Psychology of Personality section 2

A psychologist collects data from a large number of people. She places each person on a continuum ranging from high to low conscientiousness and makes predictions about how people in the high range will act compared to those in the low range. This psychologist is using which approach to understanding personality?
Nomothetic approach

Compared to most of us, individuals who score high on Openness are more likely to
consider new ideas.

Which of the following is true about the trait approach to personality?
Trait researchers generally are not interested in understanding and predicting the behavior of a single individual.

Of the following statements, which best coveys what Allport meant by the term “proprium”?
One’s sense of self as a unified concept is called their proprium.

According to Allport, people with traits that dominate their personality can be described as having a
cardinal trait.

Psychologists often use personality traits to predict behavior in the workplace. This research has benefited recently by looking at
the Big Five personality dimensions.

“If asked why Carol hugged Tom, we say it is because Carol is affectionate; however, if asked how we know Carol is affectionate, we say it is because she hugged Tom.” This type of ‘circular thinking’ is often a point of criticism of which approach to personality?
trait

A researcher compares speeches of American presidents to determine the presidents’ needs for Achievement. The researcher’s research was influenced by which personality theorist’s work?
Henry Murray

Recently, many researchers using factor analysis have uncovered what they believe to be the number of basic personality factors. How many of these factors do researchers find?
five

Which of the following is true about the five-factor model?
Hypotheses about the origin of the Big Five factors were generated after the results of the research were seen.

Alicia has an active imagination and a strong intellectual curiosity. She likes new and ideas and unconventional ways of looking at problems. Alicia probably is high in
openness.

The idiographic approach to personality has advantages. For example,
the person rather than the researcher determines what traits to examine.

To determine the basic structure of personality, researchers often use
factor analysis

Critics of the trait approach have argued that the correlations typically found between personality trait measures and measures of behavior
indicate that only a small percentage of variance in behavior can be accounted for by personality traits.

According to the “person by situation” or “interactionist” approach,
behavior is determined by an interaction of personality and the situation.

A “Type” approach to personality (as opposed to a “Trait” approach) makes each of the following assumptions except one. Which one?
Not all people can be classified into a type category, but most of them can

According to Cattell, which of the following traits are traits that ultimately constitute the human personality?
source

Which approach to personality has relatively little to say about why people behave the way they do?
trait

According to Murray, we need to know all of the following pieces of information except one in order to predict a woman’s achievement behavior. Which one?
her fear of failure

Rather than examine a large number of personality variables that may or may not be related to how well people perform in the workplace, many researchers now address the questions of job performance and personality
by using the personality dimensions identified in the Big Five Model.

Which of the following statements is true about the trait approach?
No major schools of psychotherapy have evolved from the trait approach.

If Susan is high on the personality trait of ‘impulsivity’, we would expect that Susan will act impulsively
more often than someone low in impulsivity

People high on the __________ dimension are helpful and sympathetic to others.
agreeableness

In his quest to understand the basic structure of personality, Cattell relied heavily on
factor analysis.

Tonya often becomes upset over daily stressors. More than most people, she experiences such emotions as sadness, anger and anxiety. This description of Tonya is best accounted for by which of the factors in the Big Five Model?
neuroticism

Which of the following assumptions underlies the trait approach to personality?
Personality characteristics are relatively stable over time.

Which theorist identified psychogenic needs as the basic elements of personality?
Henry Murray

Traits were introduced into the field of personality psychology by
Gordon Allport

One team of researchers improved its ability to predict behavior from personality measures by dividing participants into those for whom the trait is and is not relevant. This approach is similar to that advocated earlier by
Gordon Allport

Recent research on the “Big Five” personality factors uses an approach to understanding personality similar to that advocated by
Raymond Cattell.

Many researchers fail to produce strong links between personality traits and behavior. Some researchers argue that the reason for this failure is because
researchers don’t measure behavior correctly.

According to Murray, which of the following is not a psychogenic need?
safety

it is clear that Simon ( teen idol) falls score very low in which trait?
agreeableness

as seen by his abundant ‘alarm behavior’ it is likely that our “scare Tactics” guy scores very high on what trait?
neuroticism

two photographers creat zebra costume in order to approach and photograph wildlife is high in what trait?
openness

fail!! two wildlife photogaphers dressed like a zebra are getting eaten by two bears this is a sign of low
conscientiousness

Jimbo follows politics on T.V he watches with great interest. he can speak at length and in detail about each party’s basic platform. Jimbo is high in what trait?
openness

every year Pat plants a vegetable garden, every year the plants are dead by June. pat may be on the extreme on what trait?
conscientiousness

you are a bank manager, you need to hire someone who is comfortable with forcing families out of their foreclosed homes which person do you hire
Henry which is low in agreeableness

what is Eysenck’s Extroversion of stability ?
Test- retest reliability

in Eysenck’s Test re-test reliability when did numbers fall below normal?
during adolescents

Eysenck’s Extroversion cross culture studies what did he find?
similarities were strongly biological

True of False extraverts are under aroused and need arousal
true

True or false introverts have to much arousal and look for quieter places
True

what happened in Eysenck’s Lemon drop test
introverts salivated more them extraverts

what happened in Eysenck’s Preferred stimulation studies with light and noise?
introverts turned down the lights and noise, extraverts turned up the light and noise. both were calm but needed different arousal techniques

According to evolutionary personality theory, psychological mechanisms
helped the species survive and reproduce

Hans Eysenck’s approach to personality research is similar to Cattell’s approach in that
both are concerned with identifying the basic structure of personality

Critics have pointed to several weaknesses in the research used to make a case for the role of genetics on personality development. Their criticisms include each of the following points except one. Which one?
Dizygotic twins may share an environment more alike than the environment shared by monozygotic twins.

Research suggests that inhibited children are especially anxious about
novelty.

Researchers have difficulty determining genetic influences on personality when they simply compare children with their parents. This is because
genetic and environmental influences on personality are confounded when using this method.

A psychologist shows participants films designed to make them either happy or sad. She measures the participants’ brain activity levels with an electroencephalograph (EEG) during the films. This psychologist probably is conducting research on
cerebral asymmetry

Which of the following hypothetical research findings would present a problem for researchers trying to interpret results from a twin-study design?
Parents of monozygotic twins treat the two twins more alike than do parents of dizygotic twins.

A woman likes to spend her time with others, enjoys loud music, often acts impulsively, and does not like to be alone. According to Eysenck’s model of personality, this woman is
extraverted.

In Eysenck’s model of personality, which of the following is correct about extraversion
It is one of two basic personality dimensions

Eysenck points to each of the following except one as evidence for a biological basis of personality. Which one?
research on brain-wave activity

A researcher reports that men in this country tend to marry younger women and women tend to marry older men. This finding might be used to support which theory?
evolutionary personality theory

Which of the following is false about childhood differences in temperament patterns?
Differences are related to intelligence.

Which of the following is true about parental investment?
Males of many species are free to mate with as many females as they can.

A psychologist purchases an electroencephalograph (EEG) for use in his research. The psychologist is interested in measuring
brain electrical activity

According to evolutionary personality theory, men prefer physically attractive women because
the attributes we call beautiful are associated with youth and fertility.

Many generations ago, our ancestors were more likely to survive if they lived in groups than if they tried to live by themselves. This argument is used by advocates of evolutionary personality theory to explain
anxiety.

Recent research challenges one aspect of Eysenck’s original theory. This newer research suggests that extraverts and introverts differ in terms of their
sensitivity to stimulation

For extraverts, friends often serve as an important buffer against stress. This finding supports the idea that extraverts
have higher positive affect due to greater social activity.

A fiveboy is controlled and gentle. He is reluctant to play with new children and hesitates when entering new situations. Temperament researchers probably would identify this child as
Inhibited.

Which assumption is made by researchers using the twinmethod?
Dizygotic twins share an environment that is just as similar as the environment shared by monozygotic twins.

Theorists give many arguments for the evolution of anxiety. Each of the following is an argument except one. Which one?
We all have a need to dominate others

Which of the following kinds of data provides the weakest scientific evidence for a genetic influence on personality?
similarity between personalities of parents, and children raised by those parents

Researchers use the twin-study method to
separate environmental from genetic influences.
determine how much of our personality is inherited from our parents.
determine how much of our personality is the result of experience.
all the above

Which of the following is a problem for the assumption that MZ and DZ twins are raised in equally similar environments?
MZ twins may share more of their environment than DZ twins.

Using factor analysis, Eysenck found that people who score high on the dimension of psychoticism tend to be
egocentric and aggressive. impulsive. not generally concerned with the rights and welfare of others.
all of the above

Some psychologists argue that we should utilize different learning procedures to meet the needs of each student’s temperament. This approach is based on which model?
The “Goodness of Fit” Model

Behavior genetics researchers have taken their data from twin studies and used formulas to estimate that about _________ of the stability in adult personalities can be attributed to genetics.
40%

Those twins we commonly call “identical twins” are more technically called
monozygotic.

Cross-cultural studies find similar patterns of what men and women look for in their spouses across many different cultures. These findings support evolutionary personality theory because they suggest that mate preferences do not merely reflect differences in
social learning patterns

According to your readings, the growing acceptance of the several biological influences on personality is
a reflection of behaviorism’s decline in academic psychology.

The twinmethod is used by researchers to get around which methodological problem?
a confound between genetic and environmental influences

Those acquaintances of yours who prefer quiet and perhaps isolated rooms in which to study are, according to research, more likely to be
introverts

One reason twin studies produce higher estimates of heritability than some other methods may be that the twin studies
capture nonadditive effects of genetics.

How do most personality researchers phrase the “nature” question today?
To what extent and how do both genetics and the environment influence personality?

Research has found that extraverts are not always happier than introverts. Why not?
Extraverts are more likely to be impulsive.

Compared to 30 or 40 years ago, personality psychologists today generally are more likely to acknowledge that
personality cannot be separated from our biology.

Researchers have examined cerebral asymmetry in depressed people. The results of this research suggests that
some people may be born with a greater likelihood to become depressed than others.

One team of investigators examined where extraverts and introverts sat in the library. They based their predictions on which of the following notions?
Extraverts and introverts have different levels of preferred arousal and different sensitivity to stimulation.

Research indicates that a child’s temperament is related to how well he or she performs in school. Researchers explain this finding with each of the following reasons except one. Which one?
Temperament is related to intelligence.

Which of the following has been found by researchers examining cerebral asymmetry?
Differences in hemispheric activity levels can be detected in children as young as 10 months old.

According to Eysenck’s original model, which of the following is true about extraverts?
They generally have a low level of cortical arousal.

According to the widely accepted temperament model presented in the text, how many general temperaments are there?
three

One limitation of evolutionary personality theory with regard to mate selection is that
researchers cannot manipulate the variables they study.