Research Methods 1 Test One

A psychologist from the _____ research area might study brain organization or the chemical messengers used in the nervous system.
psychobiology

A psychologist from the _____ research area might study how humans process, store, and retrieve information.
cognition

A psychologist from the _____ research area might conduct research on prenatal development or gerontology.
human development

Psychologists interested in how being part of a group affects the individual are most likely from the _____ research area.
social psychology

A psychologist studying whether therapy is really effective in helping people is most likely from the _____ research area.
social psychology

A belief that is based on subjective feelings is to knowing via _____ as gaining knowledge without being consciously aware of where the knowledge was gained is to knowing via _____.
superstition; intuition

Gaining knowledge from those viewed as authority figures is to knowledge via _____ as stubbornly clinging to knowledge gained from repeated ideas is to knowledge via _____.
authority; tenacity

Gaining knowledge through logical reasoning is to knowledge via _____ as gaining knowledge through observation of organisms and events in the real world is to knowledge via _____.
rationalism; empiricism

Gaining knowledge via science involves using _____ and _____.
empiricism; rationalism

Mike pitched a great game on Saturday and he believes that it is because he wore his lucky socks. He has now decided that he will wear these socks for every game of the season because he believes that they will make him lucky. This belief is based on _____.
superstition

Hypothesis is to _____ as theory is to _____.
a prediction regarding the outcome of a study; an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain certain phenomena and how they are related

An event or behavior that has at least two values is
a variable.

Although Mulder believes in the paranormal, Scully questions the validity of such beliefs because she is a
skeptic.

The scientific approach involves using
systematic empiricism, public verification, and solvable problems.

The idea that a scientific theory must be stated in such a way that it is possible to refute or disconfirm it is known as the principle of
falsifiability

Making observations in a systematic manner to test hypotheses and refute or develop a theory is known as
systematic empiricism.

Questions that are potentially answerable by means of currently available research techniques are known as
solvable problems.

Presenting research so that it can be observed, replicated, criticized, and tested is known as
public verification.

_____ often violates _____.
Pseudoscience; the principle of falsifiability

The three goals of science are to
describe, predict, and research.

When we identify factors that indicate when an event or events will occur, we have used
prediction.

Identifying the causes that determine when and why a behavior occurs involves using
explanation.

Research on the treatment of AIDS is to _____ research as research on the differences between short-term memory and long-term memory is to _____ research.
applied; basic

When Stella finishes graduate school, she wants to conduct research that can be used immediately in order to improve the lives of others. Stella is most interested in _____ research.
applied

As a researcher, Ray is simply interested in finding answers to the questions he poses. Ray is most interested in _____ research.
basic

Because Jim was interested in the nest building behavior of wrens, he went into the field to observe them. Jim was using the _____ method of research.
naturalistic observational

Observing the behavior of humans or other animals in a contrived and controlled situation involves using the _____ method.
laboratory observational

An in-depth study of one or more individuals is
a case study.

Questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses is to the _____ method as an in-depth study of one or more individuals is to the _____ method.
survey; case study

A method that assesses the degree of relationship between two variables is the _____ method.
correlational

The group of people who participate in the study is to _____ as all of the people about whom a study is meant to generalize are to _____.
sample; population

Increasing or decreasing together is to _____ as moving in an opposite direction is to _____.
positive correlation; negative correlation

Which of the following is a participant (subject) variable?
gender

If a researcher assigns participants to groups based on, for example, their gender, the researcher would be employing
a manipulated independent variable.

If a researcher assigns participants to groups based on, for example, their gender, the researcher would be employing
a manipulated independent variable.

In order to discover the extent to which education can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to engage in
correlational research.

Manipulated independent variable is to nonmanipulated independent variable as _____ method is to _____ method.
experimental; quasi-experimental

In an experimental study of the effects of practice on reaction time, practice would be the
independent variable.

If participants are randomly assigned to conditions, then _____ research is being conducted.
dependent variable.

