RCLS 4000 Exam 2 Study Guide Questions

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In general, as sample size increases
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The standard error decreases in size
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The chief purpose of probability sampling is to be able to select…
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A sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parameter.
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Drawing a judgmental sample
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Allows researchers to use their knowledge about the topic or population.
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Non-probability sampling
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Denies the researcher the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences.
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Which are true about stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample…
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ALL STATEMENTS ARE FALSE
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Probability theory specifies that
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All of these choices are CORRECT
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Which of the following statements about informants is FALSE
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The terms informant and respondent are interchangeable
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Which of the following statements is FALSE
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In cases of perfect heterogeneity a single case could represent an entire population
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Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because
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The method by which they are selected limits conscious an unconscious sampling bias, and the accuracy of the sample can be estimated
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Researcher discovers that 40% of households in City X are single person households 60% are husband/wife households… Since this is all the researcher tells the interviewers, this research uses
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Quota Sampling
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A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample?
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200
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A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. The researcher should start sampling with…
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A random start between 1 and 5, including 1 and 5.
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You are doing research on hospital personnel. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling. An appropriate strategy would be…
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Stratified sampling.
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Suppose the researcher from the prior question wanted to use non probability sampling. An appropriate strategy would be…
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Quota sampling
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The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a…
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Element
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In terms of probability theory, the standard error is valuable because…
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It indicates the extent to which the sampling estimates will be distributed around the population parameter.
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You want to examine the relationship between family size and family cohesion. You use as your sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?
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Reliance on available subjects.
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A summary description of a variable in a sample is called a
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Statistic
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Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in
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Systematic sampling
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If a field researcher… Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example of
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Snowball sampling
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The statistical computations typically used by social scientists assume
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Simple random sampling
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Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcher
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All of these choices are reasons as to why researchers use disproportionate sampling and weighting
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A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that it
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Requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population before drawing the sample
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Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers… What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend?
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Quota sampling
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A study population is
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That aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected.
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Samantha reports that 60% of the first-year students… Which of the following statements is FALSE?
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She could be 99% certain that between 55 and 65 percent of the first year students agree.
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After taking a random start between 1 and 20 and then taking every 20th element from the sampling frame… Assuming a normal distribution, this means that
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You are 68% certain that between 37% and 43% of the employees believe the president is doing a good job.
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The sampling scheme used in the prior question is
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Systematic
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You want to select a sample of 3000 people from a population of 300,000. To use the table of random numbers you need to work with a
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6-digit number
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Jerome is worried about the periodicity in his sampling frame. Jerome should not use
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Systematic sampling
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Maggie wanted to do a study of women who participated in extramarital affairs. When she asked each of those women for the names of other possible study participants she was using which design?
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Snowball sampling
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What is the unit about which information is collected in a sample, and that provides the basis of analysis?
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Element
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Becky determined that the mean age of all students at her community college, the population she wished to study was 22.3 years old. This value is known as a(n)
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Parameter
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Chauncey determined that 50 percent of students at his school voted Republican in the last election, with a sampling error of 5 percent. What is the confidence interval for 95 percent confidence level?
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40 to 60 percent
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Unlisted telephone numbers creates a special problem for accurate
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sample frames
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Periodicity is a particular problem for which sampling design?
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Systematic
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Stratification is based on which principle?
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A homogeneous population produces samples with smaller sampling errors.
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Andre surveyed the first ten students walking out of the library on three consecutive evenings, starting at 7PM. Which sampling design does this example reflect?
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Reliance on available subjects
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Gilbert wanted to study only students who do very well in class because such students would best help him test his theory. He asked 20 professors for the names of high achieving students and he then interviewed them. Which sampling design does this example reflect?
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Purposive
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Holstein set up a matrix representing his population of residence hall students, using gender and class level. He then started interviewing students and continued until he had accomplished the percentages he set out in the beginning. Which sampling design does this example reflect?
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Quota
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When people selected for a sample are not typical or representative of the larger population from which they have been selected, we have
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Bias or unrepresentative sample
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EPSEM means
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Equal probability of selection method
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Sequine sampled states first, then churches, and then church members. Each of these three is known as a(n)
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Sampling unit
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Sampling error reflects
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The degree of error to be expected for a given sample design
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Walker took a systematic sample from the list of members in his car club by selecting every sixth member. The list of members is known as the
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Sampling frame
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If you are particularly concerned about how well a sample represents a population, pay particular attention to the
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Sampling frame
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A table of random numbers is used for which design?
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Simple random sampling
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Maggie sampled 25 members in her church by taking every fifth member. There are 200 members in the church. What is the sampling ratio?
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.125
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Mildred wanted to do a study for recycling club members employing a random sample. There is no master list of recycling club members in the U.S. She has only enough money to study 70 clubs. What would be the best design to use?
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Cluster
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What is the basic process in probability proportionate to size sampling?
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Give bigger clusters a greater chance of being picked but then take the same number of elements per cluster
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___ of people fall within TWO standard deviations of a normal distribution.
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95%
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In order to determine which participants from my sample will be in the experimental group, and which participants will be in the control group, I decide to flip a coin. I have engaged in _______.
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Random sampling
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To accumulate a sample of 500 telephone numbers, I decide to include every 20th telephone number in the local telephone directory beginning randomly with the letter \”N\” I have engaged in
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Systematic sampling
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I would like to survey 50 people on their attitudes regarding premarital sex…. I give my study to the first 50 people who pass by the corner. I have engaged in _____.
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Reliance on available subjects or convenient sampling
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I would like to survey 50 people on their attitudes regarding premarital sex. Knowing that approx. 52% of the population is female and 48% is male… give my survey to the first 26 women and the first 24 men. I have engaged in _______.
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Quota sampling
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If I would like the results of my research on attitudes regarding premarital sex to be as close to the population’s attitudes as possible, I would have the most accurate results with a sample of _______ people.
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1,000,000,000
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In her research project, Ella wants to study the processes involved in lesbian partners adopting children… The process by which Ella gets her sample is called
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Snowball sampling
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In his qualitative research project, Chris is conducting an interview study among a white supremacist group on campus… This sampling method which evolves and directs the sampling in certain directions is known as
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Theoretical Sampling
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In probability sampling, the maximum sampling error depends on
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All the above. (Sample size, diversity of the population, confidence level, a and c only)
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The standard error tells us how closely the population parameter is clustered around a single sample statistic.
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False
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In a sample stratified by gender, the sampling error on this variable is reduced to zero.
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True
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The study of deviant cases is an example of a purposive study.
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True
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A confidence interval at the 68% confidence level will be larger than one constructed at the 95% confidence level
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False
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If two samples of the same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it follows that they will have the same statistics.
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False
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We typically sample with replacement
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False
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Periodicity is a danger involved in the use of stratified sampling
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False
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Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.
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True
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Sampling error is typically reduced by either increasing sample size or by increasing the homogeneity of the elements being sampled.
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True
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The general guideline for the cluster design is to minimize the number of clusters selected while increasing the number of elements within each cluster.
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False
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Stratification represents a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.
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True
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In the case of homogeneity, a single case could represent the entire population.
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True
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Non-probability sampling is particularly useful in quantitative studies.
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False
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If a household has more than one telephone listed in a directory, both should be included in the sampling frame.
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False
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Findings bases on a sampling can be taken as representing only the aggregation of elements that compose the sampling frame.
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True
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Taken as a whole, a stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than a single random sample.
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True
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Multistage sampling designs tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs
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False
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The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size
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False
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Today, probability sampling remains the primary method of selecting large, representative samples for social research, including national political polls.
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True
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In research, the statistic is more accurate than the parameter
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False
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If you were interested in conducting a large-scale survey of voter’s preferences for the presidential candidate, you would follow history and use a probability sample.
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True
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The estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval is known as the confidence interval
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False
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Among the requirements for the classical experimental design is a posttest measurement of the
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Dependent variable for both the experimental and control groups
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The problem of an interaction between the testing and the experimental stimulus is handled by
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The Solomon four-group design and the posttest-only control group design
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The double-blind experiment is one in which
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Neither the subjects in the experimental or control groups nor the experimenters know which are the experimental and control groups
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Which of the following is LEAST suited to providing clear evidence about a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables?
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One-shot case study
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In order to ensure that experimental and control groups are similar before the experiment begins, social scientists sometimes
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All of these choices are used by social scientists to ensure that experimental and control groups are similar
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Experiments are least appropriate for research projects that involve
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Descriptive purposes.
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Without randomly assigning subjects, a researcher administers the experimental stimulus to the experimental group and then measures the dependent variable in both the experimental and comparison groups. This design is known as the
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Static-group design
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Which of the following does NOT exemplify a natural experiment?
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All of these choices are examples of a natural experiment
