Rome exam review

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Name three ideals of ancient rome
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(1) the ideal citizen (2) the ideal patriot (3) No tyranny
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Name all the ideals of the U.S. as stated in the “Declaration of Independence”
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Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness, Alter or Abolish government, and all men are created equal
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Connection between the Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights, and Roman ideals
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They are trying to eliminate the threat of tyranny through the balance of powers and separation of powers
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U.S. concepts taken from Rome
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(1) Innocent until proven guilty (2) Judge needs to weigh evidence
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What is the difference between explicit and implicit?
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Explicit-fully and clearly expressed Implicit-implied, rather than expressly
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Which U.S document describes how our government is organized and how it functions?
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U.S Constitution
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Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence most clearly reflects the idea that the people are the source of government? 1. “. . . that all men are created equal,…” 2. “. .. all men are . . . endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights 3. “. . . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . .” 4. “. . . governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes . . .
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3. “. . . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . .”
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One way in which the United States Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation was that the Constitution 1. created a national government having three branches 2. provided for the direct election of the President by the voters 3. made the amendment process more difficult 4. increased the powers of the states
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1. created a national government having three branches
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What exactly is the U.S Constitution
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Constitution- Supreme law of the land
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What is the Bill of rights?
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the first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution that guarantee certain rights and freedoms are to be retained by the people
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Where is Rome (the city) located?
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Italy
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What was the benefit of this location?
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It was centrally located (making it easy to expand); it had immediate access to the Mediterranean, and it was well defended (7 hills)
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What significant event happened in Rome in 509 BC
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Founding of the Roman Republic
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What is tyranny?
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cruel and oppressive government or rule; too much power in the hands of one person
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What is the legendary event which led the Romans to overthrow their last king and create a republic?
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The rape and suicide of Lucretia. the King’s (Tarquin the Proud’s) son raped a married woman The story of the Rape of Lucretia was a popular Roman tale which explained the downfall of Tarquinius. The story goes like this: Roman men spoke of their wives at home and decided to return and surprise them. Only Lucretia, wife to Collatinus, was behaving in a chaste and modest fashion while her husband was gone. Overcome with desire, Tarquin’s son, Sextus, returned and raped Lucretia. She told her husband what had happened and urged him to avenge her. She then took her own life. This incident sparked a revolution. The revolt was led by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus, and the result was that Tarquin was exiled from Rome.
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Define: republic
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a form of gov’t in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote; A form of government in which power is explicitly vested in the people, who in turn exercise their power through elected representatives
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Define: patrician
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upper/ruling class (nobles, land owners)
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Define: plebeian
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lower class ; a commoner (farmers and workers)
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Who were the governing leaders of Rome during the Republic?
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Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of elected magistrates.
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On what two things did ancient Rome pride itself (according to the poem by Virgil)?
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Government and laws
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Who were the only citizens who could be senators?
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male citizens (over age 15)
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How did the Romans use dictatorship during the Republic?
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A lot of military generals used the military to reinforce power
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The Laws of the Twelve Tables became the basis for what?
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Roman law
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How are the Twelve Tables, The Law of Nations, and the Hammurabi’s Code related?
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All three of them established legal standards Twelve Tables – In 450 the code was formally posted, likely on bronze tablets, in the Roman Forum. The written recording of the law in the Twelve Tables enabled the plebeians both to become acquainted with the law and to protect themselves against patricians’ abuses of power. The Law of Nations- next code meant to incorporate all people in all conquered nations Hammurabi’s Code – a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC.
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Hammurabi’s Code, the Ten Commandments, and the Twelve Tables were all significant to their societies because they established (1) democratic governments (2) official religions (3) rules of behavior (4) economic systems
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(3) rules of behavior
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The Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tables were designed to (1) create a stable society (2) promote peaceful relations with other cultures (3) provide a framework for the development of democracy (4) emphasize the importance of life after death
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(1) create a stable society
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What’s the difference between the above-mentioned laws and the Ten Commandments?
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Hammurabi’s Code and the Twelve Tables are written laws set by man, the Ten Commandments are not laws, but a guide for living
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The Ancient Romans’ most significant contribution to Europe has been in the area of 1. economics 2. poetry 3. drama 4. law
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4. law Explanation: The Twelve Tables of Law are considered the first example of codified law in Europe and were created in Ancient Rome.
