becoming increasingly expensive, makes Features on Demand useful. New to Server 2012, it is a third state for OS features that enables admins to conserve disk space by removing specific features not only from operation, but also from the WinSxS directory. This allows for conservation of disk space.
Features that are used can be Enabled or Disabled, but now they can be Disabled With Payload Removed.
Once removed, features can still be enabled, but it will download the feature from Windows Update or a source specified using the -Source flag with the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet.
2. Upgrades from pre-RTM editions of Server 2012.
3. Upgrades from Windows workstation OS.
4. Cross-platform upgrades, such as 32-bit Server 2008 to 64-bit Server 2012.
5. Upgrades from any Itanium edition.
6. Cross-language upgrades, such as from Server 2008, US English to Server 2012, French.
2. Check disk space.
3. Confirm that the software is signed.
4. Save mass storage drivers on removable media.
5. Check application compatibility.
6. Ensure computer functionality.
7. Perform a full backup.
8. Disable virus protection software.
9. Disconnect the UPS device.
10. Purchase Server 2012.
2. Migrate data between x86 and x64 servers.
3. Migrate between Server editions.
4. Migrate between physical and virtual instances.
5. Migrate between installation options.
Note, instead of performing a single migration that copies all user data from the source to the destination computer at once, a server migration will require you to migrate roles or role services individually.
2. Set the time zone
3. Enable Remote Desktop
4. Rename the computer
5. Join a domain
2. To complete any postinstallation config tasks on a GUI installations, use the tools in the Properties tile.
3. The Ethernet entry in the Properties tile specifies the current status of the computer’s network infeterface. If there is an active DHCP server on the network, the server will already have an IP address and other settings used to configure the interface.
4. If there is no DHCP server, or if you must configure the computer with a static IP address, click the Ethernet hyperlink to display the Network Connections window from the Control Panel.
5. Accurate computer clock time is essential for Active Directory Domain Services communication. If the server is located outside of the default Pacific zone, click the Time Zone hyperlink to open the Date and Time dialog box, where you can correct the setting.
6. By default, Server 2012 does not allow Remote Desktop connections. To enable them, click the Remote Desktop hyperlink to open the Remote Tab of the System Properties sheet.
7. In a manual OS install, Windows Setup program assigns a unique name beginning with “WIN-” to the computer. To change the name and join it to a domain, click the Computer Name hyperlink to open the System Properties sheet and click Change to open the Computer Name/Domain Changes dialog box.
2. To restart the computer as directed, use the following command: shutdown /r
3. Then to join the computer to a domain, use the following syntax:
Netdom join %ComputerName% /domain:
In this command, the asterisk causes the program to prompt you for the password to the user account you specified.
4. These commands assume that the computer’s TCP/IP client has already been configured by a DHCP server. If this is not the case, you must manually configure it before you can join a domain. To assign a static IP address to a computer using Server Core, you can use the Netsh.exe program or the Windows Management Instruction (WMI) access provided by PowerShell.
5. To enable Remote Desktop connections on the server, use the following cmdlet: Set-RemoteDesktop -Enable
2. From the Manage menu, select Remove Roles and Features. The Remove Roles and Features Wizard starts, displaying the Before You Being page.
3. Click Next. The Select Destination Server page opens.
4. Select the sever you want to convert to Server Core and click Next to open the Remove Server Roles page.
5. Click Next. The Remove Features page opens.
6. Scroll down in the list and expand the User Interfaces And Infrastructure feature, as shown in Figure 1-6.
7. Clear the check boxes for the following components: Graphical Management Tools and Infrastructure, Server Graphical Shell
8. The Remove Features That Require Graphical Management Tools And Infrastructure dialog box opens with a list of dependent features that must be uninstalled. Click Remove Features.
9. Click Next to open the Confirm Removal Selections page.
10. Select the Restart The Destination Server Automatically If Required check box and click Remove. The Removal Progress page opens as the wizard uninstalls the feature.