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Assume that you have developed a study technique that you believe will result in students scoring higher on research methods exams. Using the diagramed design, what are your predictions?
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O2 should be greater than O1, and the (O2-!O1) change should be greater than the (O4-!O3) change
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The design diagramed in the prior question
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Is the classical experimental design
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The Solomon four-group design
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Combines the classical experimental design with the posttest-only control group design
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Pre-experimental designs
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Are weak designs for determining causality
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A friend of yours, a senior, took the GRE in September and scored in the 99th percentile. Your friend retook the exam and scored in the 84th percentile. As a research methods student, you told your friend that his/her lowered score was most likely due to
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Statistical regression
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You were asked to participate in an experiment to test the effectiveness of review sessions on exam grades… This illustrates
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Compensatory rivalry
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An instrumentation effect occurs when
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The measurement instrument is changed from the pretest to the posttest.
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The question of internal validity refers to
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Whether the experimental stimulus really affected the dependent variable
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A researcher administered a math test to a single group of 9th graders in September… A major problem in this research is that the researcher failed to control for
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The researchers failed to control for all of these choices
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The design used in the prior question is a
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One-group pre-test post-test design
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The experimental and control groups should be comparable on
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Variables that are likely to be related to the depended variable under study
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The classical experimental design
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Helps guard against the sources of internal invalidity
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The difference between the experimental and control groups should be that the
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Experimental group receives the independent variable and the control group does not
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An experiment examines the effect of the
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Independent variable on the dependent variable
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Which design addresses the problem of testing interaction with the stimulus?
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Solomon four-group design
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Kenny performed an experiment on the effects of after-school educational activities on student’s AP… The children in the control group felt left out and gave up on the experiment. Which source of internal invalidity is reflected?
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Demoralization
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Izzie performed a study in which she introduced a stimulus-… which design did she use?
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One-shot case study
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The posttest-only control group most closely represents which pre experimental design?
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Static-group comparison design
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Igor wanted to do an experiment testing the effects of a new classroom strategy for teaching reading on the reading skills of elementary school students… It would be best to use the
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Double-blind design
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Lee selected people with only the highest self-esteem scores for her experiment on the effects of divorce on self-esteem. She should be particularly alert to which potential source of internal invalidity?
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Statistical regression
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The easiest of the true experimental designs to conduct is the
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Posttest-only control group design
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The classical experiment includes all of the following EXCEPT
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Laboratory and natural settings
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Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom… Measuring the children’s social anxiety on Monday is the
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Pretest
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Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom… Teaching half of the children yoga on Wednesday is the
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Independent variable
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Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom… The half of the children who were not taught yoga are known as the
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Control group
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Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom… Measuring the children’s social anxiety on Friday is the
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Posttest
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Manuello did an experiment on workers in an insurance company to examine the effect of a new computer system on workers’ attitudes and productivity… What was probably at work?
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The Hawthorne effect
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Cornelia used the student directory at her school to select a random sample of 100 students for her laboratory experiment on decision making. She then used a quota matrix containing the variables she felt would most likely influence decision making, and assigned people within each matrix cell alternately to the experimental and control groups. What method of selecting subjects was used?
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Probability Sampling
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Cornelia used the student directory at her school to select a random sample of 100 students for her laboratory experiment on decision making. She then used a quota matrix containing the variables she felt would most likely influence decision making, and assigned people within each matrix cell alternately to the experimental and control groups. What method of assigning subjects to the experimental and control groups was used?
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Matching
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Ryan wanted to study the effect of adult play with preschoolers on the children’s noisiness. So, he went to one preschool for a week and played with the children during breaks… Which design does this example reflect?
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Static-group comparison
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Ryan wanted to study the effect of adult play with preschoolers on the children’s noisiness. So, he went to one preschool for a week and played with the children during breaks… The group of preschool children who got to play with Ryan was the
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Experimental group
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Latona did an experiment at a military barracks over the space of a few months to examine the effect of group size on group morale… Which source of internal invalidity does this example reflect?
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History
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Latona did an experiment at a military barracks over the space of a few months to examine the effect of group size on group morale… Which source of internal invalidity does this example reflect?
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Diffusion or imitation of treatments
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Latona did an experiment at a military barracks over the space of a few months to examine the effect of group size on group morale… Which source of internal invalidity does this example reflect?
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Mortality
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Latona did an experiment at a military barracks over the space of a few months to examine the effect of group size on group morale… Which source of internal invalidity does this example reflect?
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Testing
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\”Natural\” experiments refers to experiments which
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Occur naturally without the experimenter’s intervention
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Misty did an experiment in which half of her subjects were told that they had extrasensory perception and half were not… accurately describe video sense with the sound turned off. This example reflects
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The Pygmalion effect
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The Hawthorne effect most clearly demonstrate the need for
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A control group
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To ensure that all your participants have an equal opportunity to be in either experimental group (one receives a drug, the other group receives a placebo), you decide to toss a coin to determine who gets placed in which group. You have engaged in ________.
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Random assignment