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A major contribution of the Roman Republic to Western European culture was the 1. concept of government by laws 2. belief that political power should be controlled by the military 3. establishment of agricultural communes 4. rejection of the concept of slavery
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1. concept of government by laws
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Which empire did Rome fight in the Punic Wars?
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The Carthaginian Empire (or just Carthage)
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Make a timeline and place the following: a. Early Rome (period of the Kings) b. Roman Republic c. Roman Empire d. Pax Romana e. Fall of Rome f. Middle Ages g. Renaissance h. Birth of Christianity i. Punic Wars
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Early Rome Roman Republic (509 BC – 41 BC) Punic wars (264 – 146 BC) Roman empire ( 41 BC – 476 AD) Pax romana (27 B.C to 180 AD) – from the reign of Augustus (27 bc-ad 14) to that of Marcus Aurelius (ad 161-180). Birth of Christianity – 313 AD Fall of rome – 476 AD Middle ages (starts after fall of Rome) Renaissance
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What was the result of the Punic Wars? How did these wars change Rome’s position in the world?
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Destruction of Carthage. Rome conquered the Mediterranean and became a world power. (Punic Wars were about conquering the Mediterranean. The last Punic war occurred in 146 BC when Rome defeated Carthage and took over the African province, conquering the Mediterranean. Carthage is located in present day Tunisia and Libya)
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Why were the brothers Gracchus assassinated?
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The were Senators who suggested land reform to help the poor during the period of crisis in the Roman Republic (200-82 BCE)
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What practice did Generals Marius and Sulla begin and how did it lead to the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire.
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Roman generals, specifically C. Marius (consul 106, 104-100 BC) and L. Cornelius Sulla (consul 88, dictator 82-79 BC), recruited private armies more loyal to themselves than to the state. In addition to the draft, they recruited landless poor citizens by offering them bounties and land upon discharge. The soldier’s status as Roman or allied mattered little to these generals either, both of whom made extensive grants of citizenship to allied forces. Ultimately, the two men came to blows in 88 BC. So violent were popular feelings that Sulla was able to persuade his field army in southern Italy to march on the city of Rome to expel Marius and his followers. So began the first Civil War and the gradual transference of soldiers’ loyalties from the laws of the state to the persons of their commanding officers. General Marius (107 BC) came up with the idea to bribe people — soldiers would fight for themselves (for land) and for Marius, not for Rome. General Sulla (82 BC) began a reign of terror. It was a very bad time. This internal turmoil within the military was one reason There was constant battles between generals.
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Explain the significance of the end of the Republic and compare it to the USA today.
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The Roman Republic was founded on the idea that Rome came first. it ended after a period of crisis (economic, political, and military breakdown). Like in the USA, when times are good, people don’t complain. but when times are bad, they do.
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Why was Julius Caesar assassinated? Who did it?
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Julius Caesar, the”dictator for life”of the Roman Empire is assassinated because he is believed to have become too powerful. He is murdered by his own senators at a meeting in a hall next to Pompey’s Theatre. The conspiracy against Caesar encompassed as many as sixty noblemen, including Caesar’s own protege, Marcus Brutus. Cassius Longinus started the plot against the dictator, quickly getting his brother-in-law Marcus Brutus to join.
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What was the result of the death of Julius Caesar?
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After the murder of Julius Caesar, a period of civil war erupted in Rome. Out of this turmoil emerged the Second Triumvirate, consisting of Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian, who was Julius Caesar’s nephew. This new triumvirate ruled Rome for a decade, but as happened with the First Triumverate, differences among the leaders eventually emerged. Octavian defeated Lepidus in battle, and then turned his armies against the more powerful Mark Antony. Antony had fallen in love with and married the spellbinding queen of Egypt, Cleopatra. At the Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece in 31 B.C.E., Octavian’s navy defeated the navy of Antony and Cleopatra, who later both committed suicide. Octavian returned to Rome triumphant and gave himself the title of princeps or “first citizen.” Octavian becomes the first emperor of rome when he took the title Caesar Augustus and established the Roman Empire in 27 BC
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What does Augustus mean?
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all- powerful
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What is the full, given name of the first emperor of Rome?
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“Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus” (Imperator – emperor; Augustus- all powerful)
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Who was the first “dictator for life” in Rome?
