Review: Principles of Ecology – Food Chains

community
A group of living things of one or more different kinds. Plants and animals that live in the same habitat because they have similar needs for water, light, heat, soil, and other environmental factors.
concept
A thought or idea.
ecologist
A scientist who studies the relationships of living things to each other and to their environment.
ecology
The knowledge or life science that studies how living things depend on each other and their environment – the relationships of an organism with its total environment.
ecosystem
The basic relationships that show how a community of plants, animals, and bacteria live and grow;and how these living things are dependent on each other as well as the sun, soil, and other nonliving parts of their environment; a cycle of relationships; A framework which attempts to show the interrelationships of plants, animals, and the environment in a defined area
energy
The ability to do work.
environment
The total surroundings or all the conditions that affect the life and growth of living things.
interrelationship
A mutual dependency, connection, or interaction; a mutual relationship.
organism
A self-reproducing plant or animal.
principle
A scientific statement that explains a concept, action, or effect; how a concept works.
relationship
In ecology, the ways living things depend on each other and their environment.
resource
A part of the environment that may be used for aid or assistance in meeting a need. Examples are water, forests, minerals, and petroleum.
Ecology is the study of the differences between plants and animals in their environment.
True or False
False
Name the main components of an ecosystem.
1. sun
2. soil
3. water
4. climate
5. plants
6. herbivores
7. carnivores
8. decomposers
Interrelationship implies a(n) _________ reliance.
reciprocal
It is now understood that life requires a simultaneous coexistence of numerous interdependent cycles. This fact essentially precludes _________ processes.
evolutionary
What part of the ecosystem could not survive without the other components?
carnivores
Cycles in an environment, like the cycles of the seasons, have been designed and controlled by _________.
God
Each component of an ecosystem is:
interdependent
An ecosystem may consist of more than one _________ in a defined locale.
community
The basic materials of which all living things are formed are _________ substances.
nonliving
Sort in order from beginning of ecosystem:
1. sun
2. soil, water, and climate
3. green plants
4. herbivorous animals
5. carnivorous animals
6. decomposers
Ecology is made up of:
many sciences
The process of decomposition commonly releases into the environment:
nitrogen and carbon
The word ecology comes from Greek words meaning:
study of houses
Any given ecosystem will right itself given sufficient time, including all living and nonliving things affected by it.
True or False
False
All living things affect all other living things.
True or False
True
The relationships between organisms and their environment are peripheral.
True or False
False
Everything living and nonliving are connected to everything else.
True or False
True
Ecological systems can never be adequately understood.
True or False
False
environmental factor
A condition or conditions of the nonliving surroundings, such as light, temperature, water, and so on.
habitat
The place where a community of plants and animals lives; the place where some organism is usually found.
Name from the following all the environmental factors upon which plants and animals depend.
1. light
2. air
3. minerals
4. temperature
5. growing seasons
6. bacteria
7. surface features
8. water
9. elevation
The building blocks of a habitat consist of _________ factors.
environmental
The environmental factors of a habitat are bounded by the _________ of conditions which an organism can tolerate.
extreme
Disturbance of the natural environment often produces _________ results.
unexpected
For a desert habitat, choose a + for high, a – for low, or an A for average or variable to represent the characteristic of the given environmental factors.
light +
temperature +
water –
oxygen A
elevation A
For a high mountain habitat, choose a + for high, or a – for low, or an A for average or variable to represent the characteristic of the given environmental factors.
light +
temperature –
water +
oxygen –
elevation +
A habitat is best described as:
the place where organisms live
Some environmental factors are studied by the use of:
space satellites
A habitat that has less oxygen and less air pressure than many organisms require would be a:
high mountaintop
dynamic equilibrium
A state of change in which the end result is equal or balanced.
food chain
A series of food energy steps from plants to animals to other animals in a community of living things. Food relationships show where organisms get their food; each member on the chain feeds on the preceding chain link.
photosynthesis
Putting together food molecules from chlorophyll and the light energy from the sun.
phytoplankton
The tiny, free-floating plants in a lake or ocean; microscopic green algae.
plankton
The tiny, free-floating surface organisms of a lake, stream, or ocean.
zooplankton
The tiny, free-floating animals in a lake, stream, or ocean; rotifers, brine shrimp, and water fleas.
All forms of life on earth are linked together in relationships involving _____.
food
The location of the Earth and its quantity of solar radiation has permitted the unique presence of _________ in the solar system.
liquid water
The complex process of photosynthesis is responsible for:
1. converting energy to basic food
2. maintaining the food chain
3. supplying energy to man
Man’s physiology is capable of converting solar energy to meet his needs.
True or False
False
How do phytoplankton affect the ecosystem of the entire earth?
through the oxygen cycle
What is meant by “solar radiation equilibrium” in the related ecology principle?
the ecosystem of the earth is maintained by the constant heating of the planet
“For by him were all things created” refers to the person of _________.
Jesus Christ
The first link in any food chain is always a(n) _________.
plant
The most important food-producing organisms of the ocean are _________.
phytoplankton
Name the food chain in order from the beginning of the process:
1. Plants
2. Minnow
3. Bass
4. Man
Which answer best indicates the dynamic balance of an ecosystem?
number and variety of organisms vs. changing environment
Which statements reflect dynamic equilibrium of an ecosystem?
1. number of existing organisms will reflect changing factors
2. any change on either side will require a compensation on the other side
A balanced ecosystem cannot change.
True or False
False
Introducing additional organisms of the same existing kinds will not upset the ecosystem.
True or False
False
Removing plants or animals from their ecosystem:
1. will upset the dynamic balance permanently
2. requires knowledge to determine the extent of the effect
3. needs to be conducted in small increments to determine the potential effects
Ecosystems which are left to the natural state tend to remain balanced.
True or False
True
Natural catastrophes can upset the balance of an ecosystem.
True or False
True
Which ecosystem is the most resistant to permanent change?
diverse organisms in a large region
Ecology is concerned with relationships.
True or False
True
Good management practices are based on politics and economics.
True or False
False
Air, water, and soil are essential environmental factors.
True or False
True
Not having enough space can upset the balance of nature.
True or False
True
A small upset in the balance always results in the death of a whole community.
True or False
False
Examples of good management to maintain or restore the balance of nature are:
1. adjust living things to the environment
2. duplicate natural processes of the environment.
3. introduce new substances or species if another alternative is suitable.