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When we are concerned that because of media coverage of violence in schools that research participants’ ideas and attitudes about the topic of gun control have changed between the time we first measured them and the second time we measured them after the treatment was administered, we are dealing with the threat to internal validity known as
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History
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When events outside of the researcher’s control have the likelihood to affect a participant’s response, especially in longitudinal studies, this threat to validity is
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History
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The loss of subjects over the duration of an experiment is known as
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Mortality
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In an experiment where neither the physicians nor the subjects know who was receiving the real vaccine or the substitute- this kind of experiment is called a
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Double-blind experiment
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The problem of external validity refers to the generalizability of results.
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True
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Experimental mortality effects only need to be controlled when your research focuses on the elderly
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False
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In a natural experiment, the researcher does NOT manipulate the independent variable
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True
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Instrumentation is NOT a threat to internal validity in the one-shot case study
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True
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The use of an experimental group allows the researcher to detect any effects of the experiment itself
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True
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Campbell and Stanley suggest that, given proper randomization in the assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups, there is no need for pretesting.
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True
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Randomization is the preferred technique for assigning subjects to experimental and control groups when you CANNOT specify in advance the relevant matching variables.
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True
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Questions about the generalizability of findings are more likely to be raised about explanatory studies using college students than on descriptive studies using college students.
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False
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The effectiveness of randomization in experimentation is affected by the number of subjects involved.
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True
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Preexperimental designs do not have control groups.
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False
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The classical experimental design controls for an interaction between the testing and the stimulus.
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False
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Conducting research on the world wide web helps to insure representative samples
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False
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Researchers are increasingly using the World Wide Wed to conduct experiments
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True
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Researchers tend to use probability samples to recruit subjects for the experimental and control groups.
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False
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The double-blind experiment attempts to guard against experimenter bias.
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True
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Subject \”mortality\” is usually a greater problem in experiments that have a long duration than in experiments that have an short duration.
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True
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Studying the effects of a disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina, is considered a natural experiment.
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True
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The change in subjects’ behavior simply from being observed is known as the Pygmalion effect
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False
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The greatest advantage of a controlled experiment lies in its ability to explain causality.
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True
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The greatest weakness of a controlled laboratory experiment is its artificiality.
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True
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Professor Smidlapp mailed a questionnaire to students on the issue of academic dishonesty. Smidlapp planned to use inferential statistics in the analyses and was concerned about the response rate. You tell Smidlapp that technically the use of inferential statistics assumes that
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All member of the initial sample complete and return the questionnaire
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Monitoring questionnaire returns may enable you to detect which of the following threats to internal validity?
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History
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The primary function of the probe is to
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Get the respondent to answer a question more fully.
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In general, survey research is an appropriate observational method for
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All of these choices are correct
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One of the most important natural abilities of good interviews is their ability to
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Determine very quickly the kind of person the respondent will feel most comfortable with
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Which of the following lists the three main methods of administering survey questionnaires to a sample of respondents?
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Face-to-face interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and telephone surveys
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When follow-ups are planned with mail surveys,
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Response rates typically increase
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Professor Donnelly wants to conduct a training session for new interviewers working on his project… After reviewing the plan you should tell Donnelly to exclude ________ from the session.
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Practice interviews on people that Donnelly’s selected for the new interviewers.
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Which of the following statements is/are INCORRECT?
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Closed-ended questions should limit respondents to three of four choices
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Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding push polls?
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All of these choices are TRUE
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A return rate graph
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Begins on the day the questionnaires were mailed
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A key problem associated with secondary analysis is
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Validity
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In general, survey research is
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Strong on reliability and weak on validity
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Babbie recommends that the interviewer training sessions begin with
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A description of what the study is about
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The following four questions appeared in a survey. Which of the questions is/are a contingency question?
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Q2 and Q3 are contingency questions and Q1 and Q4 are not
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Interview surveys have a number of advantages over mail surveys; which of the following is NOT one of those advantages?
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There is a smaller number of relevant responses given to a question.
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Which of the following is NOT recommended for conducting online surveys?
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Keep changing terminology to keep respondents interested.
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Which of the following is NOT an advantage of interviews as compared to self-administered questionnaires?
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Interviews handle sensitive issues more effectively
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During an interviewer training session, Jones, a trainee, asks you, \”What should I do it…?\” You tell Jones the first thing to do is
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Check the specifications
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a new technology for doing survey research?
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All of these choices are examples of new survey research technologies
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According to Babbie, the minimum level for an adequate response rate for analysis and reporting is
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50%
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Assume that the following would be reasonable conversational questions/statements based on a subject’s previous statement. Which is/are the best probe(s)?
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All of these choices are good probes
