REVOLUTIONARY WAR study guide and answers

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
a war in North America between France and Britain

Why did the Indians fight on the side of the french for the most part?
Because The French and Indians were both nomadic and The Indians knew the French wouldn’t settle on their land

Area fighting over
The Ohio River Valley

George Washington
a Major sent by Virginia’s governor to evict the French from Fort Duquesne

The Death Of General Wolfe
A 1771 painting by Benjamin West depicting the final moments of British General James Wolfe during the 1759 Battle of Quebec

Treaty of Paris
The war officially came to an end in 1763 with the signing of the TReaty of Paris. France officially ceded all of its holdings in North America west of the Mississippi River

REVOLUTIONARY WAR
American colonists’ war of independence from Britain, fought from 1775-1783.

Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

colonists
A settler in an area under full or partial control by another country

Patriots
American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War

Loyalists/Tories
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

Redcoats/Lobster backs
British Soldiers fighting during the Revolutionary War

Why Britain starts taxing colonists
British starts to tax because they had to make up for the cost of keeping a permanent army in North America to protect colonists

Slogan of the colonists concerning taxes
TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION

Samuel Adams and Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams was the leader and founder of the Committees of Correspondence, which was a group of Patriots that shared idea and opinions between colonies

Boycott
a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

Stamp Act
1765- an official stamp you purchase when buying newspapers, documents, cards, etc.

Sons of LIberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest

Declaratory Act
1766- Great Britain declares that they have power to make laws for colonists

Townshend Acts
1767-tax on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea

Daughters of Liberty
An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers

Tea Act
1773- allowed British East India Company to sell directly to colonists making it cheaper and they think it will break the boycott

Boston Massacre-5 March 1770
A lone British soldier standing guard had an argument with a colonist and struck him. A crowd gathered around the soldier, throwing snowballs and shouting insults. Soon a small number of troops arrived. The crowd grew louder and angrier by the moment. Some yelled, “Come on you rascals…Fire if you dare!” Suddenly, the soldiers fired into the crowd, instantly killing three men, including sailor Crispus Attucks. “Half Indian, half negro, and altogether rowdy,” as he was called

Paul Revere’s Engraving
A colored print of The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street

Crispus Attucks
A free African American sailor who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.

John Adams
The lawyer for the 3 men who were accused of murder during the Boston Massacre. He wanted to defend them because he thought they were just using self defense

Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped 340 chests of tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts
1. Boston HArbor closed until Boston payed for ruined tea
2. Massachusetts legislature couldn’t meet without permission from Governor
3. Royal Officials accused of crime were sent back to Great Britain
4. Colonists were forced to house British Troops
5. Gave lots of land to colony of Quebec
6. General Thomas Gage became new governor of MA

First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

KIng George III
King of England during the American Revolution

“Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
John Parker said “Don’t shoot unless fired upon at Lexington.” A shot rang out and no one knew who fired it. Marks the beginning of the Revolutionary War.

minutemen
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds

Battles at Lexington and Concord
The Battle that marked the beginning of the Revolutionary War. The battle at Lexington only lasted a few minutes, in which the “shot heard ’round the world” took place. After this the British marched to Concord but Samuel Prescott had warned citizens and minutemen charged. The british were forced to retreat to Boston.

Second Continental Congress
May 1775-They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Continental Army
the American army during the American Revolution

Battle of Breed’s/ Bunker Hill
(1775) a Revolutionary War battle in Boston that demonstrated that the colonists could fight well against the British army. The British won but the had to fight uphill.

Benedict Arnold
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.

Fort Ticonderoga
Fort on Lake Champlain in northeastern New York, site of major battles in the American Revolution. Captured by American troops from the British in 1775.

Common Sense
(1776) a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

E pluribus unum
national motto of the USA; “out of many, one”

Declaration of Independence- 4 July 1776
The document written by Thomas Jefferson that officially announced the freedom of America

Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

John Hancock
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress

Name at least five complaints against the King
1- imposing taxes
2- quartering troops with us
3- cutting off all trade with all parts of the world
4- denied access to trial by jury
5- for transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses

Benjamin Franklin
A patriot who went to France to persuade the French to help fight the British with him. He was able to get an alliance with the French.

Who was left out of “equal rights?”
Women, African Americans and Native Americans

Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.

Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist’s fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809). Wrote Common Sense and The Crisis.

Problems with recruiting soldiers
During the winter, They were nervous because they were losing and all soldiers terms were about to end and they did not like the harsh conditions.

Hessians
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.

Mercenaries
A soldier who fights for any country or group that will pay him. used by the British in the Revolutionary War

Strengths and weaknesses of each army
AMERICAN ADVANTAGES
-had help from europe
-minutemen
-George Washington
-homeland
AMERICAN DISADVANTAGES
-underdogs
-have small/no navy
– no established government
– not well trained
BRITISH ADVANTAGES
– way bigger
-large/powerful navy
-more supplies and money
-chain of command
BRITISH DISADVANTAGES
-delayed supplies, news and orders for 2-3 weeks
– start off overly confident
-fighting on foreign land
-only 20-30% of americans were loyalists

Mary Ludwig Hays
the wife of a soldier, she earned this nickname “Molly Pitcher” by carring pitchers of water to soldiers. When her husband was wounded, she took his place firing a cannon

The Crisis
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine during the darkest days of the Revolution for the Patriots that spurred them to keep fighting. “The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot…”

Battle of Trenton and Battle of Princeton
(1776-1777) After New York was captured, Washington had fled to Pennsylvania.. He recrossed the Delaware River and won these two victories, which made it clear the war would continue.

Crossing the Delaware
a surprise attack on a fort occupied by Hessiam mercenaries fighting for the British. This victory proved Washongton’s army could fight as well as an experienced European army.

Battle of Saratoga-
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834). He was a successful sailor and stole many supply ships from the British.

Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Prussian soldier who helped train American forces at Valley Forge in the American Revolutionary War.

Bernardo de Galvez
governor of Spanish Louisiana, favored the Patriots, secretly supplied goods to Americans-southwestern frontier in The Revolutionary War

Winter at Valley Forge
Washington and troops were low on supplies, food, and clothing. Because it was a harsh winter, 1/5 of soldiers died.

John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America’s ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.

Serapis and Bonhomme Richard
SERAPIS-Boat during the Revolutionary War captured by Patriots from the British and then given to the French
BONHOMME RICHARD-

George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America

War in South
The northern colonies, with their ragged, scrappy fighters, proved to be tough to tame. So the British switched strategies and set their sights on the South.
The British hoped to find support from the large Loyalist populations living in Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia. As they moved across the South, the British also planned to free enslaved Africans and enlist them as British soldiers. Under the leadership of a new commander, General Henry Clinton, the strategy paid off—for a while.

Nathanael Greene
American general of Rhode Island, helped to turn the tide against Cornwallis and his British army, used geography of land

Francis Marion
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the “Swamp Fox” for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.

Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780. KNown for performance at Battle of Yorktown.

Charles Cornwallis
Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.

Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.