11. Click Close. When the removal is completed, the computer restarts.
1. Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -restart
2. To switch from a full GUI to server core, you can use the command: Uninstall-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -restart
The NIC teaming capability in 2012 is hardware indepedent, enabling you to combine multiple physical network adapters into a single interface. This leads to increased performance by combining throughput of the adapters and protection from adapter failures by dynamically moving all traffic to the functioning NICs.
2. Switch Dependent Mode: All the network adapters are connected to the same switch, providing a single interface with their combined bandwidth.
You can also choose static teaming, a generic mode that balances the traffic between the adapters in the team, or you can opt to use the Link Aggregation Control Protocol defined in IEEE 802.3ax, assuming your equipment supports it.
2. In the navigation pane, click Local Server. The Local Server homepage will appear.
3. In the Properties tile, click NIC Teaming. The NIC Teaming window opens, as shown:
4. In the Teams tile, click Tasks and select New Team to open the New Team page.
5. Click the Additional Properties arrow to expand the window, as shown:
6. In the Team Name text box, type the name you want to assign to the team.
7. In the Member Adapters box, select the network adapters you want to add to the team.
8. In the Teaming Mode drop-down list, select one of the following options:
• Static Teaming
• Switch Independent
9. In the Load Balancing Mode drop-down list, select one of the following options:
• Address Hash
• Hyper-V Port
10. If you selected Switch Independent for the Teaming Mode value, in the Standby Adapter drop-down list, select one of the adapters you added to the team to function as the offline standby.
11. Click OK. The new team appears in the Teams tile.
Once you have created a NIC team, the NIC Teaming window enables you to monitor the status of the team and the team interface you have created. The team itself and the individual adapters all have status indicators that inform you if an adapter goes offline. (26)
2. In the navigation pane, click All Servers. The All Servers home page appears.
3. From the Manage menu, select Add Servers. The Add Servers dialog box opens, as shown.
4. Select one of the following tabs to specify how you want to locate servers to add: Active Directory (Enables you to search for computers running specific OS’s in specific locations in an AD Domain Services domain), DNS (Enables you to search for servers in your currently configured Domain Name System (DNS) server), and Import (Enables you to supply a text file containing the names of the servers you want to add).
5. Initiate a search or upload a text file to display a list of available servers, as shown.
6. Select the servers you want to add and click the right arrow button to add them to the Selected list.
7. Click OK. The servers you selected are added to the All Servers home page.
Once you have added remote servers to the Server Manager interface, you can access them in a variety of ways, including the standard MMC administrative tools, the Computer Management console, and a remote Windows PowerShell session.
For administrators of enterprise networks, it might be necessary to add a large number of servers to Server Manager. To avoid having to work with a long scrolling list of servers, you can create server groups based on server locations, functions, or any other organizational paradigm.
2. From the Manage menu, select Add Roles and Features. The Add Roles and Features Wizard starts, displaying the Before You Begin page.
3. Click Next to open the Select Installation Type page.
4. Leave the Role-Based or Feature-Based Installation option selected and click Next. The Select Destination Server page opens, as shown.
5. Select the server on which to install the roles or features. If the server pool contains a large number of servers, you can use the Filter text box to display a subset of the pool based on a text string. When you have selected the server, click Next. The Select Server Roles page opens. (Although you can install components to any server added to Server Manager, you cannot install components to multiple server at once. It can be done through PowerShell though)
6. Select the roles you want to install on the selected server. If the roles you select have other roles or features as dependencies, an Add Features That Are Required dialog box appears. (Unlike previous versions of Server Manager, Server 2012 enables you to select all the roles and features for a particular server config at once, rather than making you run the wizard multiple time)
7. Click Add Features to accept the dependencies, and then click Next to open the Select Features page, as shown.
8. Select any features you want to install in the selected server and click Next. Dependencies might appear for you feature selections.
9. The wizard then displays pages specific to the roles or features you have chosen. Most roles have a Select Role Services page, on which you can select which elements of the role you want to install. Complete each of the role-specific or feature-specific pages and click Next. A Confirm Installation Selections page opens.