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Which question construction guideline does the following questionnaire item most clearly violate? \”Would you not say that crime is not a serious problem in the U.S.?\”
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Avoid negative items
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The questionnaire item \”Did you file federal and state income tax reports last year?\” with a response set of yes, no, can’t remember, other, is an example of a(n)
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Double-barreled question
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Which of the following techniques does Babbie recommend as the \”best\” for the presentation of response categories to the respondent?
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Boxes
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Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the telephone interview as compared to the face-to-face interview
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Telephone interviews prevent interviewer bias
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Which of the following advantages of the interview may raise ethical issues?
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The ability of interviewers to observe respondents as well as ask questions
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Bias in a quesionnaire item
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Encourages respondents to answer questions in a particular way
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Asking a subject \”Did your children go to college?\” after the respondent told you that he/she has no children violates which of the following criteria in questionnaire construction?
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Questions should be relevant
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A particular problem with matrix questions is
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Response-set
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The chief advantage of telephone surveys over those conducted face-to-face center primarily on
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Time and money
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Which one of the following is NOT a strength of survey research?
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They are particularly useful in describing in detail the behaviors of a small population
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All politicians are crooked. How crooked do you feel your own representatives are? The major flaw in this item is that is
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Is biased
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The best format to use for responses to items is
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Boxes
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After designing a questionnaire, the surest protection against such mistakes as ambiguous questions is to
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Pretest the questionnaire with people who at least somewhat resemble your eventual sample.
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How many follow-ups to the original mailing is the most efficient in terms of response rate?
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Two
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A response rate of what percent is adequate for analysis?
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50
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Surveys are particularly appropriate to
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Collect original date to describe a larde population
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Oregon wanted to survey women who cam to a battered women’s shelter, and was particularly concerned with hearing women’s own answers to questions. It would be best to use
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Open-ended questions
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Steve used this item in his questionnaire: \”What do you think about the conflict?\” What is the major weakness with this item?
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It is unclear
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Margaret used this question in her questionnaire given to students: \”Are you satisfied with your grade in this class and the amount of homework?\” What is the major weakness with this item?
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It is double-barreled
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Boyce used this question in his survey of college students: \”What will be your Social Security benefit amount upon retirement?\” What is the major weakness with this item?
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Respondents are not competent to answer the item
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Stephanie used this item in her questionnaire: \”My working conditions are not satisfactory,\” and used \”strongly agree\” to \”strongly disagree\” as responses. What is the major weakness with this item?
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It is a negative item
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Belinda wanted to ask several questions asking about which dimensions of feminism that respondents would agree with. All the items have the same answer categories. Which type of questions would be the best to use?
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Closed-ended matrix
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What is the desired ordering of times in interviews and self-administered questionnaires?
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Ask the demographic items first in interviews and last in questionnaires
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Which one of the following is NOT an advantage of interviews over questionnaires?
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Bias is reduced by the presence of an interviewer
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Generally, interviewers should dress
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Similar to the people they will be interviewing
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When respondents in an interview give inappropriate or incomplete responses, the interviewer should
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Probe
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Regarding sensitive issues and complicated issues, which one of the following is correct?
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Use self-administered questionnaires for sensitive issues and interviews for complicated issues
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Which of the following types of surveys yields the LEAST amount of interviewer bias?
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Mail surveys
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Which of the following types of surveys yield the LOWEST and HIGHest response rates, respectively?
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Mail surveys; personal interviews
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The survey question, \”Do you think that premarital sex is biblically wrong and that persons who engage in premarital sex will likely go to hell?\” is considered an erroneous question because it
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Is a double-barreled question
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David was raised in a Catholic home and school, and did not have the chance to learn about other religions. He was recently asked about his opinions regarding Muslim religion in a questionnaire. If David chooses to voice his opinions, his answers would be
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Erroneous because he was not competent to answer the questions.
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Sara was raped by one of her male friends… If Sara chooses to answer the questions, her answers would be
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Erroneous because she was not willing to answer
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The question, \”Do you believe that the United States should not withdraw its troops from Iraq\” is a problematic because
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Is a negative question
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Roger is training a new batch of interviewers for his project studying attitudes on the 2008 economic bailout package in the U.S. His previous supervisor has indicated that the best training for interviewing is to
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Practice interviewing on each other
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Which of the following is/are a weakness(es) of telephone surveys causing a decrease in response rates?
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All of the above are weaknesses
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As a general rule, a questionnaire should be
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B and C (Spread out, Uncluttered)
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According to Survey Sampling Inc., which of the following statements is generally NOT acceptable in conducting online surveys?
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DO limit studies to 30 minutes
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The higher the response rate, the less likely the chance of a significant response bias.
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True
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Whenever the interview contains open-ended questions, it is important that the interviewer summarize the paraphrase what has been said so that a more meaningful interpretation can be given to the data
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False
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To overcome the effect of the order of questions on respondent’s answers, it is important to randomize the order of the items.
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False
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Open-ended questions are analogous to multiple choice questions and closed-ended questions are analogous to essay questions.
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False
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Closed-ended questions are more appropriate for survey use than open-ended questions.
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False
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Probes are used more frequently in open-ended questions than in closed-ended ones.
answer