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Julius Caesar
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The political system of the Ancient Roman Empire was characterized by 1. a strong central government 2. rule by a coalition of emperors and religious leaders 3. universal suffrage in national elections 4. a strict adherence to constitutional principles
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1. a strong central government The Roman Empire was ruled by one person called an emperor, and is therefore an example of a strong central government.
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When was the Pax Romana and what was it?
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The term “Pax Romana,” which literally means “Roman peace,” refers to the time period from 27 B.C to 180 AD. in the Roman Empire. This 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its peak in terms of land area, and its population swelled to an estimated 70 million people. Nevertheless, Rome’s citizens were relatively secure, and the government generally maintained law, order, and stability. The Pax Romana began when Octavian became the leader of the Roman Empire. The 200 years of the Pax Romana saw many advances and accomplishments, particularly in engineering and the arts.
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What is the irony of the Pax Romana in the context of Roman history?
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Christians were severely persecuted during this “period of peace”
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Where was Jesus from and what was his religious background?
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Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea (a Roman province ruled by King Herod). He was Jewish
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Who was in control of Judaea at the time of Jesus?
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King Herod
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How did Romans treat the early Christians?
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Christians were severely persecuted because of the roman fire during Nero’s reign
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What was the Edict of Milan? When was it and who declared it?
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The right to practice Christianity. Constantine in 313 A.D the Edict of Milan changed world history by stating that you could no longer persecute Christians.
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Which emperor made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
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Constantine
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What is the New Testament? Who probably wrote it and when?
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the second part of the bible that was written mostly by jesus’ disciples (such as Paul of Tarsus) at different times in the 1st century AD. (All of the works which would eventually be incorporated into the New Testament would seem to have been written no later than around AD 150, and some scholars would date them all to no later than AD 70 or AD 80)
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What are the main teaching in Jesus’ “Sermon on the Mount”
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The Ten Commandments and the proper living of a citizen
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After the fall of Rome, what historical period did Europe enter?
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Middle Ages
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What three political formations came after the fall of Rome?
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(1) Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) – w/ Constantinople the capital (2) Islamic Empires (powerful after 500) (3) Western Europe
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What is the “official” year of the fall of the Roman Empire?
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476 AD
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Who was the Visigoth leader responsible for the revolt and attack on Rome?
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Alaric I
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When did the Visigoths attack Rome?
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410 AD
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An immediate result of the fall of the Roman Empire was 1. a renewed interest in education and the arts 2. a period of disorder and weak central government 3. an increase in trade and manufacturing 4. the growth of cities and dominance by the middle class
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2. a period of disorder and weak central government Explanation: The period after the fall of Rome in Europe is often referred to as the Dark Ages because of the lack of learning and establishment of feudalism
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Where did the Huns come from?
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Mongolia
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Where did the Franks invade and settle?
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Gaul/ Modern-day France
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Which two Germanic tribes actually entered and sacked Rome?
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Visigoths and Vandals
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What was the capital city of the Eastern Roman Empire?
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Constantinople (now Istanbul)
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Constantinople became the center of the Byzantine Empire because 1. the pope had made it the capital of the Christian world 2. it was a religious center for Muslims 3. its location made it the crossroads of Europe and Asia 4. it was geographically isolated from surrounding empires
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3. its location made it the crossroads of Europe and Asia
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The ancient Romans’ most significant contribution to Europe has been in the area of 1. economics 2. poetry 3. drama 4. law
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4. law
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A major contribution of the Roman Empire to Western society was the development of 1. gunpowder 2. the principles of revolutionary socialism 3. monotheism 4. an effective legal system
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4. an effective legal system
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After the fall of Rome, the eastern portion of the Roman Empire became known as the 1. Persian Empire 2. Byzantine Empire 3. Mongol Empire 4. Gupta Empire
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2. Byzantine Empire
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A major effect of the decline of the Roman Empire was that Western Europe 1. came under the control of the Muslims 2. was absorbed by the Byzantine Empire 3. returned to a republican form of government 4. entered a period of chaos and disorder
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4. entered a period of chaos and disorder
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What factor contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire 1. invasions by nomadic peoples from Central Asia 2. demands for religious freedom by Christians 3. long periods of drought that led to isolation 4. dependence on slaves to produce manufactured goods
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1. invasions by nomadic peoples from Central Asia

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