Red Cross First Aid/CPR/AED

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What is A Cardiac Emergency?
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A cardiac emergency is a life threatening. It can happen to a victim of any age, on land or in water. The care for a cardiac emergency is CPR and using an AED. By following the chain of cardiac survival the victim will have a greater change of survival.
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What is the cardiac chain of survival
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~Early recognition and early access to the emergency medical services (EMS) system. *The sooner someone calls 9-1-1 or the local emergency number, the sooner EMS personnel will arrive and take over. ~Early CPR. *CPR helps supply oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. This helps keep the victim alive until an AED is used or more advanced medical care is provided. ~Early defibrillation. *An electrical shock, called defibrillation, may help restore an effective heart rhythm. Defibrillation is delivered using an AED. ~Early advanced medical care. *EMS personnel provide more advanced medical care and transport the victim to a hospital. For each minute CPR and defibrillation are delayed, the victim’s chance for survival is reduced by about 10 percent.
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For each minute CPR and Defibrillation are delayed the chance of survival decreases by how much.
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For each minute CPR and defibrillation are delayed, the victim’s chance for survival is reduced by about 10 percent.
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When the muscle of the heart suffers a loss of oxygenated blood what does this result in
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Myocardial infraction (MI) or heart attack
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Causes of heart attack
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Heart attacks usually result from cardiovascular disease. Other common causes of heart attack include respiratory distress, electrocution and traumatic injury. The most common conditions caused by cardiovascular disease include coronary heart disease (also known as coronary artery disease) and stroke.
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~Recognizing a heart attack
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~Chest discomfort or pain that is severe, lasts longer than 3 to 5 minutes, goes away and comes back, or persists even during rest ~Discomfort, pressure or pain that is persistent and ranges from discomfort to an unbearable crushing sensation in the center of the chest, possibly spreading to the shoulder, arm, neck, jaw, stomach or back, and usually not relieved by resting, changing position or taking medication ~Pain that comes and goes (such as angina pectoris) ~Difficulty breathing, such as at a faster rate than normal or noisy breathing n Pale or ashen skin, especially around the face ~Sweating, especially on the face ~Dizziness or light-headedness ~Nausea or vomiting ~Fatigue, lightheadedness or loss of consciousness ***Some people show no signs at all. Women may experience different pain than men. Women most often have a sharp sudden paint short lived pain outside the breast bone***
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When a lady is having a heart attack what symptoms are the most likely to have
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Women are somewhat more likely to experience some of the other warning signs, such as shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, back or jaw pain and unexplained fatigue or malaise
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What should you do when caring for a heart attack
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~Take immediate action and summon EMS personnel. ~Have the victim stop any activity and rest in a comfortable position. ~Loosen tight or uncomfortable clothing. ~Closely monitor the victim until EMS personnel take over. Note any changes in the victim’s appearance or behavior. ~Comfort the victim. ~Assist the victim with prescribed medication, such as nitroglycerin or aspirin, and administer emergency oxygen, if is available and you are trained to do so. n Be prepared to perform CPR and use an AED. ***You should also ask questions to get information that relates to the victim’s condition, such as what happened, whether the victim has any medical conditions or is taking any medications, or when was the last time the victim had anything to eat or drink.***
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If anything what is the one piece of information that you should ask the victim
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“What is your name Sir/m’am
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Where should a person having a heart attack be placed.
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On a FLAT FIRM SURFACE
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What does sample stand for
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S = Signs and symptoms These include bleeding, skin that is cool and moist, pain, nausea, headache and difficulty breathing. A = Allergies Determine if the victim is allergic to any medications, food, or environmental elements, such as pollen or bees. M = Medications Find out if the victim is using any prescription or nonprescription medications. P = Pertinent past medical history Determine if the victim is under the care of a health care provider for any medical condition, has had medical problems in the past or recently has been hospitalized. l = Last oral intake Find out what the victim most recently took in by mouth as well as the volume or dose consumed. This includes food, drinks and medication. E = Events leading up to the incident Determine what the victim was doing before and at the time of the incident. ***When talking to a child, get down at eye level with the child, speak slowly and in a friendly manner, use simple words and ask questions that the child can easily understand***
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What is Cardiac Arrest
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Cardiac arrest is a life-threatening emergency that may be caused by a heart attack, drowning, electrocution, respiratory arrest or other conditions. Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating, or beats too irregularly or weakly to circulate blood effectively. Cardiac arrest can occur suddenly and without warning. In many cases, the victim already may be experiencing the signs and symptoms of a heart attack.