True
question

Surveys may be used for descriptive and explanatory purposes but not for exploratory purposes.
answer

False
question

Secondary analysis refers to research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed by another researcher, often for a different purpose.
answer

True
question

The use of inferential statistics in survey analysis assumes that at least 55% of the initial sample completed and returned their questionnaires
answer

False
question

The use of computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) enables a researcher to begin analyzing data before the interviewing is complete.
answer

True
question

Surveys are excellent devices for studying the context of social life.
answer

False
question

A demonstrated lack of response bias is more important than a high response rate.
answer

True
question

The interviewer should be a neutral medium through which questions and answers are transmitted
answer

True
question

Matrix questions can foster a response set.
answer

True
question

Babbie suggests beginning a self-administered questionnaire with interesting items so that respondents glancing over the first few items will want to answer.
answer

True
question

Once interviewers are trained, their work no longer requires supervision
answer

False
question

By definition, the self-administered questionnaire is synonymous with the mail survey.
answer

False
question

The phrasing used in the closed-ended question should allow respondents to attach their own meanings and interpretations to the question.
answer

False
question

The biasing effect of question wording is easily anticipated
answer

False
question

In conducting interview surveys, Sheila is best able to gain rapport by beginning with obtaining demographic information
answer

True
question

The most effective method of determining whether Michael’s questionnaire on sexual assault has problems due to the ordering of the questions is to pretest various versions of the questionnaire.
answer

True
question

When recording responses to open-ended questions, it is okay for the interviewer to rephrase the respondents’ answers
answer

False
question

When conducting an online survey, it is generally acceptable to conduct a survey that is 30 minutes in length.
answer

False
question

An example of the complete participant role is
answer

Joining a sorority or fraternity to study initiation rituals without revealing your identity as a researcher
question

An advantage of field research is
answer

Social processes can be studied over time
question

In comparison to experiments and surveys, field research typically has
answer

Less reliability and less validity
question

Ralph wants to study juries, and more specifically what forepersons do on juries. According to the Loflands, Ralph is most interested in studying
answer

Roles
question

Among the advantages of field research is/are that it
answer

Allows for the modification of research design
question

Jessica is concerned with the problem of reactivity in her study of a local diet group. Which of the following is NOT one of her reactivity concerns?
answer

The members of the diet group might alter their lifestyles and behaviors because they joined the group to lose weight
question

The field researcher
answer

All of these choices are aspects of what the field researcher does
question

According to Michael Buraway, which of the following statements is TRUE?
answer

Extended case study theorist seek to know all the literature before entering the field.
question

