Psychopathology Chapter 5

According to the text, the term “stress” will be used to refer to
a. only those external events in our lives that challenge us.
b. any positive demand made on an organism.
c. the effects of external stressors within the organism.
d. anything that makes us unhappy.
c. the effects of external stressors within the organism.
Distress is
a. seen when a situation is ambiguous.
b. a response to a happy life event.
c. the same thing as eustress.
d. a response to a negative event.
d. a response to a negative event.
Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress?
a. coping strategies
b. compensatory strategies
c. sublimation
d. projection
a. Coping strategies
What do positive and negative stressors have in common?
a. They usually last indefinitely.
b. Both occur without warning.
c. They have an equivalent potential for causing lasting damage.
d. Both tax one’s resources and coping skills.
d. Both tax one’s resources and coping skills.
In DSM-5, a new category has been added. What is this new category?
a. stress not specified
b. positive stressor disorders
c. stress and psychopathology
d. trauma- and stressor-related disorders
d. trauma- and stressor-related disorders
According to your textbook, which of the following is most stressful to people and animals?
a. constant stressors
b. predictable stressors
c. uncontrollable stressors
d. physical stressors
c. Uncontrollable stressors
Coping strategies are
a. efforts to deal with stress.
b. efforts to avoid conflict.
c. the same thing as eustress.
d. the dynamic interaction between the types of stressors and the person.
a. efforts to deal with stress.
Which of the following factors is linked to a person’s ability to cope better?
a. intelligence
b. social support
c. absence of the 5HT-TLPR gene
d. early life stress
b. social support
Stress tolerance is
a. a biological attribute
b. a pressure
c. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired
d. a crisis for most people
c. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired
Crisis is
a. a double avoidance conflict.
b. when the individual cannot make a decision.
c. an internal pressure.
d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.
d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.
What is not a key factor in making a stressor more serious?
a. how long it lasts
b. how severe it is
c. its type or category
d. how expected it is
c. its type or category
What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?
a. There is no difference, these are just two words for the same thing.
b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
c. There is a biological response to stress, but not to crisis.
d. A stressor is an unexpected crisis.
b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
The development of new methods of coping
a. may be an outcome of a crisis.
b. always occurs when adaptive capabilities are exceeded.
c. increases the expectation of future failures.
d. is continuously needed as we face new stressors on a daily basis.
a. may be an outcome of a crisis.
Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?
a. holding unrealistic expectations about the stressor
b. minimizing the use of social support
c. preparing for the stressor
d. being uncertain as to how long the stressor will persist
c. preparing for the stressor
An individual with a high stress tolerance
a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress.
b. is likely to be particularly vulnerable to slight frustration.
c. may feel threatened more readily than those with low stress tolerance.
d. is particularly vulnerable to acute stress disorder.
a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress.
Healthy psychological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic event is called:
a. coping
b. resilience
c. compensation
d. adaptation
b. resilience
According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor that increases resilience?
a. being female
b. being older
c. being African American
d. being Latino
b. being older
What is the name of the system that is designed to mobilize resources and prepare a fight-or-flight response?
a. the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system
b. the cortex-thalamus cortisol system
c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system
d. the parasympathetic prefrontal cortex system
c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system
What is the term for the biological cost of adapting to stress?
a. allostatic load
b. homeostatic load
c. sympathetic load
d. parasympathetic load
a. allostatic load
What is risk factor?
a. a variable that can occur within 6 months of a stressor
b. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome
c. a biological factor that increases resistance to disease
d. a reaction to a normal event
b. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome
In regards to stress research, a risk factor is
a. something about the nature of a stressor that makes it worse for most people.
b. something in a person’s history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.
c. something in a person’s learning experiences that makes that person a thrill seeker.
d. something in a person’s genetic makeup that makes that person respond well to stress.
b. something in a person’s history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.
Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD
a. have not been made.
b. indicate that most people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD.
c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.
d. find that it rarely exists as a comorbid condition.
c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.
According to the text, PTSD:
a. is a diagnosis that entered the DSM in 1990
b. has little preexisting vulnerabilities
c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people
d. is viewed as an abnormal response to a normal stressor
c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people
A main symptom of PTSD in DSM-5 is
a. development of stress-related diseases.
b. reexperiencing of the traumatic event.
c. panic attacks when remembering the trauma.
d. depression.
b. re-experiencing of the traumatic event.
In the DSM-5, PTSD will become a part of a new diagnostic category called ________.
a. Anxiety Disorders
b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
c. Depressive Disorders
d. Transient- and Chronic Distress Disorders
b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
According to DSM-5, Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when
a. the trauma is an event out of the realm of normal life experience.
b. the symptoms last for more than 2 weeks.
c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
d. the symptoms begin within 6 months of the trauma.
c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
“Combat exhaustion” is known as ________ today.
a. acute stress disorder
b. shell shock
c. PTSD
d. war neurosis
c. PTSD
Why should we study the causal factors in PTSD, since we already know traumatic events cause it?
a. Because if we do not study it, we will not diagnose it.
b. Political lobbying requires the study of it.
c. Victims often feel guilt about their reaction to the trauma.
d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD.
d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD.