RES 5000

The first step in conducting a research study should be…
…develop a research question.
A study that simply examines differences between two or more groups is…
…causal-comparative.
A study that simply obtains information on an individual is…
…descriptive.
It is important to be able to read and understand research studies to…
…keep up with the latest developments in your professional field.
A study that collects numerical data to explain or predict is classified as which type of research?
Quantitative.
A study that compares the relationship between two variables would be…
…correlational.
A study that tries out a new treatment would be…
…experimental.
The outcome measure in a study is which type of variable?
Dependent.
One of the primary purposes of RES 5000 is to…
…be able to read, interoperate and conduct research aimed at improving your practice in your chosen profession.
Bonnie is conducting a study on the social skills of children who have identified speech and language needs. She selects children who have Individual Education plans for speech and language only and not any other education exceptionalities. Bonnie is illustrating…
…criterion sampling.
Examples of probability sampling are…
…cluster sampling, stratified sampling, and multistage sampling.
Francisco is studying young children’s color preferences by age. He is interested in comparing three, four, and five-year-old’s color preferences. He is reluctant to use simple random sampling because he wants to assure that he has comparable numbers of children at each age. Which quantitative sampling strategy is the approach for Francisco to use?
Stratified sampling.
All forms of sampling include the following steps…
…identifying the population, determining sample size, and selecting the sample.
Jody is a quantitative researcher who wants to use a random sampling technique. What is she likely to use?
Cluster sampling.
The type of random sampling that targets groups not individuals is…
…cluster.
Generally, a qualitative researcher selects a sample that is…
…selected purposefully.
If all participants in a given sample have an equal and independent chance of being selected for a study, it is said that the sample has been selected…
…randomly.
The school board asked Han to conduct a study on the attitudes of the faculty regarding a proposed uniform policy. Han stops by the teacher’s lounge and surveys the faculty present. What sampling approach did Han apply?
Convenience sampling.
Sophia needs to conduct a survey for the Alumni Association. She takes the list of all the alumni and calls every 10th person on the list. This is…
…systematic sampling.
IRB stands for…
Institutional Review Board.
The primary role of the IRB is to…
…ensure protection of research participants from harm and invasion of privacy.
Researchers seek approval from the IRB to…
…collecting research data.
Ethical considerations are involved in research studies…
…always.
In a research study, deception refers to…
…not conveying the true nature of the research study in which participants have consented.
Kyle, age 10, heard about a great research study and wants to participate. His parents do not wide him to participate and have not signed a consent form. Can Kyle participate?
No, Kyle cannot participate unless his parents consent.
The Federal Act that protects privacy of educational records is referred to as…
…The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.
The extent to which a test actually measures what it is designed to measure is referred to as…
…content validity.
Buro’s Institute of Mental Measurements Yearbooks provides…
…reviews of various forms of test.
Sal recently took an instrument that asked him to rate his opinions about the effectiveness of different instructional practices as
SA A U D SD
This instrument is using a…
…Likert Scale.
Gary is a researcher interest in self-esteem. He develops an insurgent he names the “I Am Great” questionnaire. He administers the survey and collects information for 500 middle school learners. He calculates a self-esteem score for each child in the study and then groups the students as low, medium, or high self-esteem. Gary developed an instrument of…
…affective assessment.
Age is considered a…
…ratio variable.
Some of the students in his class had to take an AP physics exam on the day is US History final was scheduled so Mike will have to administer twi different versions of his test. Which reliability construct should Mike be most concerned?
Alternate forms.
The national achievement test is an example of a…
…standardized test.
Predictive validity.
The type of validity that focuses on the extent to which the test relates to future performance.
A self-esteem measure is an example of an…
…affective measurement.
Standar error of measurement is an expression of an instrument’s…
…test-retest reliability.
The relationship between reliability and SEM is that…
…if reliability decreases, SEM increases.
You have constructed a self-report measurement of achievement motivation. You are sure that you measure is better than other measures because it is shorter than they are. You decide to administer you measure alone with a standard measure generally used in the field. Which type of validity will this strategy help you assess?
Criterion-related.
Michael left the Physics final and complained that the cumulative final only covered one fourth of the concepts for the course. Michael is questioning the…
…content validity of the test.
The degree to which an instrument consistently measures the construct of interest is referred to as…
…reliability.
Slip-half and odd-even reliability are both measures of…
…internal consistency reliability.
Are there differences in individual student achievement scores in advanced science classes where students sit in the lecture style seating and those where students sit in cluster seating?
Achievement scores represents a…
dependent variable.
Relative weakness of causal-comparative research when compared with other forms of quantitative research…
…lack of randomization manipulation of independent variables control of research variables.
Laura id designing a study that examines differences in social skills between children raised in a three-generational family household compared to those raised in a two-genrational family hime. Laura is likely to study this research topic by use of…
…causal-comparative research because it is an ex post facto design, the events have already happened.
Differences in acclimation to sigh-school between children from small and large middle schools is an example of…
…a causal-comparative study.
Causal-comparative and experimental research both…
…examine differences between groups.
One strength of causal-comparative studies, in comparison to experimental studies can examine (blank) while experimental studies cannot.
variables that should not be manipulated
In contrast to experimental research, causal-comparative studies generally…
…do not manipulate independent variables.
Marcy is concerned with her findings that may be die to an extraneous uncontrolled variable and not her treatment. Marcy is most concerned with…
…internal validity.
Gavin’s study compared reading error rates and reading comprehension scores between two groups of fifty third-grade students each that received different reading programs. His t-test data analysis did not indicate any differences between the two types of instruction.
The treatment variable in Gavin’s study is…
…reading instruction.
In order for a study to be experimental it must include…
…one active variable.
Treatment variable is another name for…
…independent variable.
Jack wants to test if runners on his cross-country team improve with his new training regimen. He takes their times at the beginnings of the season and again at the end of the season.
Jack is best illustrating…
…one-group pretest-posttest design.
In a single subject design, the treatment condition is symbolized as…
…B
Compared to all other types of research, experimental research…
…provides evidence concerning cause-effect relationships.
A threat to internal validity.
Differential selection of participants.
Static group comparison is an example of…
…pre-experimental design.
Jacob is a child with aggressive behavior toward his peers. His counselor is trying a new intervention with him. First she observes his behavior during free play time for five days. Next she administers a new self-monitoring strategy with him. She observes his behavior during free play time. Next she removes the self-monitoring requiring and observes his free play. She then reintroduces the self-monitoring strategy. This is illustrating…
…A-B-A-B
The type of validity concerned with whether findings can be generalized to other groups or other settings is referred to as…
…external validity.
Russell’s study compared GPA of those students who volunteered for academic study skills training and those who did not elect to take training. He found that those who had the higher GPA. Russell should most be concerned with which validity threat?
Selection.
Laura was conducting a study on two treatment interventions to increase padronism. During her study, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon occurred. This is an example of which validity threat?
History.
Jorge studies the effects of mnemonic training on learning vocabulary. He randomly assigns one group to a no treatment control and he gives mnemonic training to the other group. He assesses them at the end of the study and compares how many words they know. Jorge is best illustrating…
…posttest-only control group design.
In Katia’s remedial mathematic study, she collected pretest data from a group of participants. She divided the participants into three groups. One group received instruction by a teacher-delivered intervention. One group received peer tutoring on the same problems. After the intervention she tested their math skills. With which validity threat should Katia be most concerned?
Testing.
Which design controls the most threats to internal validity?
Pretest-posttest control group?
The measure of central tendency that represents the midpoint of the scores in a distribution is the…
…median.
Francis want to present the average mathematics score attained by the participants in her study. She needs to report a measure of…
…central tendency.