Professor Milne was preparing to do some qualitative interviewing in a field research project. Milne knew that you were a research methods student and asked for your advice. You told Milne
answer

None of these choices are good advice for doing qualitative interviewing
question

Which of the following is POOR advice about recording observations in the field?
answer

All of these choices are good advice for recording observations in the field
question

Which of the following could NOT constitute a case in a case study?
answer

All of these choices could constitute a case for a case study.
question

Dr. Fielding is interested in the stratification system in the United States and how it is perpetuated through time… Fielding interviews non minority students, school administrators, guidance counselors, teacher, parents, and social workers at the found high schools. Fielding is probably using a(n) ______ _______ approact.
answer

Institutional ethnography
question

Grounded theory
answer

Is an inductive approach to the study of social life that involves the constant comparison of unfolding observations.
question

Which of the following is POOR advice for a qualitative field interviewer?
answer

Do not deviate from your schedule of pre-established questions.
question

Professor Miller taped eight focus groups to examine citizens’ attitudes toward park development. As a research methods student, you told her that an advantage of the focus group is that
answer

Focus groups have high face validity
question

Sara wanted to learn about battered women… She wanted to write a detailed and accurate description about the lives that the women reported. Which of the following approaches best describes Sara’s research paradigm?
answer

Naturalist
question

Sara, from the previous question, was trying to write a(n)
answer

Ethnography
question

Jenny wants to do research that tells the stories of rape victims. She wants to tell \”their stories\” the way they \”really are.\” Jenny is using a(n) _______ paradigm
answer

Naturalist
question

In reviewing the detailed and accurate descriptions of the stories told by battered women living in a shelter, an ethnomethodologist would say that the battered women in the shelter were
answer

Describing their socially constructed reality and reporting their world as they made sense of it
question

Which of the following statements is FALSE about participatory action research (PAR)?
answer

Researchers should define their subject’s problems, define the desired remedies, and take the lead in helping subjects realize their aims.
question

As noted by Kvale, in a complete interviewing process a researcher will
answer

All of these choices are correct (Thematize, design, transcribe, verify)
question

A(n) ______ focuses on giving a detailed and accurate description rather than explanation.
answer

Ethnography
question

Which of the following exemplifies a breaching experiment
answer

Opening an umbrella on a beautiful day
question

Jamie is interested in uncovering the institutional practices that create sexism in politics. She will probably use the _______ paradigm.
answer

Institutional ethnography
question

Which of the following is NOT part of grounded theory?
answer

All of these choices are part of grounded theory
question

Case studies should NOT be used for
answer

Case studies CAN be used for all of these purposes
question

Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of focus groups?
answer

All of these choices are disadvantages of focus groups
question

The qualitative field research interview is typically
answer

Unstructured
question

Which of the following is FALSE regarding qualitative field research?
answer

Field research is well suited for quantitative analysis
question

Which of the following questions differentiates the various epistemologies within the different paradigms?
answer

What is data, how should we collect data, and how should we analyze data?
question

Field observation differs from some other models of observation in that its a different type of data-collecting activity and also a(n)
answer

Theory-generating activity
question

\”Going native\” is associated with
answer

Playing the complete participated role
question

Stephanie studied new mothers to learn how they coped with their new roles. She looked for patterns, themes, and common categories in her observations, following a systematic set of procedures. Which approach did she use?
answer

Grounded theory
question

Hans wanted to rebuild or improve the theory on adjustment to retirement. In his research, he gave particular attention to all the ways in which observations conflict with theories, based on a sound knowledge of the literature in this area. Which approach did he use?
answer

The extended case method
question

Which approach was originally developed by Dorothy Smith to better understand women’s everyday experiences by discovering the power relations that shape those experiences?
answer

Institutional ethnography
question

Matilda wanted to bring about a dozen first-time users of personal digital assistants to a room where they could engage in a guided discussion of the topic. She should use
answer

Focus groups
question

Which one of the following is NOT a topic particularly appropriate for field research?
answer

The effect of watching a video in a laboratory on prejudice
question

Xavier studied the social interactions within the basketball team at her school. Which one of the following did she study?
answer

Groups
question

Zeke studied friendship patterns among pairs of women and pairs of men. Which one of the following did he study?
answer

