Schizophrenia Essay
Schizophrenia Essay

Schizophrenia Essay

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  • Published: October 13, 2017
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This essay centers on the diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder, a notable mental illness frequently associated with stigma and misinformation.

The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2012) reports that approximately 24 million individuals worldwide are affected by schizophrenia, a mental illness. The objective of this essay is to provide a definition of schizophrenia and examine its distinct cognitive and mood-related indicators and symptoms.

This text examines various aspects of schizophrenic disorder, including diagnostic criteria, nursing care, pharmacological interventions, positive and negative symptoms, treatment guidelines under the NSW Mental Health Act (2007), and societal attitudes in Australia that may impact individuals with this disorder.

Varcarolis, Carson, and Shoemaker state that schizophrenia is not a singular illness but rather a set of symptoms that encompass neuro-anatomical and neuro-biochemical abnormalities, commonly with significant genetic associations. This complex brain disorder known as s


chizophrenia profoundly impacts personality and produces overpowering effects.

societal behavior, emotions, believing, linguistic communication, and the ability to accurately place genuineness are all elements of societal behavior (Varcarolis et al 2006).

Each individual who is ill has a distinct set of disruptions, highlighting the importance of personalized therapy (Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW). Schizophrenia is acknowledged as one of the most severe and misinterpreted mental conditions (Bardwell & Taylor 2009, p. 250), impacting people irrespective of their ethnic background.

civilization. gender. position or mind (SFNSW. n.

d. ) Despite observations by SFNSW (n. d.) that the upset is more prevalent in males, it is typically seen in individuals aged between 15 and 30 years, as noted by the Schizophrenia Research Institute (SRI) (2010). The symptoms of the illness usually persist for over two years before medical intervention (SRI 2010).

According to the Schizophrenia Research Institute (SFNSW)

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around ten percent of individuals with schizophrenia will commit suicide. However, Van Os & Kapur (2009, p. 635) argue that the life expectancy for individuals with schizophrenia is between 15 and 20 years lower than the population average.

Despite the progresss in medical cognition, pattern, and engineering in this clip, the specific cause of schizophrenic disorder is yet to be determined (Bardwell & A; Taylor 2009, p. 250).

Various theories have been proposed to elucidate the origins of schizophrenia, yet none have succeeded in fully understanding its development and the accompanying intricacies. As per biological theories, the existence of neurological abnormalities plays a crucial role in the emergence of schizophrenia (Bardwell & Taylor, 2009).

On page 250, there is a mention of influences that may have been caused by developmental perturbations, such as illness in early life (Bardwell & Taylor 2009, p. 251).

The hypothesis is that abnormalities in the brain result in both structural and functional abnormalities. The exact causes of these abnormalities are still uncertain, despite theories proposed by supporters. However, modern diagnostic imaging does confirm the presence of significant structural abnormalities in the brains of patients, as stated by Townsend

(P. 108) The theory of familial sensitivity is proposed as an explanation for the cause of schizophrenia, according to Bardwell & Taylor (2009, p. 251).

According to research, the likelihood of developing this illness is increased in individuals who have close relatives with the same condition. The stress-diathesis theory also acknowledges the influence of stress and combines biological and biochemical theories.

According to Bardwell & Taylor (2009, p. 252), schizophrenia's development is impacted by an inherent moral life force. This condition manifests with a blend of positive and negative

symptoms, which subject individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia to experience diverse distressing and debilitating symptoms that impact their cognition and mood.

Brissos et al. (2011) analyze the conduct and psychosocial performance of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia disorder, while Varcarolis et al. (2006) define positive symptoms of schizophrenia, commonly referred to as "florid psychotic symptoms," as those that capture attention.

Elder et al. (2009) state that cognitive deficits mainly impact memory and linguistic communication, leading to changes in mood and behavior. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia, as described by Varcarolis, encompass psychotic beliefs, hallucinations, and sudden disruptions in thought processes.

According to Carson and Shoemaker (2006), patients experiencing psychotic beliefs genuinely believe that what they see is true. As a result, their beliefs often manifest as intense fear, loneliness, and issues with trust. Additionally, Elder et al. (2009) state that cognitive impairments are viewed as symptoms of psychosis and can affect behavior.

The perceptual experiences and beliefs exhibited by an individual with an exacerbation of schizophrenic disorder are not in line with typical human experience. Negative symptoms include a reduction or loss of normal functions, such as loss of motivation, an inability to feel emotions, as well as a decrease in the quantity and quality of speech (SFNSW n.).

The authors Elder et Al. (2009) mention that negative symptoms include anhedonia (lack of pleasure), alogia (speech poverty), blunted or flat affect, and anergia (loss of energy).

According to Varcarolis et Al. (2006), psychosocial functioning is hindered by difficulties in intimate relationships and decision-making, as well as in maintaining employment. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are particularly associated with schizophrenia, which can have a significant impact on one's daily functioning (SFNSW n. d.).

