Section 8.4 Transcription Review

Central dogma
States that information flows in one direction from dna to rna to proteins

Central dogma involves 3 processes
1. Replication copies DNA
2. Transcription converts a DNA message into an intermediate molecule called RNA
3. Translation interprets an RNA message into a string of amino acids, called a polypeptide

Name the location of each process translation transcription and replication
Translation: cytoplasm
Transcription and replication: nucleus

RNA is made up of
A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base

What 3 things differ RNA to DNA
1.The sugar in RNA is ribose
2. RNA has the base uracil instead of thymine
3. RNA is a single stand of nucleotides

Transcription
The process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA

RNA polymerases
Enzymes that bond nucleotides together

Similarities of transcription and replication
Both occur within nucleus
Both are catalyzed by large, complex enzymes
Both involve unwinding of the DNA double helix
Both involve complementary base pairing to DNA strand

Messenger RNA mRNA
An intermediate message that is translated to form a protein

Ribosomal RNA rRNA
Forms part of ribosomes, a cells protein factories

Transfer RNA tRNA
Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein