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Public Speaking Final Review

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Reasoned persuasion emphasizes
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the responsible use of evidence and proofs.
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_____ circumvents the ethical burden or persuasive justification by over-relying on baseless appeals.
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Manipulative persuasion
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The fact that effective public speaking almost always impresses audiences best reflects what form of credibility discussed in your text?
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emerging
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What kind of reasoning is best reflected by comparing the current “war on drugs” to the prohibition of alcohol during the early twentieth century?
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analogical
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When Julie argues that we should not listen to Jerome’s ideas for immigration reform because, “He’s just a right-wing idiot!” she is probably guilty of what persuasive fallacy?
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ad hominem
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What kind of fallacy are we guilty of when we misstate opposing views in a manner that makes them easier to discredit?
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straw man
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What type of fallacy occurs when we change the subject or simply ignore the issue at hand?
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red herring
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Before an audience opposed to health care reform, Jane praises President Obama for supporting health care reform without arguing for or defending its merits. Given her audience, she is likely guilty of which of the following fallacies?
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begging the question
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Reasoned persuasion relies most heavily on which form of proof?
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logos
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What fallacy has been employed when speakers make persuasive claims that simply do not follow their reasoning and evidence?
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non sequitur
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Which type of proof is most associated with invoking traditional narratives and values?
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mythos
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What kind of reasoning is best reflected by the statement, “War is always wrong. Therefore, I opposed the war in Iraq.”
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deductive
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By syllogism, we mean
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a deductive argument that reasons from shared principles.
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What kind of reasoning works primarily from observation?
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inductive
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What form of proof is invoked when you cite your own expert credentials?
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ethos
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What kind of reasoning is most reflected by signs carried by Civil Rights activists declaring “I Am a Man”?
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definition of central concepts
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Proof by _____ is especially useful for moving audiences to action.
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pathos
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What form of persuasive evidence is used when opponents of the Affordable Care Act (a.k.a., “Obamacare”) cite prominent supporters of the act acknowledging problems with its implementation?
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reluctant witness
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All of the following are guidelines for the ethical use of persuasive evidence except
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do not use evidence just to support your position.
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All of the following are advice for ethical argumentation except
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do not argue a position when there are opposing views.
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All of the following are types of persuasive speaking except
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speeches addressing the meaning of formal occasions.
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What kind of persuasive speech would you present in support of a disputed tax cut?
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a speech advocating action or policy
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What kind of speech would you present to persuade listeners that Oswald acted alone when he assassinated President Kennedy?
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a speech addressing disputed facts
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Which stage in the persuasive process is most associated with consciousness raising?
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awareness
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Emotional appeals are especially important in what stage of the persuasive process?
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enactment
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The motivated sequence speech design includes all of the following parts except
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engage opposing views.
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A co-active approach to persuasion is most useful for
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engaging reluctant audiences.
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What stage of the persuasive process is concerned with making the effects of persuasion lasting?
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integration
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Speakers should consider all of the following concerns of ethical persuasion except
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am I committing a self-fulfilling prophecy?
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Your text offers all of the following strategies for uniting divided audiences except
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– invoking shared values and traditions. – invoking shared problems and challenges. – providing a concrete first step that listeners can take towards shared action. – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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A speech encouraging students to recycle would most likely follow what persuasive speech design?
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problem-solution
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Your text offers all of the following advice for removing barriers to commitment among undecided listeners except
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– provided needed information in the minds of listeners. – emphasize the importance of your message by reaffirming shared values. – strengthen your credibility by reasoning constructively and citing reputable sources. – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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A _____ approach to persuasion engages generic questions a thoughtful audience will likely ask before agreeing to a change in policy or procedure.
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stock issues
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Addressing a group of concerned Christians in support of pornography, Bill argues that “religious fanaticism is a threat to freedom.” Not surprisingly, his audience members come away more opposed to pornography than ever. Bill has just experienced what persuasive phenomenon?
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a boomerang effect
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Engaging and refuting opposing positions before audiences that already agree with us in order to make them more resistant to later counter-persuasion is referred to as
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inoculation
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What is a delayed reaction to persuasion called?
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sleeper effect
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Your text discusses which of the following strategies for moving audiences from agreement to action?
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– demonstrate the need for audience involvement – use emotional appeals to involve your audience – provide specific instruction for getting involved – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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How can you best avoid the great expectation fallacy?
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set modest goals for persuading your audience
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When addressing reluctant audiences, persuasive speakers should
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– start with areas of agreement. – emphasize explanation over argument. – make a multisided presentation. – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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Persuasive speaking differs from informative speaking in all of the following ways except
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emotional appeals are less appropriate.
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Which activity occupies the greatest amount of the time we spend communicating in the workplace?
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listening
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Good note taking requires that you
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– come prepared with paper and pen or pencil. – avoid trying to write down everything you hear. – review, correct, and complete notes the day taken – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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What form of listening is particularly important to protect us from the designs of dishonest speakers?
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critical
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Developing your listening skills should make you a better speaker in which of the following ways?
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– developing an appreciation for differing speaking techniques – you will develop a sense of audience sensitivity – becoming a more thoughtful consumer of ideas and information – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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What form of listening ascribes meaning to audible sounds?
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comprehensive
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All of the following should be considered when evaluating speeches except
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legality.
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Critical listening emphasizes all of the following except
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did the speaker mean well?
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Speakers who talk too rapidly or too slowly may contribute to which barrier to effective listening?
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inattention
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If you are listening to a lecture about Cherokee native Americans and it reminds you of driving your Jeep Cherokee in the mud, you have succumbed to what barrier to effective listening?
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chance association of words
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What should you not do when taking notes during class?
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try to write down everything you hear
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Thinking about the date you have after class represents what form of listening barrier?
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personal concerns
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Getting up and closing a window or door because you are having trouble hearing would be one way to handle what sort of problem?
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physical noise
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Trigger words invoke which of the following reaction(s) in listeners?
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emotional
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Jeff believes the Federal government needs to cut spending, yet he refuses to consider a proposal to cut spending because it is supported by members of the “other party.” What barrier to effective listening does Jeff’s behavior reflect?
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personal bias
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The following are the guidelines for providing speakers with constructive criticism except
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provide speakers a realistic assessment of limitations.
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A speech critique should balance
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critical and constructive skills.
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What is the first step in overcoming a bias?
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recognizing you have one
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What is the characteristic of evidence that directly relates to the issues being discussed?
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relevant
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Which of the following critical standards of effective evidence use would be violated if a speaker used examples of juvenile crime in Europe to argue that American kids are out of control?
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representative
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All of the following are criteria for evaluating the ethical qualities of a speech except
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does the speech avoid taking controversial positions?
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All of the following are criteria for choosing good speech topics except
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it should be entertaining
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What is the problem with trying to give a five minute presentation on the ecology?
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The topic is not manageable.
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What does the speaker do in the discovery phase of selecting a topic?
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identify general topic areas
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What approach to exploring topics focuses on basic journalistic questions such as what? why? when? how? where? and who?
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topic analysis
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What approach to developing topic ideas explores “habitual” paths of thought such as people, places, ideas, values, and problems?
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interest charts
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What does the speaker do during the refinement phase of topic selection?
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-articulate a specific purpose statement -articulate a thesis statement -focus your specific topic – ALL OF THE ABOVE
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What should you refrain from in the initial stage of brainstorming?
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critiquing
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A speaker’s _____ purpose might be to inform, to persuade, or to celebrate.
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general
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What does the specific purpose of a speech represent?
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the response desired from the audience
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What are we trying to change when we practice mind mapping?
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our habitual patterns of thinking.
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Which would make the best specific purpose statement for persuading an audience to donate money to Habitat for Humanity?
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To persuade my audience to donate money to Habitat for Humanity.
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For ethical reasons, you are advised to avoid all of the following topics except
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-anything that might promote hurtful or dangerous behavior. -any topics upon which you cannot possibly speak with responsible knowledge. -anything that might promote illegal activities. – ALL OF THE ABOVE SHOULD BE AVOIDED
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The specific purpose statement, “I want my audience to dig the 60s” would probably fall into what trap of poor topic selection?
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triviality
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The specific purpose statement, “I want my audience to support federal action to combat greenhouse pollution, and a new program to promote recycling in our area” would probably fall into what trap of poor topic selection?
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double-focus
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When you scan newspapers, the Internet, and magazines to try and get ideas for your speech, what are you using?
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media and Internet prompts
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What is wrong with the thesis statement, “What’s wrong with politics”?
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It is obscure and lacking in focus.
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What is the general purpose of a speech to inform?
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share knowledge
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What is the general purpose of a speech to persuade?
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influence beliefs and actions
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Sometimes speakers forget that their audience doesn’t know as much about the topic as the speaker does. In doing so, what trap have they fallen into?
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technicality
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What is the flaw in the following specific purpose, “To inform my audience about New York City?”
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too general
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Presentation aids should be used
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to emphasize the most important ideas and information in your speeches.
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Handouts can be useful
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for presenting complex ideas or lots of statistical information.
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All of the following are true about using people as visual aids except
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they should plan something themselves to contribute.
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When possible, what should the speaker do when using an object as a presentation aid?
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keep the object out of sight until it is time to use it
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What are graphics?
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visual representations of information
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What is important to remember when using graphics during a speech?
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Graphics must be instantly clear.
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All of the following are benefits of using presentation aids except
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they make audience interaction less important.
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What type of map is best to use in a presentation?
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simple and uncluttered
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Lisa needs a visual aid to illustrate how her university allocates its budget. What would be her most likely choice?
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pie graph
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Pablo needs a visual aid for comparing the income rates of men and women in his hometown over the past decade. Which of the following would likely prove his best choice?
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a comparative line graph illustrating the relative growth of the income rates of men and women
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What type of graph is best for displaying comparisons and contrasts?
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bar graph
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What would be the best choice of a presentation aid for illustrating the hierarchy of the U.S. military?
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flow chart
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Which of the following would be best for a speech on the four benefits of using presentation aids in a speech?
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a textual graph with a bulleted list of the four benefits
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When using a handout with a brief presentation, it is best to
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distribute it after making your presentation.
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What is the minimal size recommended for posters for most classroom presentations?
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14 x 17 inches
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When preparing and using presentation aids, speakers should always
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-alert audiences to visual images that have been altered to convey a point. -cite sources of important information presented. -consider whether charts and graphs distort the meaning of important information. -ALL OF THE ABOVE
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A monochromatic color scheme
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uses variations of a single color.
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All of the following are potential drawbacks of using presentation aids except
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-they often put you at the mercy of technology working. -poorly integrated aids tend to distract listeners and speakers. -poorly planned aids can hurt your ethos as a speaker. -ALL OF THE ABOVE
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When using presentation aids, speakers should always
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-use them when practicing their presentations. -be prepared to speak without them if necessary. -be careful not to speak to or read from them. -ALL OF THE ABOVE
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What are some potential problems of using video during presentations?
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-They often upstage short presentations. -Longer clips may distract attention from your central message. -They require skillful editing to look professional. -ALL OF THE ABOVE