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What are signs of Cardiac Arrest
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The signs of a cardiac arrest include sudden collapse, unconsciousness, no breathing and no pulse.
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When should you give CPR
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A victim who is unconscious, not breathing and has no pulse is in cardiac arrest and needs CPR
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What is the objective of CPR
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The objective of CPR is to perform a combination of effective chest compressions and ventilations to circulate blood that contains oxygen to the victim’s brain and other vital organs. In most cases, CPR is performed in cycles of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 ventilations.
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What are the steps to preforming CPR
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**Are you ok sir/M’ma 1.Make sure the scene is safe 2.Check for a airway breathing and circulation 3.If not doing any of the ABC’s summon EMS (if you have to leave make sure you put your victim into the haines position) 4.Start CPR if you didn’t see the victim colaps give to breaths and see if they go in. If they don’t retile the head and try again. (If they don’t go in the tendon time they most likely have something stuck in there windpipe) 5.30 and 2 if it is only you, but if you have a parent 25 and 2 for a child and infant and for adult(12 and older) 30 and 2 changing on the 30th compression.
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To increase the effectiveness of CPR it should be done on…
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~The victim is on a firm, flat surface ~Compressions are the proper depth. ~Compression rate is appropriate. ~The chest fully recoils after each compression (letting the chest come all the way back up). ~CPR is performed without interruption.
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Remember when giving ventilation to a victim, you should
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~*Maintain an open airway*by keeping the head tilted back in the proper position. ~Seal the mask over the victim’s mouth and nose. ~Blow into the one-way valve, ensuring that you can see the chest clearly rise and fall. Each ventilation should last about 1 second, with a brief pause between breaths to let the chest fall. ***After ventilations, quickly reposition your hands on the center of the chest and start another cycle of compressions and ventilations.***
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techniques when its only you giving CPR on an adult
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Adult- Hand position:Heel of the hand in the center of the chest(on lower half of the sternum) with the other hand on top. Compression depth:At least 2 inches depending on the size of the person. Ventilations- Until cheese clearly rises(for about 1 second) **At least 100 compression per minute**
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techniques when its only you giving CPR on a child
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Child- Hand position:Heel of the hand in the center of the chest(on lower half of the sternum) with the other hand on top. Compression depth:About 2 inches depending on the size of the person. Ventilations- Until cheese clearly rises(for about 1 second)****At least 100 compression per minute**
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techniques when its only you giving CPR on a infant
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Infant- Hand position:Two or three fingers on the center of the chest (just below the nipple line) Compression depth:About 1 1/2 inches depending on the size of the person. Ventilations- Until cheese clearly rises(for about 1 second)****At least 100 compression per minute**
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How many rounds of compression should you do in 2 minutes
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5 compressions
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techniques when its you and another person giving CPR on an adult
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Adult- Hand position:Heel of the hand in the center of the chest(on lower half of the sternum) with the other hand on top. Compression depth:At least 2 inches depending on the size of the person (30 compression pre round) . Ventilations- Until cheese clearly rises(for about 1 second) **At least 100 compression per minute**
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techniques when its you and another person giving CPR on a child
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Child- Hand position:Heel of the hand in the center of the chest(on lower half of the sternum) with the other hand on top. Compression depth:About 2 inches depending on the size of the person(15 compression per round). Ventilations- Until cheese clearly rises(for about 1 second)****At least 100 compression per minute**
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When do you stop CPR
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DO NOT STOP CPR UNLESS ~You see an obvious sign of life, such as breathing. ~An AED is available and ready to use. ~Another trained rescuer takes over, such as a member of your safety team. n EMS personnel take over. ~You are too exhausted to continue. ~The scene becomes unsafe.
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When performing CPR it is not unusual for what
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When performing CPR, it is not unusual for the victim’s ribs to break or cartilage to separate. The victim may vomit, there may be frothing at the nose and mouth, and the scene may be chaotic. The victim also may produce agonal gasps. Remember that agonal gasps are not breathing—this victim needs CPR
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When doing CPR you need to do it how?
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Straight Down, Hard and Fast
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Despite your best effort what may happen to a a cardiac rest victim
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They may pass away or may have life long injuries
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Two person rescue, what is the job
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The first person on the scene will ask if they are ok, check ABC’s. If they don’t get a reading on any of there ABC’s the second person on the scene will call 911 and get the AED. Then follow the guide lines for a 2 person rescue
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How often should rescuers change positions
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They should change about every 2 minutes
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Why should rescuers change
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to aviod rescuer fatigue,
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How long should a change in position take
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No longer than 5 seconds
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What is the first job of the second rescuer
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They should confirm if EMS is on the way, if they have not been summon then they should call EMS right away the sooner they get there the better chance of survival the victim has.
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When performs a 2 person rescue on an infant(under 1) what technique should you use?
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Two-Thumb-Encircling-hands-chest compression Technique with a thoracic squeeze
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What is an AED
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AEDs are portable electronic devices that analyze the heart’s rhythm and provide an electrical shock . Defibrillation is the delivery of an electrical shock that may help re-establish an effective rhythm. CPR can help by supplying blood that contains oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. However, the sooner an AED is used, the greater the likelihood of survival. You must assess victims quickly and be prepared to use an AED in cases of cardiac arrest.
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When the heart stops
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Any damage or injury can disrupt the heart’s electrical system, which normally triggers the contraction- or pumping of the heart
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What are the most common treatable abnormal rhythms that causes sudden cardiac arrest
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Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)- the ventricles quiver, or fibrillate, without any organized rhythm, and electrical impulses fire at random, creating chaos in the heart from pumping and circulation blood .There is no pulse Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)- an abnormal electrical impulse controls the heart . The abnormal implies fires so fast that the heart’s chambers son not have tim to fill, and the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. With little to no blood circulating, there may either be a plus or no plus.
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About how many americans die form sudden cardiac arrest a year
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About 300,000 people die a year
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Using an AED on adults
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~Use AED as soon as it is ready 1.Apply pads and allow the AED to analyze the hearts rhythm 2.Follow the directions the AED promotes ***If CPR is in progress do not interrupt*** 3.Don’t stop CPR until the AED instructs that every bodys hand off, the longer your hands are on the better the chance the person has of living 4.If no shock is advise perform CPR for about 2 minutes before the AED analyzes the heart rhymes again.
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Using an AED on children and Infants
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~Airway and breathing problems. ~Traumatic injuries or accidents (e.g., drowning, motor-vehicle collision, electrocution and poisoning). ~A hard blow to the chest. ~Congenital heart disease. ~Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
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AED pediatric pads are more suitable for what ages
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Ages 8 or 55lbs. For infants and children. I provides a lower level of energy
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AED precautions
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~Do not use alcohol to wipe the victim’s chest dry; alcohol is flammable. ~Do not touch the victim while the AED is analyzing. Touching or moving the victim could affect the analysis. ~Before shocking a victim with an AED, make sure that no one is touching or is in contact with the victim or the resuscitation equipment. ~Do not touch the victim while the device is defibrillating. You or someone else could be shocked. ~Do not defibrillate a victim when around flammable or combustible materials, such as gasoline or free-flowing oxygen. ~Do not use an AED in a moving vehicle. Movement could affect the analysis. ~Do not use an AED on a victim wearing a nitroglycerin patch or other patch on the chest. With a gloved hand, remove any patches from the chest before attaching the device. ~Do not use a mobile phone or radio within 6 feet of the AED. Electromagnetic and infrared interference generated by radio signals can disrupt analysis.
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AEDs around water
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~Remove the victim from the water before defibrillation. A shock delivered in water could harm rescuers or bystanders. ~Be sure that there are no puddles of water around you, the victim or the AED (Figure 9-4). ~Remove the victim’s wet clothing to place the AED pads properly, if necessary. ~Dry the victim’s chest and attach the AED pads. **If it is raining, take steps to make sure that the the victim is as dry as possible**
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Pacemakers and implants Cardioverter-Defibrillators
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Pacemaker is a small implant device sometimes located in the area right below the collar bone. May feel a small lump under the skin ICD is a miniature AED that automatically recognizes and restores abnormal heart rhythm.
