Please enter something

pysch ch.10, 13, 14

question

Which statement is true?
answer

Sex is a biological concept, and gender is a sociocultural concept.
question

Researchers have NOT found male-female differences in
answer

general intelligence.
question

A(n) ________ individual has ambiguous or inconsistent indicators of male or female in the sexual structures or organs.
answer

intersexual
question

The term “gender ______” refers to the collection of actions, beliefs, and characteristics that a culture associates with masculinity and femininity.
answer

role
question

An androgynous individual:
answer

exhibits behaviors associated with both genders
question

Which sequence correctly orders the phases of the human sexual response cycle, from first to last?
answer

excitement –> plateau –> orgasm –> resolution
question

Approximately 1% of the population is asexual. An asexual individual:
answer

is not sexually attracted to other people
question

Kinsey’s pioneering studies allowed him to do all the following EXCEPT:
answer

specify the causes of sexual behavior and practices
question

What is the current consensus on conversion or reparative therapy?
answer

Homosexuality does not need to, and cannot be, “cured.”
question

Sexual scripts are the:
answer

cultural rules specifying “appropriate” sexual activities.
question

A _____ disorder is a set of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that are significantly distressing and disabling.
answer

psychological
question

Which is NOT one of the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook?
answer

distress dysfunction deviance –>disability<–
question

The primary purpose of the DSM-5 is to provide:
answer

descriptions of disorders.
question

Dr. Fritsch and Dr. Gupta are debating why depression is more prevalent among women than among men. “Women have fewer economic opportunities than do men, and they experience role conflicts more often,” notes Dr. Fritsch. Dr. Gupta remarks that women experience fluctuations in estrogen levels, whereas men do not. Dr. Fritsch appears to take a _____ approach to depressive disorders, whereas Dr. Gupta seems to favor a _____ approach.
answer

sociocultural; medical
question

When people suffer from _____, they often feel intense fear that something horrible is about to happen. These feelings last several minutes and include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness.
answer

panic disorder
question

Twenty-year-old Brianna lives in a small town. She has always been extremely shy, but lately she has been feeling intensely afraid that others are scrutinizing her. She avoids speaking in class, she no longer goes to parties, and she no longer goes out to eat in restaurants. Brianna seems to be suffering from:
answer

social phobia.
question

Which of the following is NOT included in the cyclic nature of depression?
answer

A depressed person sees positives highlighted.
question

Which of the following is NOT considered a warning sign for suicide, meaning that you should be concerned right now?
answer

Depression
question

Chase stole money from the local grocery store on the corner to buy beer. He later assaulted a 72-yearold woman and stole her purse. In the alley, he dumped the purse, went to Starbucks for a cup of coffee, and proceeded to take the train. On the train, a woman accidentally stepped on his shoes, and he threw the hot coffee on her and laughed. Chase would be considered to have a(n) _______ personality disorder.
answer

antisocial
question

Mr. James incorrectly believes that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Mr. James is suffering from a(n):
answer

delusion.
question

Which approach to psychological therapy is correctly defined?
answer

humanistic therapy – emphasizes positive growth
question

In the late 1700’s, _____ began reforming the conditions in asylums to make them more humane
answer

Philippe Pinel
question

Malika sees her therapist every other week. When she is at her therapist’s office, she feels accepted and can share anything. While her therapist listens to what Malika has to say without judgment, he also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification. Malika’s therapist is practicing:
answer

person-centered therapy.
question

A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca BEST illustrates:
answer

exposure.
question

In an eating disorders clinic, the patients receive merits for appropriate behaviors on the unit and for good eating behaviors such as finishing their meals. This BEST illustrates an application of:
answer

a token economy
question

Marcel receives an 87 on the second midterm in his calculus course—the first time he has ever received anything less than an A in any course. Marcel now believes he will never succeed in math courses. Marcel is demonstrating:
answer

over generalization.
question

Which term in Ellis’ A-B-C model is correctly illustrated with an example?
answer

Activating condition – a midterm test is scheduled for next week
question

Improving conflict management and communication skills is one of the main objectives of:
answer

couples therapy
question

Which is NOT a type of medication used to treat psychological disorders?
answer

anticompulsives.
question

What makes psychotherapy effective?
answer

the working alliance with the therapist
question

Sexuality
answer

Sexual activities, attitudes, and behaviors
question

Genetic sex
answer

Determined by sperm XX or XY
question

sex chromosomes
answer

X chromosome from mother X or Y chromosome from father
question

Klinefelters syndrome
answer

A male is born with at least an extra X chromosome in the 23rd chromosome (XXY)
question

Tuner’s syndrome
answer

A female is born with only one X > Infertile/ovaries under-developed
question

Gender schemas
answer

>Created by psychological or mental guidelines that dictate how to be feminine or masculine >Crossing gender-role boundaries and engaging in behaviors associated with both genders
question

Gender Free Baby Storm)
answer

Toronto parents Kathy Witterick and David Stocker decided to raise their third child gender-free
question

Transgender
answer

People whose gender identity and expression do not typically match the gender assigned to them at birth
question

Transsexual
answer

Individual who seeks or undergoes a social transition to the other gender, and who may make changes to his or her body through surgery and medical treatment
question

Masters and Johnson
answer

>Conducted pioneering laboratory research on basic phsiology of human sexual response >Were the first to attempt to “convert” homosexuals to heterosexual
question

excitement
answer

Physical changes of arousal become evident
question

plateau
answer

Progression from previous phase; no clear beginning
question

orgasm
answer

A combo of “gratifying sensations” and rhythmic muscle contractions
question

resolution
answer

The body returns to a relaxed state, reversing the excitement
question

Sobel and colleagues
answer

WEEPING RELEASES A CHEMICAL THAT REDUCES SEXUAL AROUSAL. collected tears from “easy criers” and held jars of these tears under the noses of male participants.
question

Sexual Orientation
answer

“enduring pattern” of sexual, romantic, and emotional attraction that individuals exhibit toward the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes.
question

Heterosexual
answer

Attraction to members of the opposite sex
question

Asexual
answer

No attraction to others
question

Kinsey’s Research
answer

First to scientifically and objectively examine human sexuality in America. His research revealed that: -Both men and women masturbate -Study participants had experiences with: Premarital sex, Adultery, Sexual activity with someone of the same sex
question

Psychological disorder
answer

Set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive symptoms that are significantly distressing and disabling in terms of social functioning, work endeavors, and other aspects of life
question

Abnormal psychology
answer

Academic field devoted to the study of psychological disorders
question

Typicality
answer

Degree to which behavior is atypical, meaning rarely seen or statistically abnormal
question

Dysfunction
answer

Degree to which behavior interferes with daily life and relationships
question

Distress
answer

Degree to which behavior or emotions cause a person to feel upset or uncomfortable
question

Deviance
answer

Degree to which behavior is considered outside the standards of society
question

Maladaptive behaviors
answer

Behaviors or actions that run counter to what is in one’s own best interest
question

Abnormal behavior
answer

Behavior that is atypical, dysfunctional, distressful, and/or deviant
question

Amok
answer

A sudden, violent, and aggressive outburst
question

Susto
answer

Being frightened by a black magic curse
question

Koro
answer

Fear of genitals receding into the body
question

Ghost sickness
answer

Preoccupation with death and the deceased
question

stigma
answer

>Refers to negative attitude or opinion about a group of people based on certain traits or characteristics >Leads to discrimination and stereotypes
question

DSM-5
answer

>The manual is designed to summarize the signs and symptoms of disorders for the clinician to use as an evaluative tool. > Criteria can help guide clinicians to accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment.
question

Rosenhan’s study
answer

>Had themselves committed to mental hospitals with a diagnosis of “Schizophrenia” >None of them was ever recognized by hospital staff as a phony patient Real patients knew they were “fake”
question

Atheoretical approach
answer

>In 1980 an update of the DSM included a checklist of signs and symptoms to make it easier for mental health professional to agree on diagnoses. >This atheoretical approach tended to limit understanding of patients and the overlapping of criteria across disorders—leading to over diagnosis of some patients.
question

Comorbidity
answer

Occurrence of two or more disorders at the same time
question

Psychological factors model
answer

Cognitive factors of personality characteristics contribute to the development and maintenance of disorders or ways of learning or childhood experiences lay their foundation.
question

