Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics Review

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perfectly absorbs and emits all radiation
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Which of the following phrases correctly describes a blackbody?
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the ultraviolet catastrophe
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Classical electromagnetic theory predicted that the energy radiated by a blackbody would become infinite as the wavelength of the radiation became shorter. What was the contradiction between observation and this result called?
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Energy increases with frequency
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Which of the following statements is true about the energy of a quantum of radiation?
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Photon wavelengths lengthen as they lose energy to electrons.
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Which of the following statements correctly describes the Compton shift that occurs when photons scatter from electrons?
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The atomic nucleus was a small, compact region of positive charge and the electrons moved around the nucleus like planets orbiting the sun.
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What did Rutherford’s experiment demonstrate?
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The Compton shift, emission spectra, the photoelectric effect, and blackbody radiation
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What observation was NOT explained by the Rutherford model of the atom?
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It consists of narrow bright lights.
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Which of the following statements is true about an emission spectrum?
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an absorption spectrum
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What type of spectrum is observed in the light from the sun and other stars?
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Only specific electron orbits with given energies are stable.
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Which of the following is a feature of the Bohr model of the atom?
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as the frequency of the photons increases
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At what point do photons behave less like waves and more like particles?
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the diffraction of electrons by a single crystal
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Which of the following experiments indicated that matter waves exist?
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The more accurately one quantity is measured, the less accurately the other quantity is known
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Which of the following statements correctly describes the results of simultaneous measurement of momentum and location for a particle?
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blackbody
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What term is used to describe a perfect radiator and absorber of electromagnetic radiation?
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quanta
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What were the units of light energy emitted by blackbody radiation originally called?
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empty space
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According to the Rutherford model, what makes up most of the volume of an atom? (The nucleus is a very small, positively charged part of the atom.)
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electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged nucleus and alpha particles
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In Rutherford’s experiment, why did the nucleus repel alpha particles?
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nucleus
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What is the concentration of positive charge and mass in Rutherford’s atomic model called?
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The model explains spectral lines.
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Which statement about Rutherford’s model of the atom is NOT correct?
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emission
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When a high potential difference is applied to a low-pressure gas, what kind of spectrum will the gas emit?
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All of the lines result from discrete energy differences.
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Which statement about emission spectra is correct?
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a series of discrete bright lines
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What would you observe if light from argon gas were passed through a prism? (emission spectra)
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Electrons emit radiation continuously while orbiting the nucleus.
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Which of the following is NOT a feature of Bohr’s model of the atom? (The higher energy levels are separated by smaller amounts in diagrams.)
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spontaneous emission
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What is the process in which an electron returns to a lower energy level and emits a photon? (This is what causes the bright lines in the emission spectrum.)
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Light will act either like a wave or like a particle.
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How will light behave in a single experiment, according to the principle of wave-particle duality?
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the photoelectric effect
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Which of the following processes is more easily observable for light with a short wavelength?
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The more accurately one value is measured, the less accurately the other value is known.
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According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which of the following statements about the simultaneous measurements of position and momentum is true?
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The wave effects of light become more difficult to observe.
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What happens as the frequency of photons increases?
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a probability cloud
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What picture of the electron is suggested by the quantum-mechanical model of the hydrogen atom?
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the distance from the nucleus at which the electron is most likely to be found
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What does the peak of a probability curve for an electron in an atom indicate?
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A series of spectral lines emitted by an atomic gas when a voltage is applied
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What is an emission spectrum?
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wave model
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Which model of light best explains interference phenomena?
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particle
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Which model of light best explains the photoelectric effect?
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the energy of the incoming photons is equal to twice the maximum KE of emitted photons
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The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons emitted by a metal exposed to light of a given wavelength happens to be equal to the work function of the metal. How does the energy of the incoming photons compare to the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons?
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work function
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for a photoelectron to be emitted by a metal exposed to photons, the energy of the photons must be greater than its work function (measured in eV)
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KE = hf – hf(t)
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What is the work function of photons — work function of metals?

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