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Pacemakers and implant Cardioverter-Defibrillators
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~If the implanted device is visible, or you know that the victim has one, do not place the AED pad directly over the device. This may interfere with the delivery of the shock. Adjust AED pad placement if necessary and continue to follow the AED instructions. ~If you are not sure whether the victim has an implanted device, use the AED as needed. It will not harm the victim or rescuer. ~Follow any special precautions associated with ICDs, but do not delay CPR or defibrillation.
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Transdermal Medication Patches
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Remove all visible patches, make sure to remove them with gloves because you don’t want to absorb nitroglycerin
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Hypothermia
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When you suspect someone may be in cardiac rest but you may also believe that they are in hypothermia you may check the pulse for 30-45 second because the whole bodies slow down.
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Should you use an AED in a hypothermia case
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Follow the local protocols
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If the victim is wet
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~Remove wet clothing, dry the victim’s chest and protect the victim from further heat loss. ~Attach the AED pads. ~If a shock is indicated, deliver it, following the instructions of the AED. ~Follow local protocols regarding whether additional shocks should be delivered. ~Do not withhold CPR or defibrillation to re-warm the victim. ~Be careful not to unnecessarily shake a victim who has experienced hypothermia as this could result in an irregular heart rhythm.
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Body jewelry while using an AED
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You do not need to remove the Jewelry, just don’t place the pads over the jewelry
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Pregnancy
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It is safe to use an AED on a pregnancy lady, i will not harm the fetus
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AED maintenance
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~Follow the manufacturer’s specific recommendations for periodic equipment checks. ~Make sure that the batteries have enough energy for one complete rescue. (A fully charged backup battery should be readily available.) ~Make sure that the correct defibrillator pads are in the package and are properly sealed. ~Check any expiration dates on AED pads and batteries, and replace as necessary. n After use, make sure that all accessories are replaced and that the machine is in proper working order before placing the unit back in service. ~If at any time the machine fails to work properly, or you recognize any warning indicators, discontinue use, place the unit out of service and contact the manufacturer immediately.
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Multi-rescue respond
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~airway. The rescuer is positioned behind the victim’s head to maintain an open airway and ensure the mask is positioned and sealed to provide effective ventilations. ~Breathing. The rescuer provides ventilations by using a bag-valve-mask resuscitator (BVM). Emergency oxygen may be attached to the BVM if rescuers are trained to administer emergency oxygen. If there is froth or the victim vomits during CPR, the rescuer clears the obstructed airway from the victim’s mouth by using a finger sweep or a manual suction device. ~Circulation. The rescuer provides compressions and also may operate the AED. If an additional rescuer is available, he or she should place the pads and operate the AED.
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Considerations for responding to injuries and illnesses
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~Should I provide care where the victim was found, or move him or her to the first aid room? ~Is the safety of the victim or others compromised? ~Is there a risk of further injury to the victim? ~Is there a risk of exposing the victim or others to pathogens (e.g., by leaving a trail of blood or body fluids)? ~Should I summon EMS personnel? ~When should I recommend that the victim see a health care provider to seek further medical treatment?
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What should you use when preforming a secondary assessment
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You should use sample
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What does sample stand for
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S = Signs and symptoms These include bleeding, skin that is cool and moist, pain, nausea, headache and difficulty breathing. A = Allergies Determine if the victim is allergic to any medications, food, or environmental elements, such as pollen or bees. M = Medications Find out if the victim is using any prescription or nonprescription medications. P = Pertinent past medical history Determine if the victim is under the care of a health care provider for any medical condition, has had medical problems in the past or recently has been hospitalized. l = Last oral intake Find out what the victim most recently took in by mouth as well as the volume or dose consumed. This includes food, drinks and medication. E = Events leading up to the incident Determine what the victim was doing before and at the time of the incident. ***When talking to a child, get down at eye level with the child, speak slowly and in a friendly manner, use simple words and ask questions that the child can easily understand***
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Checking a conscious person
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check head to toe, see if there is any visible injuries such as any bleeding, cuts, bruises and obvious deformities
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What does LOC stand for
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levels of consciousness
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When checking a person you should look for what
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You should look for Medical ID tags
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What is a sudden illness
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Victims of sudden illness usually look and feel ill. If you suspect something is wrong, check the victim and look for a medical ID tag, necklace or bracelet on the person’s wrist, neck or ankle. The victim may try to say nothing is seriously wrong, but the victim’s condition can worsen rapidly. Do not be afraid to ask the victim questions. There are many types of sudden illness, including diabetic emergencies, fainting, seizures and stroke.