Relationships
question

Ethical issues involving deception pertain particularly to
answer

The complete participant role
question

John studied underground miners by becoming a miner. He became increasingly concerned about his role, how he might affect what he studied… This sense of things acting on themselves is known as
answer

Reflexivity
question

The paradigm that is based on the assumption that social reality is \”out there\” ready to be observed and reported by the researcher as it \”really is\” is known as
answer

Naturalism
question

Lorenzo did a study of delinquents in high school and wanted to understand delinquents as they make sense of their social worlds. He was particularly interested in the taken for granted expectations that the delinquents followed. Lorenzo was using which paradigm?
answer

Ethnomethodology
question

Sadie studied one family over several months to describe the social dynamic in the family. Which paradigm did she use?
answer

Case study
question

Piet studied the homeless in his community and began to serve as a resource to them by providing contacts for social services. The homeless people he studied defined their problems, defined the remedies desired, and helped design the research that will help them realize their goals. Which paradigm did Piet use?
answer

Participatory action research
question

The most appropriate first step in field research is to
answer

Search the relevant literature
question

A qualitative interview is most like a(n)
answer

Conversation
question

Focus groups are typically used in
answer

Marketing research
question

Which one of the following is NOT good advice for recording observations?
answer

Avoid rewriting your notes
question

When a police officer goes undercover and joins the Ku Klux Klan in an effort to determine if there are any criminal activities being planned, he/she has engaged in ______.
answer

Participant observation
question

If the members of the Ku Klux Klan do not know that they are being observed by a police officer, the observational method is considered
answer

Reactive
question

If we are interested in studying the rates of divorce, illness or domestic violence in field research, we are focusing on ______.
answer

Episodes
question

A researcher who is interested in studying the effects of poverty in a low-income neighborhood introduces himself to the residents as a researcher, and informs them of his research interest… This researcher is known as a(n) _________.
answer

Participant-as-observer
question

The following are all sampling strategies in field research except
answer

Random sampling
question

In qualitative interviewing, it is important
answer

To be aware of your responses so that you are confident that you are not shaping the respondent’s answers in any way
question

Harry, an ethnographer, lived among the homeless in Queens, NY for a year and has recently written a book on his observations… In stating that conclusion, Harry has committed the
answer

Ethnographic fallacy
question

Research that is a process of producing knowledge and political outcomes that are beneficial to oppressed people is known as
answer

Emancipatory research
question

_______ research is the process whereby the disadvantaged subjects define their problems, define the remedies desired, and take the lead in designing the research that will help them realize their aims.
answer

Participatory action
question

In a focus group, typically ________ people are brought together in a private, comfortable environment to engage in a guided discussion of some topic. The subjects are selected based on the relevance to the topic under study.
answer

5-15
question

Unstructured interviews are less appropriate for field designs than structured interviews
answer

Fale
question

The complete participant must be a genuine member of the group that he/she is studying.
answer

False
question

Your field notes should record what you know happened, NOT what you think happened
answer

False
question

Qualitative field researchers must always participate in what they are studying
answer

False
question

The extended case study approach is a valuable technique for deciding whether to reject or approve a theory
answer

False
question

Researchers who assume the role of the complete participant are unlikely to affect what they are studying.
answer

False
question

Advocates of PAR equate access to information with power
answer

True
question

Qualitative field researchers should wait to record observations until enough time has passed to put the events in a proper perspective
answer

False
question

The terms \”field research\” and \”participant observation\” are synonyms
answer

False
question

Qualitative field research differs from other forms of observation in that it is both a data-collecting and a theory-generating activity
answer

True
question

Specific methods do not link to specific paradigms
answer

True
question

Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory
answer

True
question

Focus group participants are typically selected via probability samples
answer

False
question

Field researchers are like journalists; the two share a similar relationship to data
answer

False
question

The questions we want to answer in our research determine the types of methods we need to use.
answer

True
question

One of the advantages of field research is that it raises very few ethical concerns
answer

False
question

A focus group is organized to bring together as diverse a population as possible
answer

False
question

In most interviewing protocols, it is usually better to establish rapport before proceeding with difficult or sensitive topics.
answer

True
question

A researchers who sits in a corner and observes people’s behavior at a sports bar is conducting observer as participant research
answer

False
question

A common example of observer as participant research is the one-visit interview where researchers ask interview questions, but there is no give-and-take conversation with participants
answer

True
question

Field research differs from surveys and experiments in that the researcher’s role in the field research is likely to be more objective
answer

False

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