10. You can select from the following option functions: Restart The Destination Server Automatically If Desired (Causes the server to restart automatically when the installation is completed, if the selected roles and features require it), Export Configuration Settings (Creates an XML script documenting the procedures performed by the wizard, which you can use to install the same configuration on another server by using Windows PowerShell), Specify An Alternate Source Path (Specifies the location of an image file containing the software needed to install the selected roles and features).
11. Click Install to open the Installation Progress page. Depending on the roles and features installed, the wizard might display hyperlinks to the tools needed to perform required postinstallation tasks. When the installation is complete, click Close to complete the wizard.
To use an exported config file to install roles and features on another computer running Server 2012, use the following cmd in a PowerShell session with elevated privileges:
Once you install roles on your servers, the roles appear as icons in the navigation pane. These icons represent role groups, and each role group contains all instances of that role found on any of your added servers. You can therefore administer the role across all of the server on which you have it installed.
1. Log onto the server running Server 2012 using an account with admin privileges. The Server Manager window opens.
2. From the Manage menu, select Add Roles And Features. The Add Roles And Features Wizard starts, displaying the Before You Begin page.
3. Click Next to open the Select Installation Type page.
4. Leave the Role-Based or Feature-Based Installation option selected and click Next. The Select Destination Server page opens.
5. Select the Select A Virtual Hard Disk option. A VHD text box appears at the bottom of the page.
6. In the VHD text box, type or browse to the location of the VHD file you want to modify.
7. In the Server Pool box, select the server that the wizard should use to mount the VHD file, and click Next. The Select Server Roles page opens. (The wizard must mount the VHD file on the server you select to look inside and determine which roles and features are already installed. Mounting a VHD file only makes it available through the computer’s file system; it is not the same as starting the VM by using the VHD)
8. Select the roles you want to install on the selected server, adding the required dependencies if necessary, and click Next. The Select Features page opens.
9. Select any features you want to install on the selected server and click Next. Dependencies might appear for your feature selections.
10. The wizard then displays pages specific to the roles or features you have chosen, enabling you to select role services and configure other settings. Complete each of the role-specific or feature-specific pages and click Next. A Confirmation page opens.
11. Click Install. The Installation Progress page opens. When the installation is complete, click Close to dismount the VHD and complete the wizard.
When you are on the Local Server home page in Server Manager, one of the tile you find there is the Services tile. This tile lists all the services installed on the server and specifies their operational status, and their Start Type. When you right-click a service, the shortcut menu provides controls that enable you to start, stop, restart, pause, and resume the service.
The Services tile in Server Manager is similar to the traditional Services snap-in for MMC found in previous versions of Server. Although you can start and stop a service here, you cannot modify its Start Type, which specifies whether the service should start automatically with the OS. You must do that using the Services MMC snap-in.
Another difference of the Services tile is that this tile appears in many locations throughout Server Manager, and in each place it displays a list of services for a different context. This is a good example for the organizational principle of the new Server Manager. The same tools, repeated, providing a consistent interface to different sets of components.
After creating a VD, you can create volumes on it, just as you would on a physical disk. Server Manager allows you to create and manage storage pools and virtual disks and the ability to create volumes and file system shares, with some limitations.
GUID (Globally Unique Identifier) Partition Table (GPT) – newer than MBR, no x86 version prior to Server 2008 and Vista supported it. x86 had to use MBR, x64 could use either as long as the GPT disk was not the boot disk.
It is not possible to boot from a GPT disk, and you can only use GPT on separate nonbootable disks used for data storage.
When you use Server Manager to initialize a disk in Server 2012, it uses the GPT partition style, regardless of virtual or physical disk. There are no controls in Server Manager supporting MBR, although it displays the partition type in the DIsks tile.
When you use a GPT partition style, the disk still appears as a basic disk, but you can create up to 128 volumes, each of which can be a primary partition. There are no extended partitions or logical drives on GPT disks.
Dynamic Disks – Creates a single partition that occupies the entire disk. You can create an unlimited number of volumes out of the space in that partition, but you cannot mark an existing dynamic disk as active. Dynamic disks also support several types of volumes.