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When a person is unable to move a part or experiencing dizziness or pain in movement
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~Help the person rest in a comfortable position. ~Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated. ~Reassure the person. ~Determine whether to summon EMS personnel. ~Continue to watch for changes in LOC and breathing.
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What are the signs and symptoms of sudden illness
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~Changes in LOC, such as feeling light-headed, dizzy or becoming unconscious. ~Nausea or vomiting. ~Difficulty speaking or slurred speech. ~Numbness or weakness. ~Loss of vision or blurred vision. ~Changes in breathing; the person may have trouble breathing or may not be breathing normally. ~Changes in skin color (pale, ashen or flushed skin). ~Sweating. ~Persistent pressure or pain. ~Diarrhea. ~Seizures. ~Paralysis or an inability to move. ~Severe headache.
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What are the general care steps for sudden illness
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~Care for any life-threatening conditions first. ~Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for changes in LOC. ~Keep the victim comfortable, reassure him or her and keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated. ~Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink unless the victim is fully conscious and is not in shock. ~Care for any other problems that develop, such as vomiting.
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With dealing with a diabetic emerencies
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Give them a sugary drink, it can not harm them, most likely they are having low blood sugar. Gice them juice, but nothing hot of caffeinated. You can also just resolve sugar in water.
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What should you do if a person is having a seizure in the water
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1. Summon EMS personnel. 2. Support the person with his or her head above water until the seizure ends 3. Remove the person from the water as soon as possible after the seizure (since he or she may have inhaled or swallowed water). 4. Once on land, position the person on his or her back and perform a primary assessment. Give ventilations or CPR if needed. If the person vomits, turn the victim on his or her side to drain fluids from the mouth. Sweep out the mouth (or suction out the mouth if you are trained to do so).
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With a patient who you believe to be having or a stroke what should you do
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You should use FAST
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What does FAST stand for
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Face—Weakness on one side of the face (Figure 10-8) Ask the person to smile. This will show if there is drooping or weakness in the muscles on one side of the face. Does one side of the face droop? Arm—Weakness or numbness in one arm (Figure 10-9) Ask the person to raise both arms to find out if there is weakness in the limbs. Does one arm drift downward?Speech—Slurred speech or trouble speaking Ask the person to speak a simple sentence to listen for slurred or distorted speech. Example: “The sky is blue.” Can the victim repeat the sentence correctly? Time—Time to summon EMS personnel if any of these signs or symptoms are seen Note the time of onset of signs and symptoms, and summon EMS personnel immediately.
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Skin and soft tissue injuries
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Called a wound, tissues is damaged or torn, the body is threaten. The injury may damage the tissue near the skin’s surface or deep in the body. Germs can enter the body though a scrape, cut or puncture or burn and cause an infection . Sever bleed can occur at the surface or below the surface which can be hard to detect.
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What is another word for a bruise
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A contusion
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Caring for internal bleeding
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~The force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage. ~An injured arm or leg is blue or extremely pale. ~The victim has excessive thirst, becomes confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious. ~The victim is vomiting blood or coughing up blood. ~The victim has skin that feels cool or moist, or looks pale or bluish. ~The victim has a rapid, weak pulse. ~The victim has tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body, such as the abdomen. While waiting for EMS personnel to arrive, the objectives are to: ~Care for any life-threatening conditions first. ~Help the victim rest in a comfortable position and reassure him or her. n Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for any changes in LOC. ~Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated (care for shock). ~Care for other problems that develop, such as vomiting.
