Sampling 4 C 7 Flashcards

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– The process of selecting observations.
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Sampling
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\”President\” Alf Landon
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Two million ballots mailed to people listed in telephone directory Participants selected by phone directory and auto registration
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Any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory.
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Nonprobability Sampling
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Available subjects Purposive sampling Snowball sampling Quota sampling
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Nonprobability Sampling
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Convenience sampling Does not allow for control over representativeness.
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Reliance on Available Subjects
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A nonprobability sampling method whereby each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing. Often used in field research, special populations
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Snowball Sampling
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A type of nonprobability sampling in which units are selected into a sample on the basis of pre-specified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied.
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Quota Sampling
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Someone who is well versed in the social phenomenon that you wish to study and who is willing to tell you what s/he knows about it.
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Informant
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The general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory. Often used for large-scale surveys.
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Probability Sampling
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The quality of a sample of having the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was selected.
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Representativeness
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Samples need not be representative in all respects
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only those relevant to the research.
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EPSEM
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Equal Probability of Selection Method)
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Probability samples are typically more representative than other types of samples because
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biases are avoided.
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Probability theory permits researchers to estimate
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the accuracy or representativeness of the sample.
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That unit of which a population is composed and which is selected in a sample. Example: Survey’s- People or Types of People
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element
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The theoretically specified aggregation of the elements in a study. Examples: UCR Student Body, Residents of Riverside County
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population
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– A sampling method in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.
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Study Population/Sample
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– Each element has an equal change of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.
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Random Selection
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That element of set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling
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sampling unit
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A summary description of a given variable in a population.
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parameter
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the summary description of a variable in a sample, used to estimate a population parameter.
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statistic
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The degree of error to be expected of a given sample design.
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Sampling Error
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The estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval.
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Confidence Level
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The range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie.
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Confidence Interval
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– A list of units composing a population from which a sample is selected.
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sampling frame
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If the sample is to be representative of the population, it is essential that the sampling frame include
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all members of the population.
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A type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers. A set of random numbers is generated and the units having those numbers are included in the sample.
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Simple Random Sampling
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A type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample.
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Systematic Sampling
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– The standard distance between elements selected from a population in the sample.
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Sampling Interval
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the proportion of elements in the population that are selected to be in a sample
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Sampling Ratio
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The grouping of the units composing a population into homogenous groups (strata) before sampling
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Stratification
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A multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially with the members of each selected group being sub-sampled afterward. Church Membership
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cluster sampling
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Assigning different weights to cases that were selected into a sample with different probabilities of selection
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Weighting
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One of the most visible uses of survey sampling lies in _____.
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political polling
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. _____ sampling occurs when units are selected on the basis of pre-specified characteristics.
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Quota
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_____ describes a sample whose aggregate characteristics closely approximate the aggregate characteristics of the population.
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Representativeness
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A _____ is the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected.
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sampling frame
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_____ is the general term for samples selected in accord with probability theory.
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Probability sampling
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A _____ population is that aggregation of elements from which a sample if actually selected.
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study
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Cluster sampling may be used when it is impossible to compile an exhaustive list of the elements composing the target population.
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true

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