In a distribution with a mean of 28 and a standard deviation of 2 almost all the scores fall between…
…22-24.
Measures of variability…
standard deviation
quartile deviation
range
If there are extreme scores in a data set, what is the most appropriate measure of central tenancy to indicate the most typical score?
Median.
Measures of central tendency…
mode
median
mean
Percentile ranks is a measure of…
…relative position.
The z score is an example of a…
…standard score.
The measure that represents the difference between the highest and lowest score is the…
…range.
Given a person with a z-score of 0 on a norm-referenced assessment, what can we conclude regarding her performance? Compared to the norm group…
…the person performed at the mean.
The measure of central tendency that represents the most frequently occurring score is…
…mode.
Hal administers a self-esteem measure before the session begins and after a semester of the Saturday Esteem Program, he measures their esteem again. Which type of analysis is Hal likely to use to test for significant difference in his group?
Dependent t-test.
A null hypothesis regarding the differences between two groups learning biology content?
There are no differences in a practicum exam between those who learn dissection in the actual lab and those who learn dissection by computer simulation.
Misha is comparing different types of typing instruction. In one group he used a classroom based instructional method, while for the other group he used a computer-based training program. After a six-week treatment, he assessed differences in their typing ability. The appropriate test of significance for Misha to use assuming random assignment and no pretreatment differences?
Independent t-test.
The test of significance that determines if two groups means are different than would be expected by chance is the…
…t-test.
The mean and the standard deviation are examples of…
…statistics.
Andy compared students’ ability to transfer learning from 3 different types of instructional materials. He found that there were pre-existing group differences between his conditions. The appropriate analysis technique for Andy to use is…
…ANCOVA.
Is a researcher rejects the null hypothesis she is concluding that…
…there are real differences between groups.
Michele did not find any significant differences between the control group and the treatment group in her dissertation study. She would likely address the potential reasons why her hypothesis was not supported in which section of a research report?
Discussion.
Abby’s research addresses children’s self-esteem. Previous self-esteem studies have found that self-esteem is crucial for learners’ to try at new and difficult academic tasks. In which section of her report will Abby include these previous findings?
Introduction.
In a research report a condensed version of the study is generally found in the…
…abstract.
The steps followed to conduct the study are found in the (blank) section of a research report.
procedure
When writing the research report, authors cited in the body of the text are generally referenced by…
…last names only.
A description of the sample participants of the study is found in the (blank) section of a research paper.
method
A copy of the instrument used for data collection is often found in the (blank) of a thesis or dissertation.
appendix
Laura, an art educator, completed her correlational study that examined the relationship between number of art classes taken in high school and out of school attendance at museums and galleries. She has a correlation matrix that conveys some of her findings. In which section of Laura’s research report should the matrix be included?
Results.
The reference section in a research report includes…
…all sources that are referenced in the text alphabetically by author’s last name.
Mata-analysis
the use of quantitative techniques to summarize the results of many scientific studies on the same question.
Are there gender differences in the effectiveness of computer-based simulations?
causal-comparative
Is there a relationship between student achievement and homework completion?
correlational
What type of research does the following statement suggest was conducted? “A significant moderate relationship between text-based interest and achievement was indicated.”
Correlational
Hal administers a self-esteem measure before the sessions begin. After a semester of the Saturday Esteem Program, he measures their esteem again. Which type of analysis is Hal likely to use to test for significant differences in his group?
Nonindependent t-test
If a researcher rejects the null hypothesis, she is concluding that:
There are real differences between groups.
What is the most commonly used measure of central tendency?
Mean
What central tendency measure is used when there are extreme outlying scores?
Median
What is the most exact measure of variability?
Standard deviation
Which of the following is a measure of spread of scores?
Mode
Which of the following is the most limited measure of relative position?
Percentile rank
Inferential data analysis technique used to find significant differences among proportions of subjects.
Chi-square
Rejecting the null hypothesis, then other studies show the opposite:
Type II error