Sociocultural factors model
answer

Centers on social factors, like poverty and community support systems and their role in the development and course of disorders.
question

Anxiety Disorders
answer

People who suffer from anxiety disorders have extreme anxiety and/or debilitating, irrational fears.
question

Panic Disorder
answer

Includes recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and fear that can cause significant changes in behavior
question

SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
answer

>Excessive fear of social interactions or situations >The underlying problem is an excessive fear of negative feedback from others.
question

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
answer

>Characterized by excessive amount of worry and anxiety about activities relating to family, health, school, and other aspects of everyday life. >Accompanied by physical symptoms such as muscle tension and restlessness.
question

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
answer

Psychological disorder characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions that are repetitive and cause a great deal of distress.
question

Obsession
answer

Thought, urge, or image that happens repeatedly, is intrusive and unwelcome, and often causes anxiety and distress
question

Complusion
answer

Behavior or “mental act” that a person repeats over and over in an effort to reduce anxiety
question

Major Depressive Disorder
answer

A psychological disorder that includes at least one major depressive episode, with symptoms such as depressed mood, problems with sleep, and loss of energy.
question

BIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION
answer

>Genetic factors >Neurotransmitters and the brain Norephinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine and irregularities in amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus are associated with cause and course of MDD. >Hormones
question

Beck’s triad definition of depression
answer

Negative view of experiences, self, and the future
question

Learned helplessness
answer

Tendency for people to believe they have no control over the consequences of their behaviors, resulting in passive behavior
question

SELIGMAN’S RESEARCH ON LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
answer

Dogs restrained in a hammock were unable to escape painful shocks
question

Manic episodes
answer

States of continuous elation that are out of proportion to the setting, and can include irritability, very high and sustained levels of energy, and an “expansive” mood
question

Bipolar cycling
answer

Some people with bipolar disorder cycle between extreme highs and lows of emotion and energy that last for days, weeks, or even months.
question

Personality Disorders
answer

People with _______ exhibit “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an [early] onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.”
question

Cluster A
answer

Odd or Eccentric
question

Cluster B
answer

Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic
question

Cluster C
answer

Anxious or Fearful
question

Antisocial Personality Disorder
answer

>Lie, exhibit aggression, impulsive, or irritable behaviors >Create good first impression and are often charming >Lack empathy, concern for others, or remorse
question

Borderline Personality Disorder
answer

>Incomplete sense of self and feelings of emptiness >Depressed moods, feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, and shame >Emotionally unstable, intense, and extremely needy
question

Schizophrenia
answer

>Loss of contact with reality that is severe and chronic >Pyschoctic symptoms include delusions and hallucinations >Men and women equally affected; male diagnosed earlier than women; higher prevalence among lower SES
question

Hallucinations
answer

Imaginary sensations that do not exist in the real world
question

Delusions
answer

False beliefs that individuals insist are true, regardless of overwhelming evidence against them
question

Diathesis-stress model
answer

Suggests that developing schizophrenia involves genetic predisposition and environmental triggers
question

Dissociation
answer

Disturbance in the normally integrated experience of psychological functions involved in memory, consciousness, perception, or identity
question

Dissociative amensia
answer

Psychological disorder marked by difficulty remembering important personal information and life events
question

Dissociative fugue
answer

Condition in which a person with dissociative amnesia wanders about in a confused and unexpected manner
question

Dissociative Identity Disorder
answer

Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personalities *Goal of therapy is to integrate and fuse identities into single, balanced personality
question

Trephination
answer

>Boring, chipping, or bashing holes into a patient’s head
question

Mid to late 1800s
answer

Dix championed mental hygiene movement in United States.
question

Early 1900s
answer

Psychiatrists began to view mental health as continuum; classification of disorders begins.
question

Dorothea Dix
answer

led the nation’s “mental hygiene movement,” an effort to improve the treatment of people living in mental institutions.
question

Deinstitutionalization
answer

Mass movement of patients with psychological disorders out of mental institutions, and the attempt to reintegrate them into the community
question

Psychotherapy
answer

Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in personality, behavior, or adjustment
question

Insight
answer

Goal is for clients to gain deeper understanding of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
question

Action
answer

Goal to bring about direct changes in troublesome thoughts, habits, feelings, or behavior without seeking insight into their origins or meanings
question

Free association
answer

Saying whatever comes to mind, regardless of what it sounds like
question

Resistance
answer

-Topics the client resists thinking about or discussing -Reveals particularly important unconscious conflicts
question

Manifest
answer

-Tendency to transfer feelings to a therapist that match those the patient has for important people in his or her past -The patient might act like the therapist is a rejecting father, loving mother, etc.
question

Freud
answer

Freud proposed that humans are motivated by aggression and sex.
question

Rogers
answer

-Emphasized positive nature of humankind and concentrates on present and current problems.
question

Person-centered therapy
answer

-Natural tendency toward self-actualization but family and social may hinder growth and can incongruence between ideal self and real self -Main treatment goal is reduction of incongruence between these selves.
question

Behavior Therapies
answer

Use of learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior *Classical or operant conditioning
question

Exposure
answer

Technique of placing clients in feared situations without any risk
question

Response prevention
answer

Person is encouraged to confront feared object or situation to prevent normal, fearful response.
question

Systematic desensitization
answer

Combination of anxiety hierarachies with relaxation techniques -Often uses progressive muscle relaxation
question

Aversion therapy
answer

-Links problem behaviors to unpleasant physical reactions -Goal to make people have involuntary unpleasant physical reaction to undesired behavior
question

Behavior modification
answer

Draws on principles of operant conditioning, shaping behavior through reinforcement
question

Positive reinforcements
answer

Responses that are followed by reinforcement tend to occur more frequently
question

Nonreinforcement and extinction
answer

-A response that is not followed by reinforcement will occur less frequently. -If a response is not followed by reward after it has been repeated many times, it will extinguish entirely
question

Token Economy
answer

Positive reinforcement used to encourage good behavior.
question

Aaron Beck
answer

The father of cognitive therapy, believes that distorted thought processes lie at the heart of psychological problems.
question

Automatic thoughts
answer

>Proposed as roots of psychological disturbances >Cognitive distortions or errors in thinking cause misinterpretation of life events.
question

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
answer

Attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problems
question

Group Therapies – Couples
answer

>Uses many different therapeutic approaches >Tends to focus on conflict management and communication > Is more successful when commitment to save marriage exists
question

Pyschopharmacology
answer

Scientific study of how these medications alter perceptions, moods, behaviors, and other aspects of psychological functioning
question

Antidepressants
answer

>Psychotropic medications used for the treatment of depression; often major depressive disorder >Three Classes: -Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) -Tricyclic antidepressants -Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
question

Mood Stabilizers
answer

Psychotropic medications that minimize the lows of depression and the highs of mania
question

Anticonvulsants
answer

may also be used to reduce symptoms of mania; some may increase risk of suicide.
question

Antipsychotics
answer

>Psychotropic medication used in the treatment of psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. >Designed to block neurotransmitter receptors; often used to reduce dopamine activity in brain.
question

Psychotropic medications
answer

Used for treating the symptoms of anxiety disorders, including panic disorders, social phobias, and generalized anxiety disorders
question

Most antianxiety medications are benzodiazepines
answer

fast-acting, but dangerously addictive; enhances effect of neurotransmitter (GABA).
question

Deep brain stimulation
answer

Involves implanting a device that supplies weak electrical stimulation to specific areas of the brain thought to be linked to depression
question

Repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
answer

Electromagnetic coils are put on (or above) a person’s head, directing brief electrical current into a particular area of the brain.
question

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)
answer

>An electric shock is sent through the patient’s brain, sufficient to induce convulsions >Associated with memory loss for events occurring around the time of treatment and high relapse rates (patients generally return about every 6 months for “booster sessions”) >Generally considered a treatment of last resort after less intrusive methods have tried and failed
question

The Working Alliance
answer

>this includes warmth, empathy, genuineness, and rapport
question

Therapy
answer

>Many fewer side effects >Better long term outcomes >Looks at the root of the problem
question

Medication
answer

>Faster >Easier >Less stigma >May be the best treatment