In Server 2012, five file system options are available: NTFS, FAT32, exFAT, FAT (or FAT16), and ReFS. NTFS is the preferred file system for a server. The main benefits are improved support for larger hard drives than FAT and better security in the form of encryption and permissions that restrict access by unauthorized users.
Because FAT file systems lack the security that NTFS provides, any user who gains access to your computer can read any file without restriction. Additionally, FAT file systems have disk size limitations: FAT32 cannot handle a partition greater than 32 GB or a file greater than 4 GB. FAT cannon handle a hard disk greater than 4 GB or a file greater than 2 GB. Because of these limitations, the only viable reason for using FAT16 or FAT32 is the need to dual boot the computer with a non-Windows OS or a previous version of windows that does not support NTFS, which is not a likely config for a server.
ReFS is a new file system first appearing in Server 2012 that offers practically unlimited file and directory sizes and increased resiliency that eliminates the need for error-checking tools, such as Chkdsk.exe. However, ReFS does not include support for NTFS features such as file compression, Encrypted File System (EFS), and disk quotas. ReFS disks also cannon be read by any OS older than Server 2012 and Windows 8.
Server Manager can manage storage pools and create virtual disks. It can also perform some, but not all, of the standard disk and volume management opeartions on physical disks. Like the other Server Manager home pages, this page enables you to perform tasks on any servers you have added to the interface.
Disk Management is an MMC snap-in that is the traditional tool for performing disk-related tasks. To access the Disk Management snap-in, you must open the Computer Management console and select Disk Management. You can also manage disks and volumes from the command line by using the DiskPart.exe utility.
You must first bring it online by right clicking it in the Disks tile and selecting Bring Online. Once Online, right click and select Initialize. Unlike the Disk Management snap-in, Server Manager does not allow you to choose the partition style for the disk. A Task Progress window opens, and when the process is completed, click Close, and the disk appears in the list with a partition style of GPT.
You can convert a disk from one partition style to another at any time by right-clicking the disk you need to convert and then, from the shortcut menu, selecting Convert To GPT Disk or Convert To MBR Disk. As this is a destructive process, you can only perform the conversion on an unallocated disk, so if the disk you want to convert contains data, you must back the disk up and then delete all existing partitions or volumes before you begin the conversion.
2. Click Tools > Computer Management. The Computer Management console opens.
3. Click Disk Management to open the Disk Management snap-in.
4. From the Action menu, select Create VHD. The Create And Attach Virtual Hard Disk dialog box appears.
5. In the Location text box, specify the path and file name for the file you want to create.
6. In the Virtual Hard Disk Size box, specify the maximum size of the disk you want to create.
7. Select one of the following Virtual Hard Disk Type Format options: VHD (The original and more compatible format, which supports files of up to 2,040 GB) or VHDX (A new version of the format that supports files of up to 64 TB but can only be read by computers running Server 2012.
8. Select one of the following Virtual Hard Disk Type options: Fixed Size (Recommended, allocates all the disk space for the VHD file at once), or Dynamically Expanding (Allocates disk space to the VHD file as you add data to the virtual hard disk)
9. Click OK. The system creates the VHD file and attaches it so that it appears as a disk in the snap-in.
Once created and attached, the VHD appears as an uninitialized disk in the Disk Management snap-in and in Server Manager. By using either tool, you can initialize the disk and create volumes on it, just as you would a physical disk. After storing data on the volumes, you can detach the VHD and move it to another location or mount it on a Hyper-V VM.
Mirror – Requires the pool to contain at least two physical disks and provides fault tolerance by storing identical copies of every file. Two physical disks provide protection against a single disk failure; five physical disks provide protection against two disk failures.
Parity – Requires the pool to contain at least three physical disks and provides fault tolerance by striping parity information along with data.
Fixed – The system allocates the maximum specified amount of space to the disk immediately on creating it.
However, Disk Management snap-in prevents you from unintentionally performing actions that might result in data loss while DiskPart does not prohibit you from performing such actions. For this reason, DiskPart.exe should only be used by advanced users and with caution.
RAID-5 – At least 3 disks.
Spanned will take a specified amount of space for each individual disk.
The others will only take one specified amount as all volumes require the same amount of space on each disk.