Role and Scope Exam 1**

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Management:
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the process of planning, organizing, directing, and coordinating, the work within an organization.
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Characteristics of Managers
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-Hold formal position of authority and power -Possess clinical expertise -Network with members of the team -Coach subordinates -Make decisions about organization function, including resources, budget, hiring, and firing
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The five major management functions are
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planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
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Planning
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-The decisions regarding what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is going to do it
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Organizing
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-The organizational structure that determines the lines of authority, channels of communication, and where decisions are made.
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Staffing
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-The acquisition and management of adequate staff and staffing mix.
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Directing
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-The leadership role assumed by a manager that influences and motivates staff to perform assigned roles.
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Controlling
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-The evaluation of staff performance and evaluation of unit goals to ensure identified outcomes are being met.
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Followership:
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is being part of the group that is being led or managed. We are all followers at given times, but an effective follower not only contributes to the good of the team, but provides feedback to the manager or leader in order to identify problems and find solutions to them. Following is just as accountable as leading or managing.
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Leadership:
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-according to Yoder-Wise (2011), is “engaged decision making” connected to the actions used in clinical situations “for which no standardized solution exists” (p.5) -With that in mind, realize that any nurse may, in fact, be a leader. -Nurses make decisions and problem-solve issues at all levels and in all health care venues. Using one’s individual traits and personal influence to interact constructively in resolving problems is a good definition of nursing leadership. -In addition, the transformational leaders empower followers to assume responsibility for a shared goal or vision, and personal development is a secondary outcome. The transactional leaders focus on immediate problems, maintaining the status quo and using rewards to motivate followers.
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Complexity of care: Are complex tasks required as a part of the client’s care?
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Is the delegatee legally able to perform the task and does he have the skills necessary?
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Know key traits of leading, managing, following in nursing.
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*Effective leaders and managers must have these attributes: -Focused energy and stamina -Critical thinking skills -Responsibility and follow up, personal accountability -People skills -Trustworthiness -Ability to motivate others -Competence -Well rounded coping skills (Yoder-Wise, 2011).
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Understand why Nursing is not always viewed as a Profession and what nurses can do to change that image.
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-High intellectual level -High level of individual responsibility and accountability -Specialized body of knowledge -Knowledge that can be learned in institutions of higher education -Public service and altruistic activities -Public service valued over financial gain -Relatively high degree of autonomy and independence of practice -Need for a well-organized and strong organization representing the members of the profession and controlling the quality of practice -A code of ethics that guides the members of the profession in their practice -Strong professional identity and commitment to the development of the profession -Demonstration of professional competency and possession of a legally recognized license
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Be able to explain Emotional Intelligence and its impact on nursing decisions. (ATI)
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-Insight into emotions of members of the team -Understands perspectives of others -Encourages constructive criticism -Is open to new ideas -Able to focus while multi-tasking -Manages emotions and channels them into positive direction -Committed to the delivery of high level of care -Refrains from judgment in controversial and emotionally charged situations until facts are gathered -Emotional intelligence is developed through understanding the concept and applying it to practice in everyday situations
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Autonomy:
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ability of client to make personal decisions – even when those decisions may not be in client’s best interest
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Beneficence:
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the care that is in the best interest of the client
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Nonmaleficence:
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the nurse’s obligation to avoid causing injury
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Veracity:
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the nurse’s duty to tell the truth
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Justice:
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fair treatment in matters related to physical and psychosocial care and use of resources
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Paternalism:
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wherein providers confer a treatment or service upon a person or persons without their consent, ostensibly by reason of their limited autonomy or diminished capacity, are widespread in healthcare
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Fidelity:
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keeping one’s promise to the client about care that was offered
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Respect for others
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The highest ethical principle, respect for others acknowledges the right of individuals to make decisions and to live by those decisions.
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Know the difference between Quality Improvement and Quality Management.
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Quality improvement (performance improvement, quality control) is the process used to identify and resolve performance deficiencies. Quality improvement includes measuring performance against a set of predetermined standards.
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What is nursing’s role in both? The Nurse’s Role in Quality Improvement
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-Serve as unit representative on committees developing policies and procedures. Use reliable resources for information (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, professional journals,evidenced-based research). -Enhance knowledge and understanding of the facility’s policies and procedures. -Provide client care consistent with these policies and procedures. -Document client care thoroughly and according to facility guidelines. -Participate in the collection of information/data related to staff’s adherence to selected policy or procedure. -Assist with analysis of the information/data. -Compare results with the established benchmark. -Make a judgment about performance in regard to the findings. -Assist with provision of education or training necessary to improve the performance of staff. -Act as a role model by practicing in accordance with the established standard. -Assist with re-evaluation of staff performance by collection of information/data at a specified time.
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How are QI measures impacted by Economics?
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Resource management includes budgeting and resource allocation. Human, financial, and materialresources must be considered. -Budgeting is usually the responsibility of the unit manager, but staff nurses may be asked to provide input. -Resource allocation is a responsibility of the unit manager as well as every practicing nurse. -Providing cost-effective client care should not compromise quality of care. **Resources (supplies, equipment, personnel) are critical to accomplishing the goals and objectives of a health care facility, so it is essential for nurses to understand how to effectively manage resources. -Financial thinking skills are the cornerstone of cost-conscious nursing practice and are essential for all nurses. Nurses must also determine whether the services they provide add value for patients. Services that add value are of high quality, positively affect health outcomes, and minimize costs. -Understanding what constitutes profit and why organizations must make a profit to survive is basic to financial thinking. Knowing what is included in operating, capital, and cash budgets; how they interrelate; and how they are developed, monitored, and controlled is also important. Considering the ethical implications of financial decisions and collectively managing the cost-care dilemma are imperative for cost-conscious nursing practice.
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What is the role of Risk Management? What should nurses do if an error is encountered?
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Risk management is a process that identifies, analyzes, and treats potential hazards within a given setting. The object of risk management is to identify potential hazards and eliminate them before anyone is harmed or disabled. Risk management activities include writing policies and procedures. Written policies and procedures are a requirement of TJC. These documents set standards of care for the institution and direct practice. They must be clearly stated, well delineated, and based on current practice. -Nurse managers should review the policies and procedures frequently for compliance and timeliness. If policies are absent or outdated, the nurse manager must request the appropriate person or committee to either initiate or update the policy.

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