Research Methodsexample Essay
In this study the researcher tries to illustrate the relationship between the levels of obesity in primary school hillier with children who participates after school sports activities. From this it is clear that this is a quantitative design study. A non-experimental research method is used to conduct this study. In this study the researcher measures two variables and assesses the correlation between the variables without making any effort to control the extraneous variables (Grantor &Forzano, 2012).
The researcher uses large number of samples to get an accurate result.
Moreover the researcher cannot manipulate the independent variable or to randomly assign the participants A research design is a work plan which includes the method of data collection, instruments employed for the study and to analyze the data to answer the question unambiguously as possible. In this study a correlation research design is appropriate as it assess the relationship between two or more variables without making a control on extraneous variables and finally correlating these variables. Here the researcher correlates childhood obesity with participation in after school sport activities.
Data Collection and Sampling Before collecting the data, sampling should be done.
This includes when, where and under what conditions the observations to be made and who will e observed (Lamar, 2002). Here the samples are primary school children. The data can be collected by measuring the participants to determine the physical characteristics, by sorting them into groups or by their response to tests and rating scales to obtain set of scores. The instruments used to collect data are standardized tests, rating scales and devices which calculate the height, weight and frequency.
Here the data can be collected from schools by obtaining the consent from school authorities and parents. The data also can be collected from school health nurses records and from parents meeting.
Survey interviews and self administered questionnaires can be used for data collection. Children’s IBM scores are to be monitored to analyze the obesity criteria students. After this measurement correlations between the variables are computed to identify the degree of relationship with the variables. Here the obesity levels of children in primary section and children who involve in sport activities after school are correlated to observe the result.
Randomly selected 30 samples that were willing to participate in the study were allotted for this study. The greater number of samples helps to generalize the findings (Karate, 2000). Data Analysis Data analysis can be done using statistical tests. It depends on the type of variables to be studied. These variables can be continuous and can change according to the test scores or in which the variables can be divided according to categories like gender, grade and all. The soft ware package Statistical processing for the social sciences (SPAS) can be used to make determine nations of relationships and displayed results of the data.
Moreover SPAS is a comprehensive, integrated software system which is used for statistical data analysis and this helps to calculate and analyses specific information from data room research studies (German, 2008). 2, Do nurses who work regular night shifts have higher levels of depression than nurses who work regular day shifts? Research Design In this study, the researcher tries to assess whether nurses who do regular night shifts have increased level of depression than nurses who work day shifts.
As this study is determined to find out the relationship between the variables, this comes under a quantitative research. Descriptive design is accurate to analyze this study because the subjects here are measured once only. Whereas, in experimental research, subjects are to be measured before ND after conducting the treatment. Here in this study the researcher establishes an association between nurses who work in night shifts and nurses who work in regular day shifts to assess the level of depression.
In a descriptive study the behavior or conditions cannot be changed and can only be measured as they are.
In the case of an experimental study, the researcher takes measurements and will try some interventions and finally taking measurements again to assess the result (Mucus, 201 1). In the case off descriptive design the researcher observe the subjects without any prevailing. Here in this study the researcher is trying to assess the level of depression of nurses who work in day and nightshirts. This study will find out the variables of interest in the subjects sample and thereafter examine the relationship between them. Hence a cross- sectional descriptive design is more accurate for this study.
A descriptive research study is a preplanned structured study and hence the information gathered is statistically inferred in a population. This study will better define an opinion, attitude or behavior of the sample over time (Menace & Mccabe, 2008). Data Collection and Sampling Data collection can be performed through survey method. By conducting interviews or questionnaires the participants answer the question. After that the researcher will describe the response given by the participants. To make the survey reliable and valid, properly constructed questions are necessary.
Questions can be open ended, closed ended, partially open ended or rating scale questions. Data also can be collected through mail or telephonic interview with the nurses who work (Menace More over certain depression scale scan is used to measure the depression rates of nurses who work in hospitals. The most commonly used is SEES;D which is a 20 item version. Here a self report of nurses is taken using a pen/paper or interview.
The responses among the nurses are taken based on the frequency of occurrence during the previous week. Here a 4-point ordinal scale is used to assess the depression rates.
It includes depression which occurs rarely or none of the time(less than 1 day, some or a little of the time (1-2 days, occasionally or a moderate amount of time (3-4 days, most or all of the time (5-7 days). The measures are easy to complete with a grade 4 reading level and it takes only 5-10 minutes to complete.
