Please enter something

Psychology Test 5 Essay

question

According to Freud, personality consists of three interacting structures:
answer

the id, the ego, and the superego
question

The id stores energy that is _____ and operates according to the _____ principle
answer

unconscious, pleasure
question

The ego is the _____ part of personality that tries to satisfy the id’s impulses according to the _____ principle
answer

conscious, reality
question

The ego attempts to protect itself against anxiety through the use of _____ _____
answer

defense mechanisms
question

Dealing with anxiety by returning to an earlier stage of development is called _____
answer

regression
question

Defense mechanisms are _____ processes
answer

unconscious
question

When we transform our true feelings into their opposites, _____ _____ is said to have occured
answer

reaction formation
question

When we assign our own feelings to another person, _____ has occured
answer

projection
question

When impulses are directed toward a target that is more acceptable than the one that caused arousal, _____ has occured
answer

displacement
question

Tests that ask people to describe an unclear image or tell a story about it are called _____ tests
answer

projective
question

For both Maslow and Rogers, an important feature of personality is how an individual perceives himself or herself, this is the person’s _____
answer

self-concept
question

List the Big Five personality traits as stated by Costa and McCrae
answer

a. Openness b. Conscientiousness c. Extraversion d. Agreeableness e. Neuroticism
question

For his class presentation, Bruce plans to discuss the Big Five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. Which of the following is NOT a factor that Bruce will discuss?
answer

Independence
question

Social-cognitive theory focuses on how the individual and the _____ interact
answer

environment
question

Which of the following places the greatest emphasis on the unconscious mind?
answer

The psychoanalytic perspective
question

Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Freud?
answer

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
question

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are methods of reducing
answer

Anxiety
question

Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney believed that
answer

Freud placed too great an emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts
question

The humanistic perspective on personality
answer

Emphasizes the growth potential of “healthy” individuals
question

According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote growth and personality. These are
answer

Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
question

For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately shaped by whether our _____ is _____ or _____.
answer

Self-concept; positive; negative
question

In studying personality, a trait theorist would MOST LIKELY
answer

Use a personality test
question

Id is to ego as _____ is to _____.
answer

Pleasure principle, reality principle
question

Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?
answer

Social-cognitive
question

Which of the following is a common criticism of the humanistic perspective?
answer

Its concepts are vague and subjective; The emphasis on the self encourages selfishness in people; Humanism fails to appreciate the reality of evil in human behavior
question

Studies have shown that labeling has _____ effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior
answer

a significant
question

When a person is continually tense, fearful, and psychologically aroused for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a _____ _____ disorder.
answer

generalized anxiety
question

When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a _____.
answer

phobia
question

When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions, an _____–_____ disorder is diagnosed
answer

obsessive–compulsive
question

Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce _____–_____ _____ disorder
answer

post–traumatic stress
question

Han has an intense, irrational fear of snakes. He is suffering from a _____.
answer

phobia
question

Isabela is continually tense, jittery, and fearful for no specific reason. She would probably be diagnosed as suffering from _____–_____ disorder
answer

obsessive–compulsive
question

Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times a day. Jason would be diagnosed as suffering from _____–_____ disorder
answer

obsessive–compulsive
question

Although she escaped from war-torn Bosnia two years ago, Zheina still has haunting memories and nightmares. Her therapist diagnoses her condition as _____–_____ _____ disorder
answer

post–traumatic stress
question

A person who develops two or more distinct personalities is suffering from _____ _____ disorder
answer

dissociative identity
question

An individual who seems to have no conscious, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal is said to have an _____ personality
answer

antisocial
question

Multiple personalities have long been a popular subject of films and novels. For example, Dr. Jekyll, whose second personality as Mr. Hyde, had _____ _____ disorder
answer

dissociative identity
question

For the past six months, Haeji has complained of feeling isolated from others, dissatisfied with life, and discouraged about the future. Haeji could be diagnosed as suffering from _____ _____ _____.
answer

major depressive disorder
question

For some time Delon felt optimistic, energetic, and on top of the world. Then, he experienced a period of hopelessness and lethargy. Delon would most likely be diagnosed as having _____ _____.
answer

bipolar disorder
question

Schizophrenia, or “split mind,” refers not to a split personality but rather a split from _____.
answer

reality
question

The distorted, false beliefs of patients with schizophrenia are called _____.
answer

delusions
question

The disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the forms of _____, which usually are _____.
answer

hallucinations; auditory
question

Claiming that she heard a voice commanding her to warn other people that eating is harmful, Kelly attempts to convince people in a restaurant not to eat. Her psychiatrist finds that Kelly’s thinking and speech are often fragmented and distorted, and Kelly trusts no one. These are _____ (positive/negative) symptoms of schizophrenia
answer

positive
question

Lolita created a class presentation titled “Current Views on Causes of Schizophrenia.” With which of the following statements is she most likely to conclude her presentation?
answer

Genes may predispose some people to react to particular experiences in a way that leads to developing schizophrenia
question

Which of the following is NOT true concerning depression?
answer

Most depressive episodes appear not to be preceded by any particular factor or event.
question

The effect of drugs that block receptors for dopamine is to
answer

Lessen schizophrenia symptoms
question

Phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder behaviors are classified as
answer

Anxiety disorders
question

Which of the following was presented in the text as evidence of biological influences on anxiety disorders?
answer

Identical twins often develop similar phobias; Brain scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal unusually high activity in brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behavior; Brain pathways resulting from fear-learning experiences create easy inroads for more fear experiences
question

Most of the hallucinations of schizophrenia patients involve the sense of
answer

Hearing
question

Research evidence links the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to _____ during prenatal development
answer

A viral infection contracted
question

Disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity. Other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound. These facts provide evidence for the _____ model of psychological disorders
answer

Biopsychosocial
question

Which of the following provides evidence that human fears have been subjected to the evolutionary process?
answer

Compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to our species’ survival; Most phobias focus on objects that our ancestors also feared; It is easier to condition some fears than others
question

Which of the following is true of the medical model?
answer

It views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable
question

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of schizophrenia?
answer

Panic attacks
question

Social-cognitive theorists believe that depression is linked with
answer

Negative moods; Maladaptive explanations of failure; Self-defeating beliefs
question

Some therapists blend several psychotherapy techniques and so are said to take an _____ approach.
answer

eclectic
question

Freud’s technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called _____ _____.
answer

free association
question

In order to promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit _____, _____, and _____.
answer

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
question

Roger’s technique of echoing, restating, and clarifying what a person is saying is called _____ _____.
answer

active listening
question

Therapists who teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking are using _____ therapy.
answer

congitive
question

Treatment that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior is known as _____–_____ therapy.
answer

cognitive–behavioral
question

Given that Don’s therapist attempts to help him by offering genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, she is probably practicing _____ therapy.
answer

humanistic
question

Ben is a cognitive-behavior therapist. Compared to Rachel, who is a behavior therapist, Ben is more likely to
answer

Address clients’ attitudes as well as behaviors
question

To help him overcome his fear of heights, Duane’s therapist has him construct a list of anxiety-triggering stimuli and then learn to associate each with a state of deep relaxation. Duane’s therapist is using the technique called _____ _____.
answer

systematic desensitization
question

A patient in a hospital receives poker chips for making her bed, being punctual at meal times, and maintaining her physical appearance. The poker chips can be exchanged for privileges, such as TV viewing, snacks, and magazines. This is an example of the
answer

Behavior therapy technique called token economy
question

After Darnel dropped a pass in an important football game, he became depressed and vowed to quit the team because of his athletic incompetence. The campus psychologist used gentle questioning to reveal to Darnel that his thinking was irrational: his “incompetence” had earned him an athletic scholarship. The psychologist’s response was most typical of a _____ therapist.
answer

cognitive
question

Donovan’s doctor prescribes medication that increases the availability of norepinephrine or serotonin in her nervous system. Evidently, Donovan is being treated with a(n) _____ drug.
answer

antidepressant
question

In order to stabilize the mood swings of a bipolar disorder, _____ is often prescribed.
answer

lithium
question

The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as _____ therapy, abbreviated as _____.
answer

electroconvulsive; ECT
question

The biomedical therapy in which a portion of brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called _____.
answer

psychosurgery
question

Electroconvulsive therapy is most useful in the treatment of
answer

Depression
question

The technique in which a person is asked to report everything that comes to his or her mind is called _____; it is favored by _____ therapists
answer

Free association; psychoanalytic
question

Which biomedical therapy is MOST likely to be practiced today?
answer

Drug therapy
question

The results of outcome research on the effectiveness of different psychotherapies reveal that
answer

No single type of therapy is consistently superior; Behavior therapies are most effective in treating specific problems, such as phobias; Cognitive therapies are most effective in treating depressed emotions
question

The antipsychotic drugs appear to produce their effects by blocking the receptor sites for
answer

Dopamine
question

An eclectic psychotherapist is one who
answer

Uses a variety of techniques, depending on the client and the problem
question

The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called
answer

Active listening
question

The operant conditioning technique in which desired behaviors are rewarded with points or poker chips that can later be exchanged for various rewards is called
answer

A token economy
question

A person can benefit from psychotherapy simply by believing in it. This illustrates the importance of
answer

The placebo effect
question

Carl Rogers was a _____ therapist who was the creator of _____.
answer

Humanistic; client-centered therapy
question

Using techniques of classical conditioning to develop an association between unwanted behavior and an unpleasant experience is known as
answer

Aversive conditioning
question

Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual’s inherent potential for self-fulfillment?
answer

Humanistic therapy
question

Which type of therapy focuses on eliminating irrational thinking?
answer

cognitive therapy
question

Which of the following is the mood-stabilizing drug is most commonly used to treat bipolar disorder?
answer

Lithium
question

Which form of therapy is MOST likely to be successful in treating depression?
answer

Cognitive therapy