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Caring for internal bleeding continue
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If the closed wound is not serious: 1. Apply direct pressure on the area to decrease bleeding under the skin. 2. Elevate the injured part to reduce swelling if you do not suspect a muscle, bone or joint injury and if doing so does not cause more pain. 3. Apply ice or a cold pack on the area to help control swelling and pain. When applying ice or a chemical cold pack, place a gauze pad, towel or other cloth between the source of cold and the victim’s skin. If an ice pack is not available, fill a plastic bag with ice and water or wrap ice with a damp cloth. Apply the ice or cold pack for no more than 20 minutes. If continued icing is needed, remove the pack for 20 minutes and re-chill it, then replace it. ****Keep checking for LOC
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What are the different types of open wounds
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~Abrasion (Figure 10-10) Skin has been rubbed or scraped away (e.g., scrape, road rash, rug burn). The area usually is painful. Dirt and other matter may have entered the wound. Cleaning the wound is important to prevent infection. ~Laceration (Figure 10-11) Cuts bleed freely, and deep cuts can bleed severely. Deep cuts can damage nerves, large blood vessels and other soft tissues. ~Avulsion (Figure 10-12) An avulsion is a cut in which a piece of soft tissue or even part of the body, such as a finger, is torn loose or is torn off entirely (e.g., amputation). Often, deeper tissues are damaged, causing significant bleeding. ~Puncture (Figure 10-13) Puncture wounds often do not bleed profusely and can easily become infected. Bleeding can be severe, with damage to major blood vessels or internal organs. An object embedded in the wound should be removed only by EMS personnel.
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If the dressing becomes saturated with blood what should you do
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DO NOT remove the dressing, simply add addition dressing over the soak one and apply more pressure
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How should you control bleeding
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Place a sterile dressing over the wound Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops
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What is shock
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Any serious injury or illness can result in a condition known as shock. Shock is a natural reaction by the body. It usually means the victim’s condition is serious. Signs and symptoms of shock include restlessness or irritability; altered LOC; pale or ashen, cool, moist skin; nausea or vomiting; rapid breathing and pulse; and excessive thirst.
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What are some of the symptoms of shock
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Signs and symptoms of shock include restlessness or irritability; altered LOC; pale or ashen, cool, moist skin; nausea or vomiting; rapid breathing and pulse; and excessive thirst.
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What should you not give to a victim in shock
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DO NOT give a victim food or water even if the victim ask for them
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How do you minimize the effects of shocks
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~Make sure that EMS personnel have been summoned. n Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for changes in LOC. ~Control any external bleeding. ~Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated. ~Have the victim lie flat on his or her back. ~Cover the victim with a blanket to prevent loss of body heat. Do not overheat the victim—your goal is to maintain a normal body temperature. ~Comfort and reassure the victim until EMS personnel take over. ~Administer emergency oxygen, if available and trained to do so.
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To care for a nosebleed
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Have the victim sit leading head forward have them pinch the top of there nostrils for about 5 to 10 minutes to stop the bleeding you may apply the ice pack to help with the pain, if there is any After the bleeding stop, DO NOT have the victim rub blow or pick there noise this can stop the clotting and cause the noise to bleed again ***If the victim loses consciousness, place the victim on there side to allow the blood to drain form the noise and summon EMS immedialty
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For an embedded object what should you do
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Bandage the dressings in place around the object. DO Not remove the object, it may e stopping the bleeding
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What are the 4 types of burns
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Heat, radiation, chemicals, and electricity
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What should you do for a posing caused by inhaling
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Move the victim to fresh air
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What are heat related illnesses
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~Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms that usually occur in the legs and abdomen. Heat cramps are the least severe of the heat-related illnesses. ~Heat exhaustion is an early indicator that the body’s cooling system is becoming overwhelmed. Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin; headache, nausea and dizziness; weakness and exhaustion; and heavy sweating. ~Heat stroke occurs when the body’s systems are overwhelmed by heat and stop functioning. Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition. Signs and symptoms of heat stroke include red, hot, dry skin; changes in LOC; and vomiting.
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Caring for a life threatening conditions
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~Move the victim to a cool place. ~Loosen tight clothing and remove perspiration-soaked clothing. ~Cool the victim by spraying with cool water or applying cool, wet towels to the skin. ~Fan the victim. ~Encourage the victim to drink small amounts of a commercial sports drink, milk or water if the victim is conscious and able to swallow. If the victim refuses water, vomits or starts to lose consciousness: ~Send someone to summon EMS personnel. ~Place the victim on his or her side. ~Continue to cool the victim by using ice or cold packs on his or her wrists, ankles, groin and neck, and in the armpits. If possible, wrap the victim’s entire body in ice-water-soaked towels. ~Continue to check for breathing and a pulse.