Diagnosis initiates with

a comprehensive assessment that involves physical examination, past and current medical history, as well as assessment of physical functions like excretion, exercise, sleep, and nutritional status (Bardwell & Taylor, 2009).

p. 187 ). The cardinal assessment papers applied is the mental position scrutiny (MSE). It is an assessment tool that investigates the persons ‘neurological and psychological’ capacity according to Bardwell & A; Taylor (2009).

On page 184, the MSE (Mental State Examination) enables the assessor to observe and evaluate various aspects of individuals, including their appearance, behavior, speech, mood, and cognitive functioning.

Perceptual experience, sensorium, cognitive factors, and penetration are discussed in Bardwell & Taylor's book (2009, p. 185-187).

According to Videbeck (2011, p. 253), a psychiatrist is responsible for making a diagnosis when a patient meets the criteria for major affective or mood disorders. The author suggests that assessing "affect" involves being sensitive to variations in eye contact.

The diagnosis of schizophrenia in individuals is determined using universally accepted criteria outlined in 'The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)' (American Psychiatric Association 2000, cited in Bardwell ; Taylor 2009, p. 252). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) creates this text with the aim of maintaining consistency and accuracy in communication.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) develops 'The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)' to establish consistent and accurate criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association 2000, cited in Bardwell ; Taylor 2009, p. 252).

According to the APA (2000), individuals must have symptoms for at least one month in order to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia. This disorder is defined by the presence of psychotic beliefs and hallucinations.

The address forms are disorganised, causing disruption in behavior or

negative symptoms. According to the APA (2000), only one of these criteria is needed if there are exceptionally unusual psychotic beliefs or hallucinations. Additionally, there must be a noticeable impairment in employment, relationships, and self-care for the outcome to be considered significant.

Pathology and diagnostic testing are utilized to rule out organic causes; however, once diagnosed, the individual is further classified into one of the subtypes of schizophrenia based on specific features of their presentation.

In Townsend's (2011, p. 105) research, various subtypes of schizophrenia have been identified. Among these is paranoid schizophrenic disorder, which manifests as intense suspicion and the presence of persecutory or grandiose psychotic beliefs. Conversely, disorganized schizophrenic disorder is characterized by regressive or primitive behavior.

According to Townsend (2011, p. 105), there is a lack of suppressions as well as inappropriate and incoherent communication.

Townsend (2011, p. 105) defines catatonic schizophrenic disorder as a condition marked by "stupor" and "psychomotor retardation." Meanwhile, Bardwell & Taylor (2009, p. 253) propose a similar characterization.

This region has a stage of excitement that leads to impulsiveness and improper behavior which is not appropriate for the environment. According to Townsend (2011, p. 105), undifferentiated schizophrenia includes disorganized behavior and symptoms of psychosis. However, the current symptoms do not fully match other subtypes (Bardwell & Taylor, 2009).

p. 253). Residual schizophrenic disorder is diagnosed when there are less severe schizophrenic behaviors compared to other subtypes, and there may be no presence of psychotic symptoms. The New South Wales Mental Health Act (MHA) (2007) guides contemporary nursing care and pharmacological treatment for individuals with schizophrenia. It emphasizes the provision of the best possible care in an environment that enhances treatment effectiveness.

The focus should

be on empowering individuals to actively participate in their community and maintain a balanced and fulfilling life (MHA 2007, p. 38). Care should also respect the individual's freedom and minimize interference, while ensuring they are fully informed of their rights.

According to MHA 2007, there are multiple duties and interventions available for mental wellness patients (p. 38). The nursing focus for these patients is emphasized to be the establishment of a curative relationship, with the majority of mental wellness care being provided in primary attention (Currid et al. 2011). Considering that mental wellness is a national priority, it is logical to propose that registered nurses would offer care for a patient with schizophrenia in a primary healthcare setting (Elder et al. 2009).

The Australian Government has implemented a National Mental Health Plan that aims to promote a holistic approach within primary healthcare settings. This plan focuses on prevention, rehabilitation, and support for individuals and highlights the significance of addressing various aspects of care for facilitating stabilization and recovery. Bardwell & Taylor (2009) discuss one method employed in this plan - cognitive behavioral therapy.

p. 256) Bardwell ; Taylor (2009) suggest that making positive changes can help alleviate debilitating symptoms like hallucinations and psychotic beliefs, as well as reducing other triggering factors such as stress and stigma.

According to page 257, supportive psychotherapeutics is crucial for recovery and the ability to function normally in society. It is also important to provide family instruction, support, and assistance in order to enhance understanding and create a positive environment that is safe and responsive to the needs of the individual.

SRI (2010) recommends that "supported employment plans, case management, social support, and housing programs"

all contribute to successful rehabilitation and reintegration into society for individuals. Frangou (2008) also supports these ideas.

According to Editor Barker (2009, p. 218), schizophrenia is primarily treated with antipsychotic medications. These medications can be categorized into two types: typical and atypical antipsychotics (p. 407).

Released in the center of the 19th century (Van Os ; A; Kapur 2009, p. 639). Pridmore (2010).

p. 3) The ‘typical’ subgroup includes the original major tranquilizers such as Thorazine, Haldol, fluphenazine, and Navane.

