Research Methods Ch. 5

question

Snowball sampling would be an effective strategy for a researcher to use if a researcher was interested in studying a population of gang members.
answer

True
question

Periodicity is a source of sampling error in most non-probability sampling.
answer

FALSE
question

Findings based on a sample can be taken as representing the elements that compose the sampling frame.
answer

True
question

Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample:
answer

generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variable
question

Which of the following is a common problem that can bias what appears to be a random sample?
answer

Both a and c (an incomplete sampling frame and non-responsiveness)
question

When all elements in a population are identical:
answer

sampling is unecessary
question

The individual members of the population whose characteristics are to be measured are known as:
answer

elements
question

A researcher studying small town religiosity in the United States randomly selected ten states. From these states, he randomly selected one tenth of all counties. From these counties, he randomly selected one tenth of cities with populations smaller than 10,000. From these towns, he obtained lists of all houses of worship and randomly selected three. From these, he selected ten practitioners to be interviewed. In this example, which is not a cluster?
answer

practitioners
question

The population is the entire set of individuals or other entities to which study findings are to be generalized.
answer

true
question

Another name for convenience sampling is:
answer

availability sampling
question

A subset of the population used to study the population as a whole is known as a(n):
answer

sample
question

In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures.
answer

true
question

In a census, the probability of selection is always less than 1.0.
answer

FALSE
question

Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in:
answer

systematic sampling
question

Field researchers are often interested in studying deviant cases in order to improve their understanding of the more typical pattern.
answer

true
question

In terms of probability theory, the standard error is valuable because:
answer

it indicates the extent to which the sample estimates will be distributed around the population parameter
question

Dr. Smith is instructing his graduate students to put together a sample for an upcoming research study of college students. The graduate students were asked to stand outside of the student union to solicit participants, finding 50 freshmen, 50 sophomore, 50 juniors, and 50 seniors. What sort of sampling method is being used?
answer

quota sampling
question

A study population is:
answer

that aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected
question

A researcher gets a list of all 500 members of Social Club Z that she wants to include in her study. She only has the funding and time to survey 50 members. She takes her list of members, randomly selects a starting point, and then selects every tenth name from the list to be included in her sample. In this example, the sampling interval is:
answer

10
question

As the size of the sample goes up:
answer

so does confidence in its representativeness of the sample
question

A researcher who uses a list of registered voters as a sampling frame, and selects every 5th person on the randomized list is engaging in what kind of sampling?
answer

systematic
question

The individual members of the population whose characteristics are to be measured are called the sample.
answer

FALSE
question

Non-probability sampling:
answer

denies the researcher the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences
question

Field researchers are often interested in studying deviant cases in order to improve their understanding of the more typical pattern
answer

true
question

Cluster sampling is a type of sampling in which elements are selected in two or more stages, with the first stage being random selection of naturally occurring clusters.
answer

true
question

Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because:
answer

the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated
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Which of the following is false about a random probability sample?
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elements are chosen haphazardly
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A target population refers to a set of elements larger than or different from the population sampled and to which the researcher would like to generalize study findings.
answer

true
question

Drawing a judgmental sample:
answer

allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the population
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Stratification represents a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.
answer

true
question

A confidence interval at the 68% confidence level will be larger than one constructed at the 95% confidence level.
answer

FALSE
question

If a population were perfectly homogeneous, a single case could represent the entire population.
answer

true
question

In purposive sampling, interviews should continue until a saturation point is reached.
answer

true
question

Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.
answer

true
question

When cases are chosen not to represent the population but because of an interesting outcome, we refer to this as sampling the independent variable
answer

FALSE
question

Simple random sampling is the most effective way to further understand uncommon populations
answer

true

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