Public speaking notes

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Good speech delivery
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sounds conversational even though it has been rehearsed.
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Good speech delivery
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has a conversational quality. and does not call attention to itself.
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Communication based on a speaker’s body and voice, rather than on the use of words, is
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nonverbal communication.
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In which situation would a speaker be most likely to read from a manuscript?
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a speech on international policy at the United Nations
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A political candidate is running for office and must give a speech that will lay out the details of her platform. The speech will be widely covered by newspapers and television. What kind of delivery is the candidate most likely to use?
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manuscript
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When speaking from a manuscript, you should
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which situation would a speaker be most likely to recite a speech from memory? a. when making a toast at a wedding
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According to your textbook, the __________ speaker delivers a speech with little or no immediate preparation.
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impromptu
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend when you need to speak impromptu?
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Maintain eye contact with the audience. and Use signposts to help listeners keep track of your ideas.
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Diego needs to make an impromptu response to another speaker at a staff meeting. Your textbook recommends that he should do all of the following except
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tell the audience how nervous he is about impromptu speaking.
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The __________ speaker uses only brief notes or a speaking outline to jog the memory.
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extemporaneous
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A speech that is fully prepared in advance but that is delivered from a brief set of notes or a speaking outline is called a(n) __________ speech.
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extemporaneous
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Speaking extemporaneously
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is adaptable to more situations than is speaking from manuscript.
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Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of extemporaneous delivery?
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It allows greater spontaneity than does speaking from a manuscript.
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Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of using visual aids in a public speech?
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a. Using visual aids enhances the clarity of the speaker’s message. and Using visual aids can help combat the speaker’s stage fright.
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According to your textbook, which of the following is an advantage of using visual aids in a speech?
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a. Using visual aids can increase the clarity of a speaker’s message. b. Using visual aids can increase the audience’s retention of a speaker’s message. c. Using visual aids can increase the persuasiveness of a speaker’s message. d. all of the above
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Visual aids can be very useful to a speaker because they
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enhance the clarity of a speaker’s ideas.
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Visual aids are often helpful to a speaker because they can
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a. enhance the clarity of a speaker’s ideas. b. make information more interesting to listeners. c. help listeners retain a speaker’s ideas. d. all of the above.
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If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is
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model.
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As your textbook explains, if you plan to use a photograph as a visual aid in a speech, you should usually
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display the photograph with PowerPoint.
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__________ are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patterns.
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Graphs
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If you were discussing statistical trends in a speech, what kind of visual aid would probably work best to clarify the trends for listeners?
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graph
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A __________ graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space.
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line
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If you wanted to compare the changes over the last 10 years in the number of people who get their news from newspapers and the number of people who get their news from the Internet, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a
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line graph
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Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to illustrate the rising cost of a college degree?
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line graph
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Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to show changes in the homicide rate in Washington, D.C., over the past twenty years?
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line graph
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A __________ graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns.
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pie
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A __________ graph is best suited for illustrating the relationship among parts of a whole.
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pie
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a student sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she has read
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a teacher explaining the requirements for an assignment
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a social worker explaining adoption laws to potential parents
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a business manager reporting on next year’s budget and a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a banker explaining how the stock market operates
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Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
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a doctor explaining how antioxidants affect the body
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In an informative speech, the speaker acts as a(n)
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teacher.
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According to your textbook, the aims of an informative speech include
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a. communicating the speaker’s information clearly. b. communicating the speaker’s information accurately. c. making the speaker’s information meaningful to the audience. d. all of the above.
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According to your textbook, the questions listeners ask when judging an informative speech include
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a. Is the information communicated clearly? b. Is the information communicated accurately? c. Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience? d. all of the above
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As explained by your textbook, “To inform my audience about the role of 1940s actress Hedy Lamarr in the development of cell phone technology” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
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object.
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To inform my audience about the major achievements of Ronald Reagan” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
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object.
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To inform my audience about the major parts of a motion-picture camera” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
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object.
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As explained by your textbook, “To inform my audience about the Native Americans who transmitted coded messages for the U.S. during World War II” is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
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object.
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As explained in your textbook, “To inform my audience about the steps in creating a rooftop garden” is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n
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process.
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Of all the kinds of speechmaking, __________ speaking is the most complex and the most challenging.
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persuasive
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Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
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an architectural firm recommending adoption of its building plan
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Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
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a union representative urging management to avoid a strike by raising wages
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Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
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a volunteer convincing a group of citizens to sign a petition
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Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
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a developer urging the city council to build a new convention center
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According to your textbook, persuasive speakers have an ethical obligation to
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make sure their goals are ethically sound. b. learn about all sides of an issue. c. present their evidence fairly and accurately. d. all of the above.
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According to your textbook, persuasive speakers have an ethical obligation to
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learn about all sides of an issue and present their evidence fairly and accurately.
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According to your textbook, persuasion is a psychological process in which listeners engage in a __________ with the speaker.
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mental dialogue
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According to your textbook, you should think of your persuasive speech as
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a kind of mental dialogue with the audience.
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As your textbook explains, if you want to persuade a skeptical audience, you need to
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answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
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If you want to persuade a skeptical audience, which of the following is it most important for you to do in your speech?
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Answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
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That part of the audience a speaker most wants to persuade is called the
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target audience.