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What are cold related injuries
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Hypothermia, when a entire body cools down because it ability to keep warm fails. A victim with Hypothermia will die if care is not provided.
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What are signs and symptoms for Hypothermia
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The signs and symptoms of hypothermia include shivering; numbness; glassy stare; apathy, weakness or impaired judgment; and loss of consciousness.
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How to care for Hypothermia
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~Summon EMS personnel. ~Gently move the victim to a warm place. Sudden movements may cause a heart arrhythmia and possibly cardiac arrest. ~Remove any wet clothing. ~Warm the victim by wrapping all exposed body surfaces in blankets or by putting dry clothing on the victim. Be sure to cover the head since a significant amount of body heat is lost through the head. ***Do not warm the victim too quickly, such as by immersing him or her in warm water.
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Injuries to Muscles, Bones and joints
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~Fracture—A complete break, a chip or a crack in a bone. Factures can be open or closed. Closed fractures: The skin over the broken bone is intact. Open fractures: There is an open wound in the skin over the fracture. ~Dislocation—Displacement of a bone away from its normal position at a joint.These usually are more obvious than fractures. ~Sprain—Tearing ligaments at a joint. ~Strain—Stretching and tearing muscles or tendons
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What is frostbite
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When a body parts freezes from having been exposed to the cold
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What are signs and symptoms of frostbite
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Frostbite can cause the loss of the nose, fingers, hands, arms, toes, feet and legs. The signs and symptoms of frostbite include a lack of feeling in an affected area, swelling and skin that appears waxy, is cold to the touch or discolored (flushed, white, yellow or blue).
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How do ou care for frostbite
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~Get the victim out of the cold. ~Do not attempt to warm the frostbitten area if there is a chance that it might refreeze or if you are close to a medical facility. ~Handle the area gently; never rub the affected area. ~Warm the affected area by soaking it in water not warmer than about 105° F until normal color returns and the area feels warm (for 20 to 30 minutes). If you do not have a thermometer, test the water temperature yourself. If the temperature is uncomfortable to your touch, it is too warm. ~Loosely bandage the area with dry, sterile dressings. ~If the victim’s fingers or toes are frostbitten, separate them with dry, sterile gauze. n Avoid breaking any blisters. ~Take precautions to prevent hypothermia. ~Monitor the person and care for shock. ~Summon EMS personnel to seek emergency medical care as soon as possible.
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Caring for muscle bones and joint injuries
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Support the injuries area above and below the site of the injury Immobilize and secure the injured area only if the victim must be moved and it does not cause further pain or injury. In many cases, it may be best to allow EMS personnel to immobilize the injury prior to transport.
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What does RICE stand for
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REST, IMMOBILIZE, COLD, ELEVATE
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What is splinting and when should it been used
answer

Splinting is the method of immobilizing an injured extremity and should be used only if moving or transporting a person to seek medical attention and if splinting does not cause more pain.
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After splinting what should you do
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Check for circulation and sensation before and after splinting
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What are the 3 types of splint
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~Anatomic splints. The person’s body is the splint. For example, an arm can be splinted to the chest, or an injured leg to the uninjured leg. ~Soft splints. Soft materials, such as a folded blanket, towel, pillow or folded triangular bandage, can be used to form a splint. A sling is a specific kind of soft splint that uses a triangular bandage tied to support an injured arm, wrist or hand. ~rigid splints. Boards, folded magazines or newspapers, or metal strips that do not have sharp edges can serve as splints.
question

Caring for an open fracutre
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When a broken bone tears through the skin and surrounding soft tissue. To care for summon EMS personal, place sterile dressing around the open , bandage the dressing around the fracture and DO NOT move the exposed bone or limb around or try to move it into place.
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For women giving Birth
answer

~Do not let the woman get up or leave to find a restroom (most women at this moment feel a desire to use the restroom). ~Be sure to allow the woman’s knees to be spread apart to avoid causing complications or harm to the baby. ~Do not place your fingers in the woman’s vagina for any reason. n Do not pull on the baby.

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