Psychology 2000 LSU Exam 2

classic conditioning
occurs by association between events in our environment

classic conditioning
our minds naturally connect events that occur in a sequence. when one event precedes another, we learn to associate one event with the other.

stimulus-stimulus learning
learning to associate one stimulus with another

acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning during which association between a neutral stimulus and a unconditioned stimulus takes place

extinction
when you stop pairing. unlearning.

spontaneous recovery
after a rest period an extinguished CR recovers

stimulus generalization
tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS. the tendency to respond to stimuli not present during training.

stimulus discrimination
the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a US

operant conditioning
voluntary behaviors. importance of consequences of behavior.
increasing or decreasing occurrences of behavior.
punishment/reinforcement.

latent learning
when an organism learns something in its life, but the knowledge is not immediately expressed

insight
rapid perception of relationships – requires a sudden “coming together” of all the elements of a problem

language
an open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas

protolanguage
very rudimentary language, also known as pre-language, used by earlier species of homo

phonemes
the smallest distinctive sound unit in a spoken language

morpheme
the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word of a part if a word

grammar
a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others

semantics
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.

syntax
the rules for ordering words into grammatically sensible sentences.

linguistic relativity hypothesis
the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language

cognitive universalism
theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language

thinking (cognition)
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information

mental images
mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality

concepts
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities.

formal concepts
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features

natural concepts
concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world

super-ordinate concept
the most general form of a type of concept, such as “animal” or “fruit”

basic level type
an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as “dog”, “cat”, or “pear”

subordinate concept
the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pear in one’s hand

prototype
a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of that concept

problem solving
occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways

decision making
identifying, evaluating, and choosing between alternatives

trial and error (mechanical solution)
problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found

algorithms
very specific, step by step procedures for solving certain types of problems

heuristic
educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb”

representative heuristic
assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category

representativeness
tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case

availability
estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples

functional fixedness
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects only in terms of their typical functions

mental set
the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past

confirmation bias
the tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs

creativity
the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways

convergent thinking
a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic

divergent thinking
a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point

intelligence
the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.

reliability
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people

validity
the degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure

emotional intelligence
awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions, as well as the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled

partial reinforcement effect
behavior that is intermittently reinforced is more resistant to extinction than behavior that is continuously reinforced

memory
an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage

encoding
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brains storage system

storage
holding onto information for some period of time

retrieval
getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used

parallel distributed processing model
a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections

information-processing model
model of memory that assumes that the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory– in a series of three stages: encoding, storage, retrieval

automatic encoding
tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effort

serial position effect
when your recall is better for first and last items, but poor for middle items on a list

spacing effect
tendency to retain information more easily if we practice it repeatedly than if we practice it in one long session

state-dependent memory
something may have aroused a specific emotion that later primes us to recall its associated events

mood-congruent
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood

chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable unit

iconic memory
visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second

echoic memory
the brief memory of something a person has just heard

short-term memory
(working memory) the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used

selective attention
the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

maintenance rehearsal
practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

long-term memory
the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

elaboration rehearsal
a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way

explicit/declarative memory
refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

implicit memory
involves learning an action, and the individual does not know or declare what she knows

consolidation
the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed

hippocampus
part of limbic system that processes explicit memories into long term memories

cerebellum
a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories

recognition
in ________ the person has to identify an item amongst others

recall
in _______ the person must retrieve information using effort

semantic network model
model of memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related

retrieval cues
bits of related information we encode while encoding a target piece of information

encoding specificity
the tendency for memory to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded

proactive interference
previously learned information interferes with new information

retroactive interference
new information interferes with old information

misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event

source amnesia
attributing an event to the wrong source we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined

false memory syndrome
a condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists

constructive processing
refers to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information

hindsight bias
the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event

human development
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death

longitudinal design
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time

cross-sectional design
research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time

cross-sequential design
research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years

nature
influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

nurture
influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

PKU
a genetic disorder caused by inheriting “faulty” versions of genes

teratogen
any factor that can cause a birth defect

1. sensorimotor stage
object permanence: the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight
sensorimotor: using senses and motor activity to check out the world

2. preoperational stage
2 to 6/7 yrs preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world

egocentrism
the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes

centration
focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features

conservation
ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the objects nature

irreversibility
in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action

3. concrete operations stage
7-12 yrs. becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking

4. formal operations stage
12-adulthood. adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.

scaffolding
process in which a more skilled learned gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable

zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky’s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher

trust vs mistrust
first stage of personality development, in which the infant’s basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care

autonomy vs shame and doubt
second stage of personality development, in which the toddler strives for physical independence

initiative vs guilt
third stage of personality development, in which the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world

industry vs inferiority
fourth stage of personality development, in which the adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self steem

identity vs role confusion
fifth stage of personality development; adolescent must find a consistent sense of self

personal fable
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm

imaginary audience
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are

preconventional morality
first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior

conventional morality
second level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, in which the child’s behavior is governed by conforming to society’s norms of behavior.

postconventional morality
third level of Kohlberg’s stages in which the person’s behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms

intimacy vs isolation
sixth stage of personality development; an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self (young adulthood)

generativity vs stagnation
seventh stage of personality development; providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work

ego integrity vs despair
eight stage of personality deveopment; sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego

activity theory
theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby

cellular clock theory
based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce; once that limit is reached, damaged cells begin to accumulate

wear-and-tear theory
as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the samage

free radical theory
oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go

stages of death and dying
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.

Autobiographical memories
tend to form when children are able to talk about shared memories with adults

consolidation
When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in the brain in a process called

the misinformation effect
Kevin was in a study room during which he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. Later, he was asked if he noticed the man’s curly hair. Kevin was then convinced that the man in the photo had curly hair. This is an example of:

makes it easier to create false memories
While hypnosis may make it easier to recall some memories, it also

that the plausible false events were significantly more likely to be remembered as false memories than were the implausible false events
A study conducted by Pezdek and Hodge (1999) asked children to read five different summaries of childhood events. Two of these events were false, but only one of the two false events were plausible. The children were all told that all of the events happened to them as small children. The results of this study indicated:

information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy
In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal.” The results of this study suggest that:

the “cocktail-party effect.”
In a room filled with people, where several conversations are going on, you are able to hear your name being spoken. This is

a quarter of a second
In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests that after ________, old information is replaced by new information

semantic network
In the ________ model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain.

Long-term
________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the “files” are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion.

declarative
Memory for facts is called ________ memory because facts are things that are known and can be stated outright

short-term memory
In the three-stage process of memory, the second stage is:

chunking
Eve is able to remember her Social Security number by breaking it into three parts: three numbers/two numbers/four numbers. Eve is using the process of:

state-dependent learning
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called:

a false positive.
Juana was certain that the man she saw in the police photograph was the man who stole her purse. Later, another man confessed to the crime. This is an example of:

a word-search puzzle
Which is an example of a recognition task?
an essay question

a word-search puzzle

filling out a job application

a short-answer question

the primacy effect.
Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have difficulty. This is:

Encoding specificity
________ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved.

holding information just long enough to work with it
Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?
converting visual information into something meaningful

converting sound into vibrations

bringing information housed in long-term memory to mind

holding information just long enough to work with it

encoding
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems is called:

the stage of memory in which it is stored.
The information-processing model assumes that the length of time a memory will be remembered depends on

Ebbinghaus
____________ found that forgetting is greatest just after learning.

proactive interference.
Marcia dated Davio for several years. They recently broke up and Marcia went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called him Davio. This is an example of:

selective attention
Your mother tells you, “You could be in a room filled with noise, but you always hear what you want to hear.” This statement best reflects which of the following concepts related to short-term memory?

storage
Kevin, the school board’s secretary, was asked to save all of the information he recorded from the town meeting so that the school board could refer back to it whenever necessary. Kevin’s saved recording relates best to which step of the process of memory?

working memory
You are taking the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and come to a question that requires you to recall a mixed list of numbers in correct ascending order. You are being tested for

Terman
determined that gifted people are more resistant to mental illnesses than those of average intelligence

Stern’s formula
___________ is a method for comparing mental age and chronological age that was adopted for use with the revised Binet intelligence test.

Familial retardation
________ is a developmental delay related to living in poverty and one that usually produces relatively mild intellectual disabilities

emotional intelligence
According to Goleman, ________ is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence

environmental factors
Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with

Fragile X syndrome
________, which is caused by a defect in a male gene that leads to deficiency in a protein needed for brain development, is a biological cause of intellectual disability.

a language acquisition device (or LAD)
According to linguist Noam Chomsky, a _____ _____ _____ is an innate human ability to understand and produce language.

a cognitive universalism
Recent studies support Rosch-Heider’s theory of ______, rather than the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

schizophrenia
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ______, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial.

norms
Jacob’s standardized test scores revealed that he did better in math than 95 percent of his student peers. The student scores against which Jacob’s results were measured are called ______

intellectual disability
Jeremy was diagnosed with lead poisoning at about 4 years old. As a result of his condition, he has an IQ score of 55, he has trouble doing most things for himself, and he shows a number of deficits in his mental abilities. Jeremy most likely has _______

a mental image
In order for people to be able to tell you how many televisions they have in their house, they would probably use:

functional fixedness.
Erik dropped a note under his car seat and couldn’t find it. He looked all through the glove compartment for a flashlight so that he could get a better look under his seat. He later realized he could have just held his cell phone under the seat to help illuminate the area. This is an example of:

actual tasks involving visual perception
Through the use of fMRI, researchers have found an overlap between brain areas activated during visual mental imagery tasks as compared to:

insight.
A boy and his father are in a car accident. The father is killed, and the boy is rushed to the hospital. At the hospital, the doctor says, “I can’t operate on this boy. He’s my son!” How is this possible? If a person thinks about this problem without using a particular method, and the answer just comes to them after a period of time, the person solved this problem with

cognition
The term that refers to the mental activity that takes place in the brain when a person is processing information, and includes things such as problem solving, communication, and organization of material, is:

strategies to stimulate divergent thinking
Brainstorming, keeping a journal, and subject mapping are all __________

availability heuristic
The ________ involves estimating the likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory

Natural concepts
________ form as the result of people’s experiences with concepts in the real world

rote
Mechanical solutions may involve solving by

what a person knows about a particular type of object does
Research suggests that ________ affect the person’s prototype for that category

a mental set
When solving a problem, if a person is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in

divided consciousness
Driving and talking on a cell phone at the same time is an example of a state of:

cognitive neuroscience
In a(n) __________ view, consciousness is generated by a set of action potentials in the communication among neurons just sufficient to produce awareness.

altered consciousness.
After taking medication for his back, Todd’s thoughts become fuzzy and disorganized. Todd is in a state of

social-cognitive theory
The ___________ of hypnosis suggests that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are playing the role expected of them in that situation.

only playing a role.
The social-cognitive theory of hypnosis assumes that people who are hypnotized are

NREM Stage 1 sleep
So-called supernatural visitations can be explained by hypnogogic hallucinations common during

biological rhythms.
Eventually, everyone must sleep due to our

cataplexy
A sudden loss of muscle tone is called

microsleeps
Some instances of automobile accidents may have been caused by the driver falling asleep at the wheel, even though (s)he was certain that they had not slept. Which of the following may explain why this happens?

melatonin
As ______ accumulates in the body, a person will begin to feel sleepy

more alert
The higher the body temperature, the _________ people are

hypnogogic images
Many researchers believe that reports of ghostly visions and alien abductions can be explained by __________ during the first stage of sleep.

heart problems
Sleep apnea has been shown to cause

non-REM Stage 2 sleep (N2).
The heart rate slows, breathing becomes more shallow and irregular, and an EEG would show the first signs of sleep spindles in

more hours per day than
Predators such as lions sleep ________ their prey, the gazelle

50; 20
Nearly ____ percent of a baby’s sleep is REM, compared to about ____ percent for a normal, healthy adult

manifest content
If you are dreaming that a monster is chasing you, the monster is the

activation-synthesis hypothesis
According to the ________, a dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep

synthesizes
One theory of dreaming says that the brain _________, or puts together, an explanation of the cortex’s activation from memories and other stored information.

nicotine
Which of the following was actually used as an insecticide in the 1920s and 1930s?

cannabinoids.
Both marijuana and hashish contain

drug interaction
Barbiturates used in combination with alcohol may cause a lethal

Methamphetamines
________ are used to treat narcolepsy

a night terror
Four-year-old Denise was sound asleep. Suddenly, without warning, she sat straight up and began to scream. Her mother tried to calm her down with no success. Finally, after about 45 seconds of what appeared to be a panic attack, Denise quietly lied back down. When morning came and Denise awoke, she could not remember anything that had happened during the night. It is likely that Denise experienced ______

narcolepsy
While in the middle of a conversation with his co-worker, Jackson unexpectedly slipped into a state of sleep, falling to the floor as he lost control of all the muscles in his body. Jackson appears to have a condition called _______.