First-generation major tranquilizers, also known as neuroleptics (Van Os ; Kapur 2009. p. 639), work by blocking dopamine receptors and effectively managing psychotic symptoms (Pridmore 2010).

p. 3) With positive symptoms significantly reduced for 60 to seventy percent of individuals (Frangou 2008. p. 407), however, side effects are frequently observed (Van Os & Kapur, 2009).

P.639 ). The side effects can have a terrible, debilitating, and potentially detrimental impact, posing a significant obstacle to adhering to medication.

The side effects of dopamine obstruction include nonvoluntary muscle cramps, akathisia which presents as mental and motor restlessness, and amenorrhea and sterility due to a buildup of lactogenic hormone (Pridmore 2010, p. 4).

According to Pridmore (2010, p.5), weight gain is a common side effect of first-generation antipsychotics. These antipsychotics are also referred to as second-generation antipsychotics (Van Os ; Kapur, 2009, p.).

A range of antipsychotic drugs, such as Clozaril, resperidone, paliperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, amisulpride, and aripiprazole, are included in the treatment options (Pridmore, 2010, pp. 639).

8-9). According to Keen ; Barker (2009, p. 220), these second-generation medicines are equally effective in reducing positive symptoms compared to their predecessors, if not slightly better.

First generation major tranquilizers have more debilitating side effects compared to second

generation major tranquilizers. However, the real advantage of second generation major tranquilizers is their reduced strength in causing side effects (Keen ; Barker 2009, p. 220).

While Agid Kapur ; A Remington (2008), cited in Van Os ; A Kapur (2009), P.

Province 639) states that atypicals do not effectively reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. According to Burton (2006, cited in Pridmore 2010, p.6), there is evidence of improvement in mood.

According to Scherk ; Falkai (2006, cited in Pridmore 2010, p. 6), there is evidence suggesting that the structural brain changes observed in schizophrenia indicate improvement in knowledge and quality of life.

Pridmore (2010, p. 6) notes that volume additions occur in both thalamic and cortical grey matter. The issue of weight gain persists with both typical and atypical major tranquilizers, including Clozaril.

According to Keen ; Barker (2009, p. 220), this medicine is only used as a last resort when other options are ineffective or unequal. Close metabolic monitoring is necessary for this drug due to the serious side effect of agranulocytosis.

According to Keen ; Barker (2009, p. 220), blood testing and metabolic monitoring are essential when prescribing medication for the treatment of schizophrenia. Regardless of which drug is chosen, the objective of pharmacological therapies is to effectively manage the disorder.

Suggest editors Elder, Evans & A; Nizette (2009, p. 259).

The main goal of treating schizophrenia is to reduce symptoms so that individuals can lead a normal life and prevent any relapses. Society has long misunderstood and mistreated people with schizophrenia, often leading them to be neglected and stigmatized. As a result, individuals with schizophrenia and their families typically keep their condition a secret from loved ones,

friends, and colleagues (SRI 2010).

The society has been consistently exposed to false information about illnesses, which leads to stigma for sick individuals and their families. These false misconceptions portray sick people as 'violent'.

The media's deception of this debilitating condition is a strong negative influence on social beliefs, describing it as "amusing or incompetent" (SANE Australia n.d.).

The text below, with its and contents, explains how certain behaviors can be viewed as character defects that lead to mental instability, emotional stress, indirectness, and potential danger (Horsfall, Cleary, & Hunt, 2010).

p. 451). All individuals with schizophrenic disorder are stigmatized in the same way. The negative stigma adds further burdens to the individuals and their families (SANE Australia n.

d.) Stigmatizing individuals who are ill and eliciting emotions that they are inferior to humans. Contrary to common belief, individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to be subjected to violence rather than being the perpetrators of it. However, they are more prone to causing harm to themselves (SFNSW n.d.).

) The situation is worsened by the fact that government funding for research and public awareness initiatives does not adequately address the population affected (SRI 2010). Wong et al. (2009) also found similar problems.

According to p. 108, society's intervention like this is considered a barrier to seeking assistance, which complicates the intervention process. SANE Australia (n.d.) also argues that it contributes to social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and possibly substance abuse.

The information within the "p" tag is a citation from Van Brakel's work in 2006, as referenced in a study by Wong et al in 2009.

108) Submitting. The presence of stigma intensifies the emphasis on a person's struggles with their health, making

it harder for them to function well. As a result, their relationships suffer, and their ability to engage in society becomes unbearable. Additionally, opportunities for employment and education are significantly reduced.

The society needs to understand and believe those who have false beliefs about this disabling mental health disorder. Van Os ; A; Kapur ( 2009. p. 639 ) also hope for a future where society will treat patients with respect.

The paper explores the complexities of schizophrenia, a significant mental illness, and examines the defining characteristics and symptoms related to cognition, mood, behavior, and psychosocial functioning. The overall focus is on fostering hope and dignity instead of perpetuating stigma, pessimism, and exclusion.

While the standards for diagnosing schizophrenic disorder, as well as contemporary nursing care and pharmacological interventions, have also been explored, the NSW Mental Health Act (2007) outlines the treatment and care needs that have been highlighted. The prevailing Australian societal attitudes and how they may affect individuals with the disorder have also been examined.


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