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The __________ is that portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
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target audience
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Luna wanted to convince the technology department at her company to adopt a new database system. Some staff members supported the change, a few were opposed, and most were undecided. Luna realized that the undecided group was her __________ , so she focused most of her effort on them
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target audience
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What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed
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ethos.
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According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are
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competence and character.
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According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are competence and
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character.
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As explained in your textbook, the credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak is called _________ credibility.
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initial
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According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech is called _________ credibility.
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terminal
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According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker produced by everything the speaker says or does during the speech itself is called
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derived credibility
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According to your textbook, when is it especially important for a persuasive speaker to establish common ground with the audience?
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at the beginning of the speech
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To create common ground with an audience in the introduction of a persuasive speech, your textbook recommends that you
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show the audience that you share their values.
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Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech?
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a. Explain your expertise on the speech topic. b. Deliver your speeches fluently and expressively. c. Establish common ground with your audience. d. all of the above
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Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech?
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Establish common ground with your audience.
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According to your textbook, research has shown that
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speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively
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Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true?
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The same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience.
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Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true
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A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s competence and character.
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Efram’s audience was persuaded by his speech because they perceived him to be sincere, trustworthy, and to have their best interests at heart. Which factor of credibility influenced Efram’s audience?
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character
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Which of the following is an example of a speech for a special occasion?
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a speech presenting an award to a retiring newspaper editor
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One main purpose of a speech of introduction is to
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create a welcoming climate to build enthusiasm for the main speaker.
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Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a guideline for a speech of introduction?
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Make sure your remarks about the main speaker are completely accurate.
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All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for a speech of introduction except
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Bring the speech to life by using a hypothetical example.
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All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for a speech of introduction except
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limit your remarks till ten minutes.
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As your textbook explains, when you give a speech of introduction, you should be sure to adapt your remarks to the
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a. occasion. b. audience. c. main speaker. d. all of the above.
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What does it mean to say that a speech of introduction should be “adapted to the main speaker”?
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The speech should avoid creating discomfort for the main speaker
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One method recommended in your textbook for creating a sense of drama and anticipation in a speech of introduction is to
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save the name of the main speaker until the final moment.
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According to your textbook, the best way to create a sense of anticipation and drama in a speech of introduction is to
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save the name for the last speaker last
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At the annual basketball banquet, Clark is introducing the men’s coach, a man who is well known by everyone in the room. According to your textbook, the best way for Clark to create a sense of anticipation and drama in his speech of introduction is to
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be creative by learning about the coach and casting him in a new light.
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As president of the city’s historical society, Madeline is introducing the guest speaker at the society’s year-end banquet. According to your textbook, the best way for Madeline to create a sense of anticipation and drama in her speech of introduction is to
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a. save the name of the guest speaker for last.
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A speaker introducing the president of a university to an audience of prospective students and their families will best accomplish this goal by
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summarizing the presidents major accomplishments at the university.
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According to your textbook, the main purpose of a speech of presentation is to present
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a gift or an award to the recipient.
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When giving a speech of presentation, you should usually
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tell why the recipient is receiving her or his award.
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Which of the following is an example of a speech of presentation?
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a speech presenting a certificate of recognition to an outstanding worker
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According to your textbook, a dyad is
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a group of two people.
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As explained in your textbook, one of the defining traits of a small group is that
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members of the group assemble for a specific purpose.
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As explained in your textbook, which of the following is a defining trait of a small group?
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the group assembles for a specific purpose and the group contains a minimum of three members
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As explained in your textbook, a group member to whom other members defer because of his or her rank or expertise is called a(n)
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the group assembles for a specific purpose and the group contains a minimum of three members
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As explained in your textbook, a group member to whom other members defer because of his or her rank or expertise is called a(n)
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implied leader.
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The person who assumes a leadership role in a small group because of her or his ability, personality, or talkativeness is termed a(n)
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emergent leader.
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According to your textbook, a small group that meets for only one session should almost always have a(n) __________ leader.
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b. designated
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As the vice president for employee relations, Manuel is the only member of his company’s executive team attending informal small group meetings where employees are considering proposals to revise the company’s personal leave policies. Beginning at its very first meeting, the group looks to Manuel for leadership. What kind of leader is Manuel
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implied leader
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Miriam is the only member of her small group with professional experience on their subject, so her group naturally looks to her to guide the project. What kind of leader is Miriam?
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implied leader
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Rochelle was appointed by her boss to chair a small committee to draft a policy statement on personal use of the office computers. She called a meeting of the group for 9 a.m. Wednesday morning. According to your textbook, what kind of leader is Rochelle?
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designated leader
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Randall is talkative and offers his opinions freely during small group meetings. Because he participates more than the other members, he has assumed a leadership role within the group. What kind of leader is Randall?
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emergent leader.
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As explained in your textbook, the leadership needs faced by all problem-solving small groups include
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a. task needs. b. maintenance needs. c. procedural needs. d. all of the above.
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According to your textbook, what are the three kinds of leadership needs faced by all problem-solving small groups?
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tasks needs, procedural needs, and maintenance needs.
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Which of the following is a procedural need of a problem-solving small group?
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reserving a room for the group next meeting.
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Which of the following is a procedural need of a problem-solving small group?
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deciding when and where the group will be meeting.
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According to your textbook, each of the following is a procedural need of a small group except
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analyzing the issue facing the group.

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