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Psychology Chapter Quizzes 13, 14, 15

question

The subfield in which psychological disorders are studied is generally known as _____ psychology. a) abnormal b) cognitive c) developmental d) medical
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a) abnormal
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Which is NOT one of the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook? a) disability b) distress c) deviance d) dysfunction
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a) disability
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Pam is experiencing a major depressive episode. She is upset that she doesn’t feel “like herself,” and it bothers her that she has too little energy to participate fully in her family and work life. Pam’s discomfort is an example of the _____ associated with psychological abnormality. a) dysfunction b) distress c) deviance d) disability
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b) distress
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Individuals with antisocial personality disorder tend to break the law and violate others’ rights. Because these behaviors fall outside society’s standards and rules, they reflect the _____ often associated with psychological abnormality. a) distress b) deviance c) dysfunction d) disability
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b) deviance
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The primary purpose of the DSM-5 is to provide: a) descriptions of disorders. b) explanations of the causes of disorders. c) recommendations for treatment of disorders. d) the frequency with which disorders occur.
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a) descriptions of disorders.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is sometimes diagnosed alongside substance use disorder in the same individual. This is an example of: a) comorbidity. b) prevalence. c) prognosis. d) etiology.
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a) comorbidity.
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Specific neurotransmitters are being implicated in an increasing number of psychological disorders. This fact most directly affirms the _____ perspective on abnormality. a) biopsychosocial b) sociocultural c) psychological d) medical
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d) medical
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Data presented in the textbook indicates that _____ is the most common anxiety disorder among adults. a) generalized anxiety disorder b) specific phobia c) separation anxiety d) panic disorder
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b) specific phobia
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When people suffer from _____, they often feel intense fear that something horrible is about to happen. These feelings last several minutes and include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. a) panic disorder b) specific phobia c) generalized anxiety disorder d) dissociative disorder
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a) panic disorder
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Rhonda is constantly worried about many aspects of her life. She is having trouble sleeping and is experiencing muscle tension. Rhonda is showing signs of: a) panic disorder. b) generalized anxiety disorder. c) specific phobia. d) agoraphobia.
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b) generalized anxiety disorder.
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People who suffer from _____ disorder are so preoccupied by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions that they are unable to function in their daily lives. a) obsessive-compulsive b) dissociative identity c) generalized anxiety d) bipolar
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a) obsessive-compulsive
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Carrie has had trouble sleeping for the past two weeks. She has no energy and feels “blue.” Carrie may be suffering from: a) schizophrenia. b) obsessive-compulsive disorder. c) generalized anxiety disorder. d) major depressive disorder.
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d) major depressive disorder.
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Heather has been feeling depressed and listless lately. She has had no motivation and has lost interest in activities she once enjoyed. For Heather to be diagnosed with major depression, these symptoms must last for at least: a) 1 week. b) 1 month. c) 2 months. d) 2 weeks.
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d) 2 weeks.
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Nick has felt depressed most of the time for the past two years. On this basis, he may be diagnosed with _____ disorder. a) disruptive mood dysregulation b) major depressive c) manic depressive d) persistent depressive
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d) persistent depressive
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The neurotransmitters involved in depression include each of these EXCEPT: a) dopamine. b) acetylcholine. c) serotonin. d) norepinephrine.
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b) acetylcholine.
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The police brought Gabriella to the emergency room after she was seen running down the street in her underwear yelling that she “has the power!” Gabriella was also spending large amounts of money and was agitated and reckless during the past 5 days. In the emergency room, Gabriella would not be quiet long enough for the nurse to ask her questions. Gabriella is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder. a) bipolar b) dissociative c) major depressive d) antisocial personality
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a) bipolar
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People with schizophrenia demonstrate a severe and chronic loss of contact with reality called: a) neurosis. b) mania. c) dysthymia. d) psychosis.
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not a or b
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Hallucination is to delusion as _____ is to _____. a) perception; cognition b) action; cognition c) cognition; perception d) perception; action
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a) perception; cognition
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People with schizophrenia often have disturbed perceptions called _____, which are sensory experiences without sensory stimulation from the environment. a) obsessions b) delusions c) compulsions d) hallucinations
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d) hallucinations
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Frank was seen laughing inappropriately in the library as if he were responding to internal stimuli. On the bus home, he was crying uncontrollably and suddenly became angered when a fellow passenger offered him a tissue. Frank’s excess of inappropriate behaviors exemplify the _____ typical of schizophrenia. a) delusional thinking b) negative symptoms c) positive symptoms d) psychosis
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c) positive symptoms
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Which choice BEST expresses historical trends in psychologists’ views of schizophrenia’s etiology? a) Psychologists have always attributed schizophrenia mainly to environmental factors. b) Psychologists have always attributed schizophrenia mainly to genetic factors. c) Psychologists once attributed schizophrenia largely to environmental factors. They now believe that genetic factors play a critical role in the disorder’s etiology. d) Psychologists once attributed schizophrenia largely to genetic factors. They now believe that environmental factors play a critical role in the disorder’s etiology.
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c) Psychologists once attributed schizophrenia largely to environmental factors. They now believe that genetic factors play a critical role in the disorder’s etiology.
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Schizophrenia is associated with a(n): a) decrease in the size of the brainstem. b) thickening of the cerebral cortex. c) decrease in total brain volume. d) increase in the size of the corpus callosum.
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c) decrease in total brain volume.
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Gloria is a real “diva”: She expects special treatment from others but completely disregards others’ feelings. Gloria may have _____ personality disorder. a) borderline b) narcissistic c) antisocial d) paranoid
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b) narcissistic
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Lanie is very dramatic and impulsive. She displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and will do whatever she can to get people to praise her. Lanie exhibits characteristics typical of ______ personality disorder. a) paranoid b) dependent c) histrionic d) antisocial
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c) histrionic
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A person with _____ disorder is aggressive, ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing. a) generalized anxiety b) obsessive-compulsive c) dissociative identity d) antisocial personality
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d) antisocial personality
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Chase stole money from the local grocery store on the corner to buy beer. He later assaulted a 72-year-old woman and stole her purse. In the alley, he dumped the purse, went to Starbucks for a cup of coffee, and proceeded to take the train. On the train, a woman accidentally stepped on his shoes, and he threw the hot coffee on her and laughed. Chase would be considered to have a(n) _______ personality disorder. a) schizotypal b) sociopathic c) borderline d) antisocial
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d) antisocial
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A disturbance in unified psychological functioning is called a: a) dissociation. b) psychosis. c) neurosis. d) dysthymia.
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a) dissociation.
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Omar was found wandering outside a Boise, Idaho discount store. His last memories are of his previous life in Greensboro, North Carolina; he had no memory of his journey to Idaho. Omar’s condition is known as dissociative: a) identity disorder. b) flight. c) trauma. d) fugue.
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d) fugue.
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The term “multiple personality disorder” is sometimes used to describe: a) dissociative fugue. b) dissociative identity disorder. c) schizophrenia. d) dissociative amnesia.
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b) dissociative identity disorder.
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Which term is correctly matched with its description? a) dissociative identity disorder – An individual is found wandering and confused in a distant city. b) dissociation – An individual experiences a disturbance in the integration of the psychological functions involved in memory, consciousness, perception, or identity. c) dissociative fugue – An individual experiences a significant, selective memory loss. d) dissociative amnesia – An individual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities.
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b) dissociation – An individual experiences a disturbance in the integration of the psychological functions involved in memory, consciousness, perception, or identity.
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The view that psychological normality and abnormality reflect a continuum rather than discrete categories took hold in the: a) late 20th century. b) first half of the 20th century. c) late 19th century. d) 1950s.
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b) first half of the 20th century.
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_____ therapies aim to increase awareness of one’s self and environment. a) Biomedical b) Eclectic c) Behavioral d) Insight
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d) Insight
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Which approach to psychological therapy is correctly defined? a) cognitive therapy – seeks to increase awareness of unconscious conflicts b) behavior therapy – seeks to change maladaptive thought patterns c) humanistic therapy – emphasizes positive growth d) psychoanalysis – uses learning principles to replace maladaptive patterns
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c) humanistic therapy – emphasizes positive growth
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Behavior therapy is a type of _____ therapy that _____. a) psychological; uses learning principles b) insight; uses learning principles c) psychological; changes maladaptive thoughts d) insight; changes maladaptive thoughts
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a) psychological; uses learning principles
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After telling his psychoanalyst about his relationship with his ex-wife for a few minutes, Jerome suddenly changes the subject. Jerome is exhibiting: a) transference. b) the Oedipus conflict. c) interpretation. d) resistance.
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d) resistance.
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What is transference? a) the transfer of a learned response from one task to another similar task b) a behavioral technique invented to facilitate the transfer of learned behaviors from the session to the outside world c) the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a therapist d) the transfer of irrational cognitions to the self
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c) the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a therapist
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Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy? a) Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy are the same. b) Psychoanalysis has largely supplanted traditional psychodynamic therapy. c) Psychoanalysis was developed by Freud, whereas psychodynamic therapy was developed by Jung. d) Psychodynamic therapy is a contemporary version of psychoanalysis.
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d) Psychodynamic therapy is a contemporary version of psychoanalysis.
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Compared to psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy is _____ likely to focus on the present rather than the past, and _____ likely to focus on the conscious rather than the unconscious mind. a) more; less b) less; less c) more; more d) less; more
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c) more; more
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In person-centered therapy, the therapist: a) clarifies and reflects back the client’s statements. b) teaches the client relaxation responses. c) silently writes notes on a small pad. d) challenges the client’s irrational statements.
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a) clarifies and reflects back the client’s statements.
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Malika sees her therapist every other week. When she is at her therapist’s office, she feels accepted and can share anything. While her therapist listens to what Malika has to say without judgment, he also seeks understanding by paraphrasing as well as asking for clarification. Malika’s therapist is practicing: a) exposure therapy. b) person-centered therapy. c) psychoanalysis. d) rational-emotive behavior therapy.
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b) person-centered therapy.
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The aim of _____ therapy is to replace maladaptive behaviors by applying learning principles. a) psychodynamic b) cognitive c) behavior d) biomedical
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c) behavior
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_____ is used to treat phobias by presenting clients with the feared objects or situations in a no-risk context. a) Exposure b) Systematic desensitization c) Behavior modification d) Aversion therapy
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a) Exposure
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To help Tom reduce his fear of flying, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is taking off in an airplane. The therapist’s technique BEST illustrates: a) systematic desensitization. b) exposure. c) rational-emotive therapy. d) aversion therapy.
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a) systematic desensitization.
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How does exposure differ from systematic desensitization? a) Exposure proceeds through a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli; systematic desensitization does not. b) Exposure does not use aversive stimuli; systematic desensitization does. c) Exposure uses aversive stimuli; systematic desensitization does not. d) Exposure does not proceed through a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli; systematic desensitization does.
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not a and c
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_____ therapy associates an unpleasant state, such as nausea, with an unwanted behavior, such as drinking alcohol. a) Rational-emotive behavior b) Aversion c) Exposure d) Cognitive
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b) Aversion
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To help Monica overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment BEST illustrates: a) aversion therapy. b) behavior modification. c) systematic desensitization. d) exposure.
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a) aversion therapy.
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Reinforcing desirable behaviors and punishing undesirable ones is known as: a) exposure. b) systematic desensitization. c) aversion therapy. d) behavior modification.
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d) behavior modification.
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Cognitive therapists believe that psychological disorders reflect: a) distortions in thinking. b) unconscious conflicts. c) feelings of isolation and stagnation. d) maladaptive behaviors.
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not c or d
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The erroneous belief that self-contained events will have major repercussions in one’s life is called: a) personalizing. b) magnification. c) overgeneralization. d) selective abstraction.
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not d or b
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Beck argued that cognitive schema underlie distorted thought patterns. Beck’s assertion reflects the intellectual legacy of the pioneering developmental psychologist: a) Laurence Kohlberg. b) Erik Erikson. c) Diana Baumrind. d) Jean Piaget.
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not c or a
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The goal of rational-emotive behavior therapy is to encourage: a) self-acceptance. b) healthy relationships. c) positive thinking. d) adaptive behavior.
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not d or c
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Group therapy is the preferred treatment approach for: a) schizophrenia. b) specific phobias. c) personality disorders. d) interpersonal problems.
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d) interpersonal problems.
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Medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees. a) psychiatrists; PhD b) psychologists; MD c) psychiatrists; MD d) psychologists; PhD
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c) psychiatrists; MD
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Which statement BEST expresses trends in the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) to treat depression? a) MAOIs have largely fallen out of favor. b) The use of MAOIs has decreased somewhat in the past few years. c) MAOIs have increased in popularity in recent decades. d) The use of MAOIs has remained constant since their introduction.
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a) MAOIs have largely fallen out of favor.
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Kelley is currently being treated for severe major depression. She is MOST likely to be prescribed a(n): a) atypical antipsychotic. b) monoamine oxidase inhibitor. c) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. d) tricyclic.
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c) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
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Mrs. Williams experiences periods of intense mania alternating with bouts of major depression. She will be BEST treated using: a) monoamine oxidase inhibitors. b) mood stabilizers. c) atypical antipsychotics. d) tricyclics.
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b) mood stabilizers.
question

How do traditional antipsychotics differ from atypical antipsychotics? a) Traditional antipsychotics affect only dopamine, while atypical antipsychotics affect dopamine and other neurotransmitters. b) Traditional antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists whereas atypical antipsychotics are not. c) Atypical antipsychotics are associated with tardive dyskinesia, whereas traditional antipsychotics are not. d) Traditional antipsychotics do not reduce hallucinations and delusions, but atypical antipsychotics do.
answer

a) Traditional antipsychotics affect only dopamine, while atypical antipsychotics affect dopamine and other neurotransmitters.
question

Implanting an electrode that supplies a weak electrical current to specific brain areas is called _____. It is useful in the treatment of _____. a) electroconvulsive therapy; depression b) deep brain stimulation; depression c) deep brain stimulation; schizophrenia d) electroconvulsive therapy; schizophrenia
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not a or c
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation involves: a) the targeted destruction of specific brain areas. b) delivering an electrical current to the brain through coils outside the head. c) using electrodes implanted in the brain to deliver a weak current. d) using electricity to induce seizures in the brain.
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b) delivering an electrical current to the brain through coils outside the head.
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About _____ of all psychotherapy clients show clinically significantly improvement after 21 sessions. a) 1/2 b) 1/3 c) 1/5 d) 1/4
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not c or d
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_____ psychologists investigate human cognition, emotion, and behavior in relation to other people. a) Personality b) Social c) Developmental d) Cognitive
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b) Social
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A _____ might study the political attitudes of individual voters. A ____ might study the behavior of political parties. a) sociologist; social psychologist b) social psychologist; social psychologist c) sociologist; sociologist d) social psychologist; sociologist
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d) social psychologist; sociologist
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Which statement BEST expresses the relationships among social cognition, attitudes, and attribution? a) Attribution and social cognition are aspects of attitudes. b) Attitudes are studied in sociology, whereas attribution is studied in social psychology. c) Attitudes and attribution are aspects of social cognition. d) Attitudes, attribution, and social cognition are different topics of study in social psychology.
answer

c) Attitudes and attribution are aspects of social cognition.
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The mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own, is called: a) compliance. b) persuasion. c) altruism. d) attribution.
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d) attribution.
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Juan was shopping for a new watch, and the salesperson pressured him to spend money way above his financial limit. Juan attributed this behavior to the salesperson’s pushy personality. Juan was attributing his behavior to _____ factors. a) unstable b) situational c) dispositional d) uncontrollable
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c) dispositional
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Joanie’s friend yells at her for being five minutes late for lunch. Rather than believe her friend is a rude jerk, Joanie decides that she may be having difficulties with her partner. Joanie is making a(n) _____ attribution about her friend’s behavior. a) uncontrollable b) dispositional c) stable d) situational
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d) situational
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In determining the causes of others’ behavior, people overemphasize _____ factors; this is the _____. a) dispositional; self-serving bias b) dispositional; fundamental attribution error c) situational; fundamental attribution error d) situational; self-serving bias
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b) dispositional; fundamental attribution error
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If students do well on a test, they say, “I got an A!” If they do poorly, they say, “The professor gave me an F.” This BEST illustrates the: a) fundamental attribution error. b) just-world hypothesis. c) false consensus effect. d) self-serving bias.
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d) self-serving bias.
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Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because he believes that anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them. This example reveals Shaun’s susceptibility to the: a) false consensus effect. b) just-world hypothesis. c) fundamental attribution error. d) self-serving bias.
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a) false consensus effect.
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When people’s attitudes clash with their behavior, they experience a state of psychological tension called: a) the door-in-the-face effect. b) cognitive dissonance. c) deindividuation. d) the fundamental attribution error.
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b) cognitive dissonance.
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Hugh bought a new calculator for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from another store showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said, “I’m still glad I got my calculator; the cheaper ones are probably defective. I don’t mind having paid more for mine.” Hugh’s statement reflects: a) diffusion of responsibility. b) cognitive dissonance reduction. c) the just-world hypothesis. d) the self-serving bias.
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b) cognitive dissonance reduction.
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An ad agency creates two ads for a particular car. One stresses the car’s safety and gas mileage; the other simply shows how fun it is to drive. The first ad relies on the _____ route to persuasion; the second, on the ____ route. a) peripheral; central b) central; peripheral c) primary; secondary d) secondary; primary
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b) central; peripheral
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_____ occurs when behavior changes at the request of a person or group with no real authority. a) Obedience b) Persuasion c) Compliance d) Conformity
answer