Finally the summary score is calculated. The range of scores on SEES-D-20 is 0-60 (Grove, et al 2013). Data gathering is crucial in research, in which the intended data contribute a better understanding of a theoretical framework.
Purposive sampling is a widely used informant selection tool. Purposive sampling is a non random technique and underlying theories or a set number of informants. For this study purpose purposive sampling is the best (Tonic, 2007).
Data Analysis After data collection the data must be processed and analyzed. The steps come under here are coding the interview replies and observations, data abolition and performing various statistical computations. Finally the findings should be reported to acknowledge the result (Katharine, 2006).
Comparison of two proportions, Chi-squared test or Fisher’s test can be used to analyze the data. Therefore the aim of the study is to compare the outcomes. Here in this study the researcher analyzes whether the nurses who work regular night shifts have got higher levels of depression when comparing to nurses who work regular day shifts 3.
What are the views of parents regarding the use of play therapy for children with autism? Research Design The primary purpose of a qualitative study is to investigate the phenomenon of interest for a theoretical development.
As this design is flexible the researcher can determine certain ideas, gain insight and can finally formulate a problem for future investigation. Qualitative studies are formulation or exploratory studies which are approachable by considering the attitude of the investigator and a powerful participant study (Monsoon& Van Horn, 2008). Len this study the researcher aim is to understand the views of autism children’s parents about the use of play therapy.
The goal of a qualitative descriptive duty is a comprehensive summarization of specific events in everyday terms experienced by individuals or groups of individuals.
Comparing to other qualitative designs like phenomenological, grounded and ethnographic studies, a qualitative descriptive research is seen as a categorical, opposed to non-categorical, alternative for inquiry, less interpretive and not required a conceptual or highly abstract rendering of data. A qualitative descriptive study is conducted for a naturalistic inquiry, that is to study something in its natural State within the research area. So that study variables are not reselected, variables are not manipulated and prior commitment is not done for the target phenomenon. Qualitative study sometimes resembles like grounded theory.
It happens, when examining the data a constant comparative analysis are done.
But it doesn’t produce a theory. To answer a direct question like description of a phenomenon or to understand the views of participants a qualitative descriptive design is the best choice. So that the researcher can understand the events, who were involved, what was involved and from where the things took place 2012). Data Collection and Sampling In this qualitative descriptive study a purposeful sampling technique can be used. Data collection is based on discovering the nature of specific events under study.
A focus group interview method can be used to collect information from parents regarding the views of parents on the use of play therapy for autism children.
This type of methodology suits for people who cannot easily communicate their thoughts and provide power collectively for marginalia people. In a focus group interview a 6-8 group people from same social backgrounds with similar experience or concerns are selected for his study purpose. Here for one or two hours with the help of a mentor the participants express their feelings comfortably in a particular setting.
This focus group interview does not mean to aim on consensus on the issue discussed. Whereas it gave encouragement for the participants to provide a greater understanding of the attitudes, behavior, opinions or perceptions on the research issue (Stewart,et al,201 3). Data Analysis In qualitative descriptive method, a pre existing set of rules generated from the philosophical or epistemological stance of discipline are not used.
Whereas in a qualitative descriptive research, in the course of the study, a purely data derived in that codes are generated from the data.
Thus it is characterized by simultaneous data collection and analysis. Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CASES) can be used for analyzing the data. GoFer, NUDE*SIT, Ethnographer, CODE-A-TEXT are other data analysis measures. The GoFer which is a ‘go for this and go for that programmer is suitable for analyzing and summarizing records of focus group. It is because it helps to work on numerous files of more than thousand pages simultaneously.
It also helps to operate raw text and coded text by applying logical operations of ‘and’, ‘off, or ‘nearby. It also can operate simultaneously with word processing programmer.
Therefore it makes it ideal for illustration by counting comments and locating examples (Morgan, 2013). 4. What are the views of international students of the student support services in the university of South Wales? Research Design Qualitative research is an umbrella term which seeks to describe, decode, translate and come to terms with the meaning but not with the frequency of certain naturally occurring phenomena in the social world.
Qualitative research is done to understand the meaning people have constructed. That means, making sense of the world and the experience they got in the world (Merriam, 2009).
Different methodologies are used in a qualitative study. A phenomenological study aim to understand the fundamental nature and the fundamental structure of the phenomenon.
Whereas, in a grounded theory, the study is conducted not only to understand but also to make a substantive theory about the phenomenon. In the case of an Ethnographic study, it seeks to realize the interaction of individuals with culture and society in which they live. Merriam, 2009). Here in this study the researcher aims to understand the views of international students of the student support services in the University of South Wales.