Review: Principles of Ecology – Food Chains

community
A group of living things of one or more different kinds. Plants and animals that live in the same habitat because they have similar needs for water, light, heat, soil, and other environmental factors.

concept
A thought or idea.

ecologist
A scientist who studies the relationships of living things to each other and to their environment.

ecology
The knowledge or life science that studies how living things depend on each other and their environment – the relationships of an organism with its total environment.

ecosystem
The basic relationships that show how a community of plants, animals, and bacteria live and grow;and how these living things are dependent on each other as well as the sun, soil, and other nonliving parts of their environment; a cycle of relationships; A framework which attempts to show the interrelationships of plants, animals, and the environment in a defined area

energy
The ability to do work.

environment
The total surroundings or all the conditions that affect the life and growth of living things.

interrelationship
A mutual dependency, connection, or interaction; a mutual relationship.

organism
A self-reproducing plant or animal.

principle
A scientific statement that explains a concept, action, or effect; how a concept works.

relationship
In ecology, the ways living things depend on each other and their environment.

resource
A part of the environment that may be used for aid or assistance in meeting a need. Examples are water, forests, minerals, and petroleum.

Ecology is the study of the differences between plants and animals in their environment.
True or False
False

Name the main components of an ecosystem.
1. sun
2. soil
3. water
4. climate
5. plants
6. herbivores
7. carnivores
8. decomposers

Interrelationship implies a(n) _________ reliance.
reciprocal

It is now understood that life requires a simultaneous coexistence of numerous interdependent cycles. This fact essentially precludes _________ processes.
evolutionary

What part of the ecosystem could not survive without the other components?
carnivores

Cycles in an environment, like the cycles of the seasons, have been designed and controlled by _________.
God

Each component of an ecosystem is:
interdependent

An ecosystem may consist of more than one _________ in a defined locale.
community

The basic materials of which all living things are formed are _________ substances.
nonliving

Sort in order from beginning of ecosystem:
1. sun
2. soil, water, and climate
3. green plants
4. herbivorous animals
5. carnivorous animals
6. decomposers

Ecology is made up of:
many sciences

The process of decomposition commonly releases into the environment:
nitrogen and carbon

The word ecology comes from Greek words meaning:
study of houses

Any given ecosystem will right itself given sufficient time, including all living and nonliving things affected by it.
True or False
False

All living things affect all other living things.
True or False
True

The relationships between organisms and their environment are peripheral.
True or False
False

Everything living and nonliving are connected to everything else.
True or False
True

Ecological systems can never be adequately understood.
True or False
False

environmental factor
A condition or conditions of the nonliving surroundings, such as light, temperature, water, and so on.

habitat
The place where a community of plants and animals lives; the place where some organism is usually found.

Name from the following all the environmental factors upon which plants and animals depend.
1. light
2. air
3. minerals
4. temperature
5. growing seasons
6. bacteria
7. surface features
8. water
9. elevation

The building blocks of a habitat consist of _________ factors.
environmental

The environmental factors of a habitat are bounded by the _________ of conditions which an organism can tolerate.
extreme

Disturbance of the natural environment often produces _________ results.
unexpected

For a desert habitat, choose a + for high, a – for low, or an A for average or variable to represent the characteristic of the given environmental factors.
light +
temperature +
water –
oxygen A
elevation A

For a high mountain habitat, choose a + for high, or a – for low, or an A for average or variable to represent the characteristic of the given environmental factors.
light +
temperature –
water +
oxygen –
elevation +

A habitat is best described as:
the place where organisms live

Some environmental factors are studied by the use of:
space satellites

A habitat that has less oxygen and less air pressure than many organisms require would be a:
high mountaintop

dynamic equilibrium
A state of change in which the end result is equal or balanced.

food chain
A series of food energy steps from plants to animals to other animals in a community of living things. Food relationships show where organisms get their food; each member on the chain feeds on the preceding chain link.

photosynthesis
Putting together food molecules from chlorophyll and the light energy from the sun.

phytoplankton
The tiny, free-floating plants in a lake or ocean; microscopic green algae.

plankton
The tiny, free-floating surface organisms of a lake, stream, or ocean.

zooplankton
The tiny, free-floating animals in a lake, stream, or ocean; rotifers, brine shrimp, and water fleas.

All forms of life on earth are linked together in relationships involving _____.
food

The location of the Earth and its quantity of solar radiation has permitted the unique presence of _________ in the solar system.
liquid water

The complex process of photosynthesis is responsible for:
1. converting energy to basic food
2. maintaining the food chain
3. supplying energy to man

Man’s physiology is capable of converting solar energy to meet his needs.
True or False
False

How do phytoplankton affect the ecosystem of the entire earth?
through the oxygen cycle

What is meant by “solar radiation equilibrium” in the related ecology principle?
the ecosystem of the earth is maintained by the constant heating of the planet

“For by him were all things created” refers to the person of _________.
Jesus Christ

The first link in any food chain is always a(n) _________.
plant

The most important food-producing organisms of the ocean are _________.
phytoplankton

Name the food chain in order from the beginning of the process:
1. Plants
2. Minnow
3. Bass
4. Man

Which answer best indicates the dynamic balance of an ecosystem?
number and variety of organisms vs. changing environment

Which statements reflect dynamic equilibrium of an ecosystem?
1. number of existing organisms will reflect changing factors
2. any change on either side will require a compensation on the other side

A balanced ecosystem cannot change.
True or False
False

Introducing additional organisms of the same existing kinds will not upset the ecosystem.
True or False
False

Removing plants or animals from their ecosystem:
1. will upset the dynamic balance permanently
2. requires knowledge to determine the extent of the effect
3. needs to be conducted in small increments to determine the potential effects

Ecosystems which are left to the natural state tend to remain balanced.
True or False
True

Natural catastrophes can upset the balance of an ecosystem.
True or False
True

Which ecosystem is the most resistant to permanent change?
diverse organisms in a large region

Ecology is concerned with relationships.
True or False
True

Good management practices are based on politics and economics.
True or False
False

Air, water, and soil are essential environmental factors.
True or False
True

Not having enough space can upset the balance of nature.
True or False
True

A small upset in the balance always results in the death of a whole community.
True or False
False

Examples of good management to maintain or restore the balance of nature are:
1. adjust living things to the environment
2. duplicate natural processes of the environment.
3. introduce new substances or species if another alternative is suitable.

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