c) Compliance
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Early one Halloween evening, Bart’s friends asked him to join them in smashing their neighbors’ decorative pumpkins. He complied. Later, he was surprised by his own failure to resist them when they got him to throw eggs at a passing police car. Bart’s experience BEST illustrates the: a) diffusion of responsibility phenomenon. b) door-in-the-face technique. c) foot-in-the-door technique. d) bystander effect.
answer

c) foot-in-the-door technique.
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A man asks you for $10 as you walk past him. You refuse. He then asks for $2. You give it to him. The man has taken advantage of: a) cognitive dissonance. b) the false consensus effect. c) the door-in-the-face technique. d) the foot-in-the-door technique.
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c) the door-in-the-face technique.
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______ is to _____ as Asch is to Milgram. a) Conformity; compliance b) Conformity; obedience c) Compliance; obedience d) Obedience; conformity
answer

b) Conformity; obedience
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Marcie is invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz-Carlton. She has never been served a 10-course meal before, so she is unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Since Marcie is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Marcie is displaying _____ social influence. a) peripheral b) situational c) normative d) informational
answer

d) informational
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How should the presence of a single dissenter influence the degree of conformity seen in a study modeled on Asch’s classic investigation? a) It should increase conformity greatly. b) It should increase conformity slightly. c) It should have no effect on conformity. d) It should reduce conformity.
answer

d) It should reduce conformity.
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Approximately _____ of the participants in Milgram’s experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant. a) 75% b) 35% c) 50% d) 65%
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d) 65%
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At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This BEST illustrates: a) groupthink. b) normative social influence. c) conformity. d) social facilitation.
answer

d) social facilitation.
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In an experiment, each participant is asked to pull as hard as possible on a rope. In Condition A, participants are led to believe they are pulling alone; in Condition B, they are led to believe three other people are pulling with them. The phenomenon of _____ predicts that participants should pull hardest in Condition _____. a) risky shift; B b) social loafing; B c) social loafing; A d) risky shift; A
answer

c) social loafing; A
question

On Halloween, a group of normally law-abiding teenagers wearing masks and costumes committed acts of vandalism. This atypical behavior is probably caused by: a) risky shift. b) deindividuation. c) group polarization. d) social facilitation.
answer

b) deindividuation.
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A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This BEST illustrates: a) group polarization. b) risky shift. c) deindividuation. d) social facilitation.
answer

a) group polarization.
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While walking along the ocean shoreline, Mr. Hughes heard a swimmer cry for help. However, he continued walking because he thought that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help. Mr. Hughes’ reaction BEST illustrates: a) deindividuation. b) social loafing. c) the bystander effect. d) the fundamental attribution error.
answer

c) the bystander effect.
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Carole decides that the good feelings and joy of giving back to the community outweigh the cost of giving up her free time over the weekend, so she decides to volunteer at the Special Olympics. This example illustrates the _____ explanation of helping. a) kin selection b) social exchange c) empathy d) reciprocal altruism
answer

b) social exchange
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According to the textbook, the likelihood that one will help another person may be _____ to the happiness of one’s mood. a) negatively correlated b) unrelated c) perfectly correlated d) positively correlated
answer

d) positively correlated
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A professor infers that a tall African-American male student is probably attending the college on a basketball scholarship. The professor’s conclusion reflects a(n): a) stereotype. b) attribution. c) schema. d) appraisal.
answer

a) stereotype.
question

Homophobia is usually defined as uncomfortable, negative, or fearful feelings toward gays and lesbians. Based on the textbook’s discussion, homophobia is BEST seen as an example of: a) prejudice. b) stereotyping. c) discrimination. d) ethnocentrism.
answer

a) prejudice.
question

In the Stanford Prison Study, participants were randomly assigned to be prisoners and guards in the experiment. The guards wore khaki prison uniforms, carried night sticks, and wore sunglasses, while the prisoners wore prison garb with their prison numbers on the back. These costumes signified the participants’ social: a) norm. b) roles. c) schemas. d) identities.
answer

b) roles.
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If you ask how much people like various letters of the alphabet, they tend to prefer the letters found in their own names. This BEST illustrates the _____ effect. a) mere exposure b) risky shift c) similarity d) bystander
answer

a) mere exposure