The group of participants that serves as the baseline in a study is to _____ group as the group of participants that receives some level of treatment is to _____ group.
control; experimental

In a study on the effects of sleep on driving performance, sleep would be the
independent variable.

In a study on the effects of sleep on driving performance, driving performance would be the
dependent variable.

Manipulate is to measure as _____ is to _____.
independent variable; dependent variable

Independent variable is to dependent variable as _____ is to _____.
controlled; uncontrolled

Descriptive methods include
observational, case study, and survey methods.

Random assignment is used exclusively in the _____ method.
experimental

_____ allows you to research by topic whereas _____ allows you to work from a given article.
PsycINFO; the SSCI

_____ is an online database that provides full-text articles from many psychology journals.
PsycArticles

_____ is an online database that searches both scholarly journals and popular media sources.
ProQuest

_____ is a clearinghouse for research on educational psychology, testing, counseling, child development, evaluation research, and related areas.
ERIC

_____ is a resource that allows you to search for subsequent articles from the social and behavioral sciences that have cited a key article.
SSCI

_____ is a resource that allows you to search for subsequent articles from disciplines such as biology, chemistry, or medicine that have cited a key article.
SCI

Which of the following represents the correct order for the sections in an APA format paper?
Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion

The _____ section provides an introduction to the problem, a review of previous research, and the rationale for the current study.
Introduction

The _____ section describes exactly how the study was conducted in sufficient detail that a person who read it could replicate the study.
Method

A review of previous research is to the _____ section as describing how the study was conducted is to the _____ section.
Introduction; Method

The _____ section is a very brief description of the entire paper.
Abstract

A very brief description of the entire paper is to the _____ section as a review of previous research is to the _____ section.
Abstract; Introduction

The _____ section summarizes the data collected and the type of statistics used to analyze the data.
Results

A summary of the data collected and the type of statistics used to analyze the data is to the _____ section as a very brief description of the entire paper is to the _____ section.
Results; Abstract

In the _____ section, the results are evaluated, interpreted, and related to past research and theories.
Discussion

An evaluation and interpretation of the results is to the _____ section as describing how the study was conducted is to the _____ section.
Discussion; Method

When Milgram informed the participants in his study that it was on learning and memory, rather than obedience, he utilized
deception.

If a researcher told participants that her study was about visual perception rather than what it is really on, conformity, she would be utilizing:
Deception

The Tuskegee syphilis study is the most glaring example of failure to
obtain informed consent.

__________ refers to explaining the purpose of a study to participants after completion of data collection.
Debriefing

_____refers to explaining the purpose of a study to participants after completion of data collection, and _____ refers to not telling the participants the truth about the purpose of the study.
Debriefing; deception

To ensure ethical standards, research proposals are typically reviewed by
an institutional review board.

An _____ helps to determine whether participants are _____ or _____.
IRB; at risk; at minimal risk

A committee charged with evaluating research projects in which human participants are used is a(n)
Institutional Review Board.

A form given to individuals before they participate in a study to inform them of the general nature of the study and to obtain their consent to participate is a(n)
Informed Consent Form.

Providing information about the true purpose of a study as soon after the completion of data collection as possible is referred to as
debriefing.

_____ risk research is defined as research involving no more risk than that encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests.
Minimal

If confidentiality is compromised, then human participants
are at risk and should not be used in the study.

When children are used as research participants
informed consent must be obtained from the parents or legal guardians.

The APA guidelines address several issues with respect to animal welfare. These include all of the following EXCEPT
the animals may be acquired from any source.

Which of the following represents the best operational definition of hunger?
All of the options are equally good.

A definition of a variable in terms of the activities a researcher uses to measure or manipulate it is a(n)
operational definition.

A property of measurement in which objects that are different receive different scores is
identity.

A property of measurement in which the ordering of numbers reflects the ordering of the variable is
magnitude.

A property of measurement in which a difference of 1 is the same amount throughout the entire scale is
equal unit size.

A property of measurement in which assigning a score of zero indicates an absence of the variable being measured is
absolute zero.

Political affiliation is to the _____ property of measurement and length measured in inches is to the _____ property of measurement.
identity; absolute zero

Arranging a group of individuals from tallest to shortest represents the _____ property of measurement.
magnitude

Number on a football jersey is to the _____ scale of measurement and temperature measured on the Fahrenheit scale is to the _____ scale of measurement.
nominal; interval

Class rank is to the _____ scale of measurement and weight is to the _____ scale of measurement.
ordinal; ratio

Which of the following represents data arranged on an interval-ratio scale?
ranking of contestants in a beauty contest

Time is to the _____ scale of measurement as ethnicity is to the _____ scale of measurement.
interval; nominal

A scale of measurement in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties is a(n) _____ scale.
nominal

A scale of measurement in which objects or individuals are categorized and the categories form a rank order along a continuum is a(n) _____ scale.
ordinal

A scale of measurement in which the units of measurement between the numbers on the scale are all equal in size is a(n) _____ scale.
interval

A scale of measurement in which, in addition to order and equal units of measurement, there is an absolute zero that indicates an absence of the variable being measured is a(n) _____ scale.
ratio

Discrete variables are to _____ and continuous variables are to _____.
whole units and usually nominal and ordinal scales; whole units and/or fractional amounts and usually interval and ratio scales

Which of the following is NOT a type of measure?
an operational definition

Which of the following is NOT a type of self-report measure?
physical self-report measure

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
All of these statements are true.

Which of the following is TRUE?
Behavioral self-report measures ask people to report how often they do something.

Sara decided to have participants in her study of the relationship between diet and weight keep a journal of everything they ate each day. The type of measurement that Sara is employing is known as a(n)
behavioral self-report measure.

A blood pressure reading is to a _____ measure as observing how many patrons in a fast food restaurant take advantage of free drink refills is to a ______ measure.
physical; behavioral

_____ is an indication of the consistency or stability of a measuring instrument.
Reliability

An observed score is comprised of the
true score + measurement error (method error + trait error).

Correlation coefficients can vary between
-1.00 and +1.00.

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?
+.10

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the strongest degree of relationship?
-1.00

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the highest (best) reliability score?
-.89

A direct relationship between two variables in which an increase in one is related to an increase in the other, and a decrease in one is related to a decrease in the other is
a positive correlation.

An inverse relationship between two variables in which an increase in one variable is related to a decrease in the other, and vice versa is
a negative correlation.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Test/retest reliability is determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on the same test, administered on two different occasions.

If observers agree 40 times out of 60, then the interrater reliability is
.67

If observers disagree 20 times out of 80, then the interrater reliability is
.75

Which of the following is not a type of reliability?
criterion reliability

Stability over time is to _____ reliability and equivalency of items is to _____ reliability.
test/retest; split-half

_____ reliability is determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on the same test administered on two different occasions.
Test/retest

_____ reliability is determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on two equivalent tests.
Alternate-forms

_____ reliability is determined by correlating scores on one half of a measure with scores on the other half of the measure.
Split-half

_____ reliability assesses the agreement of observations made by two or more raters or judges.
Interrater

Which of the following is not a type of validity?
split-half validity

Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Face validity is a measure of the truthfulness of a measuring instrument.

Truthfulness is to _____ as consistency is to _____.
validity; reliability

When applying for a part-time job at the local supermarket Bob was given a test to determine how well he would bag groceries. The next week Bob took the SAT in order to satisfy a college admissions requirement. The test at the supermarket was a measure of _____ validity whereas the SAT was a measure of _____ validity.
concurrent; predictive

_____ validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument covers a representative sample of the domain of behaviors to be measured.
Content

_____ validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument appears valid on its surface.
Face

_____ validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately predicts behavior or ability in a given area.
Criterion

_____ validity is the degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measures a theoretical construct or trait that is it designed to measure.
Construct